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    20 May 2010, Volume 30 Issue 3
    Seed Morphology of Dianthus and Its Significance for Taxonomy
    DONG Lian-Xin;GUAN Xue-Lian*
    2010, 30(3):  257-261.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.001
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    The seeds of 10 species of the genus dianthus are observed under scanning electron microscope. The micromorphology of the seed surface is systematically reported for the first time. The results indicate that: the shape of seed can be divided into 3 types: oval, ovate and triangle. The seed coats of 10 wild species are stripes-areolate or areolate. According to the shape of the mesh may be divided into three types. The size of lumina and muri have obvious differences between species. Thus, these are of significant value in the taxon of the genus dianthus.
    Developmental Anatomy of the Floral Nectaries in Calligonum ebi-nuricum
    WANG Hong;WANG Xin;WANG Yong-Xing;YANG Bin-Yin;JIANG Yan-Cheng*
    2010, 30(3):  262-266.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.002
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    The flower nectaries of Calligonum ebi-nuricum Ivanova are located at the base of stamens and stretch to receptacles, which are also called Stamens nectary. The Nectary is composed of secretion epiderm, melliferous organization and vascular bundle. In the process of flower development, the nectary split up or differentiates from their original cells. And during the ontogenetic process, the floral nectary shows a vacuolization dynamics from what can be seen or known. The PAS reaction tests that the cells are filled with positive materials. The way of Nectar secretion is that the honey is secreted to plants in vitro by the specialized trichomes. And its possible nectariferous mechanism is that the honey is made up of melliferous organization and secretes through a specialized secretory trichomes.
    Comparison of Leaf Morphology in Different Ploidies of Dioscorea zingiberensis
    ZHU Yan;XU Zeng-Lai*;WANG Qiong;WANG Zhen;SHI Yun-Yun
    2010, 30(3):  267-272.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.003
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    To discuss the ploidy-breeding of multiploid Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright, the density of upper and lower epidermal cells, cellular figure coefficient, stomata size, stomata density, stomata index and stomata length/width were compared among diploid(2x=20), triploid(3x=30), tetraploid(4x=40) D.zingiberensis. The results indicated that positive correlation was showed between epidermal cells density, stomata area, length and width of stomata, width of guard cells, number of chloroplast in guard cells and ploidy. The significant positive correlation was showed between stomata area, width of guard cells and ploidy, so as one of the methods to identify ploidy of D.zingiberensis, the two can be used.
    Molecular Authentication Methods for Evodia rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth Based on ITS Region and AFLP
    HUANG Hai;LIU Yang;RAN Gui-Ping;HE Shun-Zhi;HUANG Yun-Zhu;XU Wen-Fen;WANG Liang-Hong
    2010, 30(3):  273-277.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.004
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    Evodia rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth is an important medicinal plant species that has diffierent varieties, namely E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. var. officinalis(Dode) Huang, and E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. var. bodinieri(Dode) Huang. AFLP technique and ITS region sequencing were used to distinguish 14 samples belonging to the three varieties of E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions amplified from the three varieties of E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. indicated that ITS regions were highly similar and the identities was more than 97%. A SNP nucleotide was discovered between E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. and its two varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphism was compared among E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth, E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. var. officinalis(Dode) Huang and E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. var. bodinieri(Dode) Huang and different specific bands appeared among three varieties of E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth. Based on these specific markers, molecular authentication methods can be developed to identify and distinguish E.rutaecarpa(Juss.) Benth and its two varieties.
    Effective Identification of Self-incompatibility in Brassica oleracea var.italica with Fluorescent Observation
    ZHOU Yan-Kong;GONG Yi-Qin;LU Xin-Juan;JIANG Li-Na;MA Er-Lei;LIU Li-Wang*
    2010, 30(3):  278-282.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.005
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    The self-incompatibility (SI) in advanced inbred lines of Brassica oleracea var.italica Plenck was identified with the compatible index method and fluoroscope observation. The compatible index was tested with bud and flowering pollination. Most pollen grains of selfing in self-incompatible at bud stage and in self-compatible individuals at both bud and floral stages could germinate normally, and the pollen tubes penetrated into the stigmas and finally succeeded in reaching to the ovary to accomplish fertilization. While selfing at anthesis, few pollen grains in self-incompatible individuals could germinate in the stigma whose surface produced serious callous reaction, and few germinated pollen grains could not grow normally and fail to penetrate into the stigma. The fluoroscope observation, being in high accordance with the results of the compatible index, was convenient and accurate without effecting by surroundings, and could be applied in self-incompatibility identification effectively to accelerate the process of self-incompatibility utilization in B.oleracea var.italica Plenck breeding program.
