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    20 July 2010, Volume 30 Issue 4
    Two New Species of Yulania Spach from Sichuan Province of China
    FU Da-Li;Dong-Lin ZHANG;LI Fang-Wen;SUN Jin-Hua;REN Ji-Hong
    2010, 30(4):  385-389.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.001
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    Two new species of the genus Yulania Spach of Magnoliaceae were described from Sichuan province of China. They are Yulania carnosa D. L. Fu et D. L. Zhang, sp. nov. and Y.shizhenii D. L. Fu et F. W. Li, sp. nov.. The main distinguishing features are that Y.carnosa has two spathacei-bracts on a flower, one membranous inserted in the middle of the pedicel and the other carnose inserted at the top of the pedicel. The tepals, the stamens, and the styles and stigmas of pistils of Y.shizhenii all are lily and there are only about 20 stamens. The species were found and collected in March, 2001 in Sichuan Province of China by Da-Li Fu. The holotypes of two species are kept at Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), No.200103141(Y.carnosa) and No.200103161(Y.shizhenii).
    Chimonocalamus peregrinus Yi et L. S. Ma——A New Species of Chimonocalamus Hsueh et Yi
    MA Li-Sha;YI Tong-Pei*;SHI Jun-Yi;LI Ben-Xiang
    2010, 30(4):  390-393.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.002
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    Chimonocalamus peregrinus Yi et L. S. Ma, a new species of the Bambusoidiae introduced from the Sichuan(Seed from Yen Tong of Lai Chau, Viet Nam), is described and illustrated.This new species is near Chimonocalamus makuanensis Hsueh et Yi[1,3~5], but not the internodes green, glabrous, youngly a little farinaceous and densely covered violet pucticulate, cylindric or canaliculate and back in base or inferomedian of ramous side, glabrous, aerial root-spine shorter, 1~3 mm long, culm-sheathes shorter than interrnode, without colour stripe, ligule triangle, “W” form or rare truncate, 1~2 mm tall, leaves (4)6~8 per ultimate branch, oral setae 2~4, 3~4 mm long, blade lower surface pale green; it differs from Ch.bicorniculatus S. F. Li et Z. P. Wang by its shoot intiation in the spring and autumn[2,4,5], glabrous internode, canaliculate and back in base or inferomedian of ramous side, aerial root separate, culm-sheathes shoulder even lower than middle, ligule 1~2 mm long, leaves (4) 6~8 per ultimate branch, blade 8.5~13 cm long, 6~10 mm broad, secondary veins 3(4)-paired.
    Petrocosmea xanthomaculata G.Q.Gou et X.Y.Wang,a New Species of the Genus Petrocosmea Oliv.
    GOU Guang-Qian;WANG Xiao-Yu;XIONG Yuan-Xin*
    2010, 30(4):  394-396.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.003
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    Petrocosmea xanthomaculata G.Q.Gou et X.Y.Wang,a new species of Petrocosmea Oliv., Gesneriaceae from Guizhou,China, is described.This species is similar to P.cavaleriei Lévl.,but differs by more 20-40 leaves,cordate leaves,white corolla with obvious yellow stripe between the lobe, small bracts with a length of about 1 mm long, and style ,except the upper part with densely unfolded long white pubescence.
    Observation of Morphological Characteristics of the Genus Cyrtogonellum Ching(Dryopteridaceae)
    LIU Hong-Mei;ZENG Hui*
    2010, 30(4):  397-404.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.004
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    Through herbarium studies and field observations, the taxonomical characteristics of the fern genus Cyrtogonellum Ching (Dryopteridaceae) were compared and studied. The results showed that four morphological characteristics, veins free or anastomosing, apex pinnatifid or with an apical pinna, pairs of lateral pinnae, and spore ornamentation, are the most stable and useful characteristics in this genus. Other useful characteristics include both shape and size of the lateral pinnae. The size of plants is one of the most unreliable features and it should not be used as the sole basis for defining species.
    The Gametophyte Development of Athyrium fallaciosum and Effect of Sowing Density on the Gametophyte Sexual Expression
    FENG Yu-Lan;HUANG Di;DONG Li*
    2010, 30(4):  405-410.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.005
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    The gametophyte development of Athyrium fallaciosum was observed in sterile culture.The results showed that the spore is tetrahedral type;the spore germination is of the Vittaria-type and the gametophyte development is of the Adiantum-type. Adult gametophyte is cordate;the antheridia is nearly spherical; the mature archegonia is slender and often apply to the prothallus base tilted or curved. The gametophytes of A.fallaciosum were female, male, hermaphroditic and asexual gametophytes by using routine propagation. Sowing density affected gametophyte sexual expression and showed a certain trend. With density increased, male gametophytes increased and female gametophytes first increased and then decreased. Hermaphroditic gametophytes and asexual gametophytes sexual expression were not affected by density. The number of archegonia of female gametophytes and hermaphroditic gametophytes is 10~15. When density increased, the number of antheridia decreased. There were about 50 antheridias of male gametophyte, while about 20 antheridias of hermaphroditic gametophyte.