    Diversity of Phenotypes of Endosperm Storage Proteins of Rice 57H Mutants and Their Classification
    TIAN Huai-Dong;ZHANG Bian-Xiang
    2010, 30(3):  283-288.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.006
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    Seed storage proteins are mainly composed of glutelins, prolamins and globulins. The proteins are synthesized and compartmented during seed development. Compartmentation of the proteins results in their accumulation. This study was performed to present a novel perspective for overall understanding of genetic mechanism regulating the protein compartmentation in rice endosperm. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses of the storage proteins showed that rice 57H mutants containing the high amount of 57 kD glutelin precursor had the various phenotypes of endosperm storage proteins, in comparison with the wild type of cultivar. The mutants were classified into 3 types on the basis of the diversity of their phenotypes. The typeⅠ of glup4, glup6, Glup5 and esp2 mutants all showed not only the deposition of the glutelin precursor and the inhibited deposition of the mature types of 40 kD and 20 kD glutelin subunits, but also the decreased depositions of 26 kD globulin and b species of 13 kD prolamins. The type Ⅱ of Glup1 and glup2 mutants showed the decreased depositions of 26 kD globulin in addition to the glutelin precursor deposition. The type Ⅲ of glup3 mutant only showed the glutelin precursor deposition following the inhibited deposition of the glutelin subunits. These results indicate that 57H mutations have various effects on the accumulation of the storage proteins, and thus are the essentially genetic systems concerning the protein compartmentation. The possible effects of the genetic systems on the post-translational compartmentation and nutritional properties of rice storage proteins are discussed in this paper.
    Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics in Response to Seasonal Variations in Two Sabina Trees
    ZHANG You-Fu;CHEN Chun-Yan;CHEN Tuo;ZHANG Man-Xiao;LIU Guang-Xiu;AN Li-Zhe;*
    2010, 30(3):  289-293.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.007
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    Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Sabina przewalskii Kom. and Sabina chinensis(Lin.) Ant. that distributed in different altitude regions were tested for evaluating their differences and seasonal variation patterns at the same growing circumstance. The results indicated, there were similar patterns of seasonal variation in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters between two Sabina trees, the low temperature in winter resulted in a significant decreases in the maximum efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry (Fv/Fm), the efficiency of excitation capture by open reaction centers (Fv′/Fm′), photochemical quenching coefficient(qP), non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN), effective quantum yield(Yield) and photosynthetically active radiation(PAR) in both S.przewalskii and S.chinensis, however, these parameters all increased and returned to normal levels as air temperature rose. Compared with those in S.chinensis, there were significantly higher Fv/Fm, Fv′/Fm′, qP, qN and Yield in S.przewalskii. These results suggested a better capacity for PSⅡ photochemistry in S.przewalskii. might account for its greater regulation capacity for low temperature than S.chinensis, and at the same time it implied that the cold-resistance ability and seasonal variation of photosynthetic characteristics can effectively be estimated by chlorophyll fluorescence technology.

    Protecting Effect of Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide on Wheat Seedlings Damage by Water Stress
    QIU Zong-Bo;SUN Li;LI Jin-Ting;WEI Gai-Gai;YUE Ming
    2010, 30(3):  294-298.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.008
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    The study was conducted in nutrient solution to investigate the protecting effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the wheat seedlings damage by water stress. The results showed that exogenous 0.05 μmol·L-1 H2O2 significantly alleviated the injury to seedlings and markedly increased the seedlings plant height, root length, dry weight, the contents of GSH, AsA and the activities of SOD, POD and CAT. However, exogenous 0.05 μmol·L-1 H2O2 markedly decreased the MDA concentration and the production rate of O2 in wheat seedling leaves under water stress. The results suggest that the treatment of H2O2 could restrain wheat seedlings lipid peroxidation by water stress and enhance anti-drought property of wheat seedlings.
    Soil Amelioration of Saline-alkali Lands Influences on the Pigments and C4-Photosynthesis Related Enzymes in Leaf, Bark and Branch Chlorenchyma of Yinzhong Poplar
    WANG Wen-Jie;XU Hui-Nan;WANG Ying;YU Xing-Yang;ZHENG Guang-Yu;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2010, 30(3):  299-304.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.009
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    The heavy saline-alkali land in the Songnen plain of NE China was selected as the control(pH,10.15; EC,1 220 μscm-1; soil compaction degree,2 199 kPa)and adjacent saline-alkali land after soil amelioration(pH,9.17; EC, 388 μscm-1; soil compaction degree,1 170 kPa) was selected as treatment site.3-yr-old Yinzhong poplar(Populus alba×P.berolinensis) grown in these two sites over 1 year were analyzed and we found that: 1) chlorophyll a+b, chl.a/b and total carotenoids of the leaf in ameliorated soil were much higher than those in the untreated saline-alkali soil, while the differences in stem bark and branch were far smaller than those in the leaf; 2) All the three C4 enzymes expressed at a basis of fresh weight showed small differences among leaf, branch and stem bark, and the influences from saline-alkali soil amelioration treatment were rather slight; 3) When the unit was expressed as chlorophyll basis, significant differences among different organs as well as between two soil treatments were observed, i.e., PEPC in stem bark and branch was respectively 4.4 fold and 3.1 fold higher than those in leaf in the untreated control, while these differences became 8.6 fold and 2.6 fold in the ameliorated soil treatment. In the untreated control land, NADP-ME in stem bark and branch were 1.7 fold and 2.1 fold higher than those in leaf, while these difference became 17.6 fold and 6.4 fold in the ameliorated soil treatment. Similarly, NADP-MDH in stem bark and branch in the untreated saline-alkali land were respectively 1.7 fold and 1.4 fold higher than those in leaf, while they became 6.4 fold and 13.7 fold in the ameliorated soil treatment. Our findings manifest that non-photosynthetic organs (such as stem and branch) had much higher content of C4 pathway-related enzymes comparing with the leaf lamina. Moreover, such differences could be adjusted by soil saline-alkali degree, i.e. the differences could be dramatically enlarged in the ameliorated saline-alkali land. Possibly, the changes in C4-related enzymes might be effective physiological paramenters for evaluating plant acclimation to saline-alkali soil.
    Effects of Salt Stress on Seed Germination and Embryo Growth of Spartina alterniflora Cultivated with Fresh Water
    REN Li-Juan;QIU Le;WANG Guo-Xiang;MAO Zhi-Gang;LIU Jin-E;*
    2010, 30(3):  305-310.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.010
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    Salinity is among the important ecological factors affecting the distribution of Spartina alterniflora in coastal wetland. In this study, we cultivated S.alterniflora in fresh water, and collected the seeds. Then the germination and embryo growth of the seeds in different NaCl salt solutions(salinity between 0~90 g·L-1) were observed. It indicated that S.alterniflora cultivated with fresh water could germinate and the maximum germination rate was 69%; salt stress decreased seed initial germination rate, seed germination velocity and embryo growth; in high salt solution (salinity >30 g·L-1), seed initial germination rate decreased and the seed germinated embryo without radicle; after the stressed embryo was transplanted into fresh water, adventitious root of the embryo grew out in basal part of the coleoptile, but the radicle could not grow out; seed dormancy happened in high salinity, and when salt stress was relieved, the seed germination rate partially recovered; there was a significant positive correlation between the recovered seed germination rate and the salt stress it suffered before; the relationship between the total germination rate and the solution salinity was a secondary function; the seed in the solution of 63 g·L-1 NaCl showed the lowest germination rate. The special strategies of seed germination and embryo growth under salt stress were probably an important reason for S.alterniflora to cope with and successfully invade the coastal wetland.
    Impact of Different Salinity Habitats on the Growth of Energy Willow Clones in Tianjin
    LIU Bin;ZHANG Wen-Hui*
    2010, 30(3):  311-319.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.011
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    Four energy willow clones Salix dasyclados, S.‘Mesu Neko’, S.fragilis, S.viminalis and one wild clone S.matsudana were investigated in this study. These clones were grown in Jixian state-owned nursery, Jinnan High-tec Park nursery and Tianjin Agriculture University nursery, respectively. Meanwhile, clones were planted in separated pots at gradient salinity in soil by watering NaCl solutions at different concentrations, making the salinity in soil differed (0%,0.2%,0.4%,0.6%, 0.8%). Both the growth of the clones growing in these three nurseries and in the pots with gradient salinity were observed and surveyed to determine the optimal habitat for the clones in Tianjin. The results indicated that all the energy willow clones could finish the annual life cycle and grow well in three nurseries of different areas, but grew the best in Jixian. Comparing to S.matsudana,all four energy willow clones could grow well in the soil with 0~0.4% salinity. S.matsudana and S.fragilis had greater potential than the other two, as they could grow in the soil with 0.6% salinity. In conclusion, all the four energy willow clones could be grown in the light or moderate salinity areas in Tianjin.