    Primary Study on the Archegonium Formation and Oogenesis in the Fern Phymatosorus hainanensis
    DAI Xiao-Fei;JIANG Nan;CAO Jian-Guo*;WANG Quan-Xi
    2010, 30(4):  411-415.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.006
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    The formation of archegonium and oogenesis in the fern Phymatosorus hainanensis(Noot.) S. G. Lu were studied by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Archegonia of P.hainanensis are produced among the branched trichomes under the apical notch of the female gametophyte. The section observations showed that archegonium originates from the initial cell of the gametophyte and it gives rise to a column of three cells by two unequal divisions. The upper cell develops into the neck of the archegonium, and the lower one develops into its basic jacket cells. The middle cell is the primary cell which contains relatively abundant organelles. It undergoes two unequal divisions, gives rise to the neck canal cell, then the ventral cell and the egg cell. The neck canal cell and ventral canal cell degenerate in the mature archegonium and a fertilization pore forms in the upper surface of the egg. This study elaborated in details the morphological characteristics of archegonium formation and oogenesis in P.hainanensis, and revealed developmental features of the female sexual organs in the fern.
    Photosynthetic Characteristics of Aegiceras comiculatum Seedlings under Fresh Water Adaptation
    DIAO Jun-Ming;SUN Qing;CHEN Gui-Zhu*
    2010, 30(4):  416-423.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.007
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    The photosynthetic characteristics of Aegiceras comiculatum seedlings respectively cultivated in fresh water and artificial sea water were measured in different months with Li-6400 photosynthetic system. Results showed that in July and October, the net photosynthetic rate of A.comiculatum seedlings demonstrated a “double peak pattern” of daily change along with the phenomenon of noon break. In July, the maxium net photosynthetic rates(Pmax)of the artificial sea water group and the fresh water group were respectivley 9.97 and 11.95 μmol·m-2·s-1;and in October the Pmax of the two groups were respectively 12.2 and 12.9 μmol·m-2·s-1. After fresh water adaptation, A.comiculatum demonstrated higher net photosynthetic rates than those cultivated in artificial sea water. From the light response curves, the maxium net photosynthetic rate(Pmax), light saturated point(LSP), light compensated point(LCP)and apparent quantum yield(AQY) were obtained, which were respectively 7 μmol·m-2·s-1,1 477 μmol·m-2·s-1,30 μmol·m-2·s-1,0.031 3 for the artificial sea water group;and respectively 8.69 μmol·m-2·s-1,980 μmol·m-2·s-1,40 μmol·m-2·s-1,0.011 for the fresh water group. Of the physiological and ecological factors that have been measured, the photosynthetic active radiation and stomatal conductance had the largest effects on the photosynthesis of A.comiculatum, which exhibited highly significant correlationships with net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. After fresh water adaptation, A.comiculatum demonstrated a narrower range of utilizable light intensity, but higher net photosynthetic rate, which indicated that A.comiculatum had a strong adaptability to fresh water environment.
    Effect of Different Soil Conditions on The Growth and Artemisinin Content of Artemisia annua L. Seedlings
    WANG Man-Lian;WEI Xiao*;JIANG Yun-Sheng;WEI Ji-Qing;CHAI Sheng-Feng;Qi Xiao-Xue
    2010, 30(4):  424-427.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.008
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    Field plot trials involving 4 soil conditions (sand, upland soil, paddy soil and brown calcareous soil) were conducted under fertilized and un-fertilized conditions. Then the effect of soil conditions on the growth, biomass allocation and artemisinin content of Artemisia annua were investigated. The results showed that, A.annua could adequately acclimate to different soil conditions. It could grow and develop in sand, upland soil, paddy soil and brown calcareous soil, and respond to heterogeneity soil nutrient availability by adusting biomass partitioning to various organs. Under the low soil nutrient level, A.annua allocated more biomass to root, and its root mass fraction and root mass/crown mass were significantly increased. Under the high soil nutrient level, it allocated more biomass to leaf, and its leaf mass fraction was significantly increased. The growth and artemisinin content of A.annua were affected significantly by soil nutrient. Under un-fertilized condition, the height, basal diameter, total biomass, leaf biomass and artemisinin content of A.annua planted in paddy soil and calcareous soil were significantly higher than those planted in upland soil and sand, and the parameters presented above were significantly higher in upland soil than in sand. Whereas those parameters were not significantly different among soil conditions under fertilized condition, and those parameters were significantly higher than those under un-fertilized condition. Consequently, it can gain high artemisinin yield through suitable fertilizing.