    Knots’ Rings in Different Development Phases for Larch Plantations
    ZHANG Zhi-Chang;LI Feng-Ri*;CHEN Dong-Sheng
    2010, 30(3):  320-324.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.012
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    Based on the knot analysis data of 95 sample trees in 19 sample plots, the number of rings of knots in different development phases was analyzed for larch(Larix gmelinii) plantations with different ages, stand densities and sites. The results showed: The knots of larch plantation produced perceptible rings during normal growth. The number of perceptible rings ranged from 1 to 36, with an average of 10.9. The relationship between perceptible rings and length of knots was positive linear. It is common that the knots of larch plantation had missing rings, the number of missing rings was from 0 to 19(mean value is 3.44). The missing rings increased with knots length increasing. During this period the branches made no contribution to the growth of trees, so this was the right time for artificial pruning. The time of knots between death and occlusion was 12 years on average, which was about 51% of their total growth time. The loose knots produced during this period would be a great impact on the quality of wood.
    Phenotypic Diversity of Natural Populations in Diospyros glaucifolia
    JING Zhen-Hua;LI Hao;SHAO Wen-Hao;YUE Hua-Feng;JIANG Jing-Min*
    2010, 30(3):  325-331.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.013
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    12 phenotypic traits from leaves,fruits and seeds were investigated for 210 individuals in 7 natural populations of Diospyros glaucifolia from south-east China and the relationship between phenotypic variation of the natural populations and different distribution areas was discussed using variance analysis and nested variance analysis. The relationship among phenotypic variation of the natural populations, geo-ecological factors and morohlogical traits was discussed by correlation analysis. The results showed that there were significant differences in phenotypic variation among and within populations. It also showed that the diversity within populations was higher than that among populations. The average differentiation coefficient of seed traits is the smallest in all phenotypic traits.The traits stability of seeds was higher than that of other traits. There was no significant relationship between traits. The traits variation of natural populations were affected mainly by longitude (such as LL and LW) and height(such as seeds weight) in spatial distribution. The 7 populations investigated could be divided into five groups according to the cluster analysis.
    Cytological and Molecular Identification of Black Wheat
    ZHANG Dong-Yang;LI Ji-Lin;ZHANG Yan-Ming*
    2010, 30(3):  332-336.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.014
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    Black wheat had very important value in nutrition and wheat breeding,it was crossed by Chinese Spring and Elytrigia intemodium. In hybrid progeny, seed coat of the lines that we chose was stable black. The ten lines were 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-11, 3-13, 3-33, 3-36, 3-37, 3-39 and 10-38. We conducted chromosome variation analysis and moleculor marker identification,the results showed that the diploid chromosome number of the most root-tip cells was 42, there were a few univalents and many bar bivalents in PMC metaphaseⅠ, a little lagging chromosonie, chromosome bridges and micronuleus were found in ana.Ⅰ, ana.Ⅱand tetraspore. Chromosomal abnormalities showed that the chromosome pairing was affected by the induction of E.intemodium chromosonie. Furthermore, we used RAPD and SCAR for identification, the results showed that the molecular marker OPF3 could amplify the specific molecularmarker of Eb genome of black wheat,3-2, 3-3 and 3-4, the molecular marker P3,P4 could amplify the specific molecularmarker of Ee genome of black wheat,3-11, 3-13, 3-33, 3-36, 3-39, 3-37 and 10-38. It can be deduced from the results that the 10 lines are translocation lines which have very important value in production and wheat breeding.
    Bioinformatics Analysis of Δ12-Fatty Acid Desaturase in Plants
    LIU Wan-Hong;ZHU Li-Qing;YAO Bo
    2010, 30(3):  337-343.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.015
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    Bioinformatic methods were employed to analyze the amino acid sequences of Δ12-fatty acid desaturase(FAD2), the key synthetase of polyunsaturated fatty acid in different plants. The results were as bellow: FAD2 belongs to a type of unstable protein, containing 3 highly conserved His-Boxes. Phylogenetic tree reveals the close relationship between woody oil plants. There are no transit peptides in amino acid sequence but 4 transmembrane domains, which is consistent with the predictions to hydrophobic domains. Random coils are the major structural elements of polypeptide chain. There are Delta12-FADS-like structures in the conserved domains of SsFAD2. The protein could be phosphorylated by protein kinase C, with the potential phosphorylated site Ser140. This study could privide guidelines to the studies of the enzymatic properties of FAD2 and the mechanisms under the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Research Status and Endangered Causes of Diplopanax stachyanthus
    WANG Li;YOU Zhang-Ping;XU Yi;ZHANG Ding-Heng
    2010, 30(3):  344-348.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.016
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    Diplopanax stachyanthus, which belongs to the genus Diplopanax within the family Araliaceae, is a living fossil plant and listed among the Grade II State-Protected Endangered Plants. It is distributed mainly in warm and moist mountains in Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. D.stachyanthus often grows in the evergreen broad-leaved forest or the evergreen-boreal forest. The adult D.stachyanthus constitutes the main component of the tree layer. Its distribution areas are characterized by relatively higher altitudes, warm and moist climate, and sufficient heat energy. D.stachyanthus grows slowly and blooms and produces seed after 30 a growth. Our field surveys attributed its endangered status to a variety of factors, including low seed yield and germination rate, low survival rate of seedlings, low competitiveness of populations, and human disturbance. To preserve this endangered plant, we suggest the emphasis of any conservation effort should be placed upon in situ conservation, with ex situ measures as a supplementary choice, so as to preserve a maximum of its genetic diversity.
    Multiple Regression and Prediction Between Diatoms and Environmental Factors in Songhua River, Harbin
    LUAN Zhuo;FAN Ya-Wen*;MA Yue
    2010, 30(3):  349-354.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.017
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    The stepwise multiple regression statistical method was used to calculate the relation between diatoms assemblages and 8 environmental factors such as DO, ammonia nitrogen (AN), pH, water temperature (WT), BOD, COD, TP, TN base on the abundance and richness of diatoms in Songhua River, Harbin. The value function graphs were established for each individual parameter and whether the environmental quality is improved or not was observed. The results showed that some taxa of diatoms were related to pH, WT, TN, BOD, AN, the most significant factor is pH. Moreover, the diatom assemblages perfectly predicated the changes of the river.
    Effects of Exogenous Glucose on Growth and Hydrogen Production of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    WANG Rong-Rong;YAN Guang-Yu;WANG Quan-Xi;WU Shuang-Xiu*;LIU Xiao-Lei
    2010, 30(3):  355-359.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.018
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    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang. is a model species for the study of H2 production because its hydrogenase has a high activity. Glucose can improve the respiration and lead to oxygen deficiency to induce the expression of hydrogenase if it is added into culture medium. In our study, we added different concentrations of glucose into cultures of C.reinhardtii and observed their effects on cell densities, chlorophyll contents, H2 productions and O2 consumptions of C.reinhardtii under light and dark. The highest cell density and chlorophyll content of C.reinhardtii culture was observed when adding 4 g·L-1 glucose in normal culture. The highest H2 production was 156 μL·mg-1 chl when adding 6 g·L-1 glucose in normal culture, which was 6.7 times higher than that before adding glucose. However, the H2 production wasn’t improved when adding glucose in the sulfur-deprived culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the H2 production of C.reinhardtii was improved when adding glucose in the normal culture medium, suggesting the potential of using C.reinhardtii in dealing with waster water containing glucose for H2 production.
    The Effective Part of Potentilla discolor for Its Hypoglycemic Action
    SUN Hai-Feng;YANG Ting;GUO Leng-Qiu;CAO Si-Si;GUO Xue-Ying
    2010, 30(3):  360-364.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.019
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    The extracts of Potentilla discolor Bunge. were extrated by different solvents, and enriched by macroporous resins.The pharmacological effect of the different extracts from P.discolor Bunge.was tested by hyperglycemic model mice.The total flavonoids in different extracts from P.discolor Bge. were determined by UV-spectrophotometry. The result showed that the n-BuOH fractions of 50% alcohol extracts and 70% ethanolic elutes from a macroporous resins had obvious hypoglycemic action. It could notably reduce the blood glucose of hyperglycemic mice. The content of total flavonoids of the n-BuOH fractions of 50% alcohol extracts is the highest, and the contents in 70% ethanolic elutes from macroporous resins reaches 58.25%. Therefore, the n-BuOH fractions of 50% alcohol extracts and 70% ethanolic elutes from macroporous resins are the effective parts of P.discolor Bunge. for its hypoglycemic action. Flavonoids maybe the active constituents with the hypoglycemic action in P.discolor Bunge.
    Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicines Extracts on Inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens,Growth and Differentiation of Calli from Lolium perenne
    ZHOU Xiao-Mei;XU Jin;WANG Hui;LI Jun-Jian*
    2010, 30(3):  365-368.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.020
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    The antibacterial activity of Chinese herbal medicines was examined by agar-diffusing and filter-paper methods. Chinese herbal medicines were added into development and growth medium to observe the influence on growth and differentiation of calli from Lolium perenne, to select Chinese herbal medicines that possess significant antibacterial activity but do not show negative influence on the growth and differentiation of calli from Lolium perenne. The results showed that Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Taraxacum mongolicum, Forsythia suspensa and Coptis chinensis strongly inhibited the effects of A.tumefaciens cbf. A.tumefaciens 3301RT was pronouncedly inhibited by S.baicalensis Georgi and C.chinensis. The antibacterial effects on Agrobacterium tumefaciens by agar-diffusing method were more significant compared to filter-paper method. C.chinensis significantly suppressed the growth and differentiation of calli from L.perenne types. However, the other three Chinese herbal medicines didn’t affect calli’s development. S.baicalensis Georgi could be applied into plant gene engineering mediated by A.tumefaciens.
    Optimization of Extration of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel from Taxus cuspidata
    ZHANG Yu;JIANG Shou-Gang;ZU Yuan-Gang*;WANG Zhuo;FU Yu-Jie
    2010, 30(3):  369-372.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.021
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    In an effort to search for natural products from Taxus cuspidata with improved pharmacological features compared to paclitaxel,7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel has been isolated and identified by our group. The objective of the present study was to optimize and establish the extraction process of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel from T.cuspidata. RP-HPLC mothod was applied to determine the content of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel. The orthogonal test was adopted to examine the effects of the 4 factors including ethanol concentration, ethanol volume, number of extraction cycles and extraction time. Ethanol concentration and ethanol volume were essential factors influencing the extraction of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel. High concentration and amount of ethanol facilitated the extraction. Number or extraction cycles and extraction time were also important. Single-factor test indicated, 2 h and 2 cycles were the best. The optimum extractive condition are N9(A3B3C2D1) and N8(A3B2C1D3).
    Separation and Purification Process of Total Flavonoids from Elaeagnus mollis Leaves
    SUI Yu-Xiang;ZHANG Jia-Ming;MU Nan;DU Zhen;YAN Gui-Qin*
    2010, 30(3):  373-378.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.022
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    The content of total flavonoids in Elaeagnus mollis Diels leaves was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry,the adsorption capacity and desorption rate of four kinds of macroporous resins(D4020、AB-8、S-8、X-5) were calculated to determine the suitable resin and its optimum process conditions. The results indicated: S-8 resin had the highest adsorption capacity(9.83 mg·g-1), followed by AB-8(9.38 mg·g-1), but the desorption rate of AB-8 resin(88.79%) was better than that of S-8 resin(71.89%).AB-8 resin was the best absorbent for the total flavonoids in E.mollis leaves. The optimum process conditions were: the pH value of extracts was 3.0~4.0, the ratio of absorbing solution to resin was 6∶1, the adsorption flow rate was 2 mL·min-1, the eluting solution was 60% ethanol, the eluting flow rate was 2 mL·min-1, the volume of the eluting solution was 3BV.
    On Monophyly,Paraphyly and Polyphyly
    LIU Hai-Sang
    2010, 30(3):  379-384.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.03.023
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    Monophyly, paraphyly and polyphyly are three pivotal terminologies for reconstructing natural system, but their definitions have not been generally accepted as yet. Advantages and drawbacks of every set of definitions of monophyly, paraphyly and polyphyly are discussed with the help of set theory and graph theory of discrete mathematics and transformed cladism of systematic biology. The reason that previous paraphyly couldn’t be differentiated from polyphyly is first clarified based on set theory and graph theory. In addition, every species could be monophyletic based on its unique direct origin which could not be replaced by all other origins, based on comparison of the relation between individuals of the same species with the relation between this species and any other species, or based on its unique evolutionary history. As a result, their exact definitions should ensure that any species could be monophyletic, and ensure that they three are quite distinct from one another.