    Effect of Various Hormones with Different Concentration Ratios on the Regeneration Plant from Tender Petioles of Rosa marretii Levl.
    GU Di-Zhou;GAO Han-Dong*;WANG Yu-Fang;FENG Ying
    2010, 30(4):  428-433.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.009
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    The tender petioles of Rosa marretii Levl. was used as explant. Uniform design was used for selecting the most suitable media for callus induction from tender petioles, callus redifferentiation and regeneration shoots rooting. The results showed that LS+6-BA 1.80 mg·L-1+NAA 0.10 mg·L-1+2,4-D 0.08 mg·L-1 was suitable for callus induction with the induction rate of callus being 99.0%; LS+6-BA 3.45 mg·L-1+NAA 0.05 mg·L-1 was suitable for callus redifferentiation with the differentiation rate of callus being 99.5%; 1/2LS(macro-elemenyts)+IAA 0.05 mg·L-1 was suitable for rooting with the rate of rooting being more than 98.0%.Transplant success ratio was more than 96.0%. The experiment results proved that plant regeneration system has been successfully established from the tender petioles of R.marretii Levl..
    Molecular Cloning,Sequence Analysis of a Glycolate oxidase Gene from Mikania micrantha and Its Expression in Escherichia coli
    LI Dong-Mei;PENG Shao-Lin*
    2010, 30(4):  434-440.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.010
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    A full length cDNA encoding a putative glycolate oxidase, designated as MmGO, was identified by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique combined with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methonds from stems of Mikania micrantha. The MmGO gene was analyzed by bioinformatic tools, then cloned into the expression vector pET-32a(+), and finnally expressed in the prokaryote Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3). Nucleotide sequence data indicated that the full length cDNA of MmGO gene was 1 363 bp (GenBank accession EU716626), encoding a 369 amino acid protein. MmGO is predicted to encode a 40.32 kDa polypeptide with a isoelectric point of 8.99. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted MmGO was closely related to glycolate oxidase (GO) of Brassica napus. The MmGO gene was then constructed into expression vector pET-32a(+) for expression in prokaryotic cells. The fusion protein (6×His-MmGO) was produced at a high level by prokaryotic expression when induced by 0.1 mmol·L-1 IPTG at 25℃ for 4 h. The results of Western-blot demonstrated that the fusion protein(6×His-MmGO) could be recognized by anti-6×His monoclonal antibody. The fusion protein molecular mass was about 60 kDa. This size was agreed with the predicted molecular mass. This study established the foundation for future researches on the enzymatic activity and function of the fusion protein (6×His-MmGO).
    Cloning of a TCTP Gene in Wheat and Its Expression Induced by Erysiphe graminis
    LI Gang;LIU Xiao-Ying;LI Xue-Ping;WANG Zhen-Ying*
    2010, 30(4):  441-447.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.011
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    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) was initially designated as a find in mouse tumor cells. It is abundant in plant and animal cells and has many different functions. In this study, a TCTP gene was isolated as an Erysiphe graminis inducible cDNA cloned from the leaves of cultivar wheat Brock infected by E.graminis with RT-PCR and RACE technique. It encoded a polypeptide of 168 amino acids. After running a ScanProsite research, two specific TCTP signatures, named TCTP1 and TCTP2 and 7 conservation function sites were found. The studies on the expression of WbTCTP after infected by powdery mildew of race No.15 were carried out using sei-quantitative PCR technique. The expression level of WbTCTP gradually increased during the E.graminis infection. The results would provide a new way for the area of studying wheat powdery mildew resistance.
    Elevated Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Genes from Rice(Oryza sativa L.)
    LU Zhen-Qiang;LIU Da-Li;LIU Shen-Kui
    2010, 30(4):  448-454.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.012
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    To identify cell salt tolerant ability generated by cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) from rice(Oryza sativa L.), two encoding genes, OsAPXa and OsAPXb(GenBank accession nos. D45423 and AB053297, respectively) were introduced into tobacco(Nictiana tabacum, N.plum), respectively. Southern blot confirmed that the two genes were integrated into genome of N.tabacum, respectively. Moreover, Northern blot further revealed that foreign genes effectively expressed in vitro. OsAPXa/b transgenic N.tabacum progeny T1, T2 generation were identified and assayed further. Under the carbonate stress, the T2 independent homozygous transgenic lines showed the elevated activity of APX, the lower H2O2, and the lower ion leakage than that in wild type plants. Surprisingly, T2 generation seedlings could survive on MS medium containing either 10 mmol·L-1 NaHCO3 or 5 mmol·L-1 Na2CO3, just along with the retarded growth of root and yellowish leaf, whereas the wild type plants even could not grow under lower carbonate stress. Our results suggested that transgenic tobacco expressing cytosolic OsAPXs improved cell salt tolerance; both cytosolic OsAPXs played the crucial roles, especially in response to carbonate stress.
    Genetic Differentiation of the Different Geographical Populations of Artemisia sphaerocephala by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR)
    ZHANG Shu-Yan;WANG Tie-Juan*;LI Wei-Qiong;HAN Wen-Juan
    2010, 30(4):  455-460.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.013
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    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of five geographical populations of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Using 12 ISSR primers, 222 loci were observed in 108 individual, of which 218 were polymorphic. A high level of genetic diversity was revealed: PPB=98.20% and Shannon’s index I=0.315 4 at the species level. Based on Nei’s Gst value (0.076 7)and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA ,Фst=7.96%), it showed that the most genetic variation existed within the populations. Furthermore, it revealed there were wide gene flows and little genetic differentiation among populations of A.sphaerocephala due to high genetic identity(>98%), small genetic distance and the high gene flows(Nm=3.008 2).
    Morphological Variation of Flowers in Endangered Plant Sinocalycanthus chinensis
    GU Jing-Jing;JIN Ze-Xin*;XIONG Neng;
    2010, 30(4):  461-467.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.014
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    Morphological variation of flowers in Sinocalycanthus chinensis were investigated among natural populations and within the population in three different regions. Cluster analysis was used to cluster these three populations. Results indicated that the morphological characteristics of flowers had certain variation both within and among populations of S.chinensis. The average coefficient of variation of each characteristic of flowers ranged from 6.293(Inner-petal length)~46.90(Flower stalk length), while among populations ranged from 13.430(DMS)~15.720 (DLS). Morphological diversities of flowers were high at both species level and population level. In these three populations, DLS population was the highest. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences existed in parts of flower traits, from which over 82.9% of the variance was attributed to the differences within population, it put forward that genetic diversity was the dominant factor of morphological variation of flowers. 17.1% of the variance existed among populations which meant that certain phenotypic differentiations existed among populations. Cluster analysis revealed DMS population and LXS population between which have the nearest distance were clustered into one group. There was a significant positive correlation between morphologal variation of flowers and geographic distance. After analysis it can be concluded that heterogeneity of micro-habitat, population isolation and genetic drift can lead to phenotypic differentiation of flowers in S.chinensis. Correlation analysis showed significant correlation within parts of flower traits.
    Effect of Exogenous ABA and Silicon on Leaf Water Potential and Protective Enzyme Activities of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Seedlings under Drought Stress
    MUHTAR·Zari;QIMAN·Yunus*;NORIKAZU Yamanaka
    2010, 30(4):  468-472.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.015
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    One year old Elaeagnus angustifolia L. seedlings were used to study the effect of exogenous abscisic acid and silicon on the leaf relative water content, leaf water potential, membrane relative permeability, MDA content, protective enzyme(SOD, CAT, APX) activities under 30 days drought stress(T2:SRWC=35%~40%). Results showed that: When the seedlings were under T2 drought stress, the leaf relative water content and water potential decreased ascompared to control seedling(ck), and the membrane relative permeability increased, and the E.angustifolia L.seedlings were injured to a certain extent. After using exogenous abscisic acid on the same treatment, the leaf relative water content and catalase(CAT) activity of E.angustifolia L.seedlings increased, and its membrane relative permeability and MDA content decreased significantly, and the leaf water potential decreased too, therefore, using of exogenous abscisic could alleviate the injury of E.angustifolia L.seedlings under drought stress. Meanwhile, after using exogenous silicon on the same treated seedlings, the superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced, and leaf relative water content increased, its leaf water potential reduced to a certain extent, thereby, exogenous silicon could diminish the harm of E.angustifolia L.seedlings, by T2 drought stress.
    Influence on Soil Properties and Different Plant Photosynthesis,Growth by Different Amelioration Methods
    YU Xing-Yang;WANG Wen-Jie;YANG Feng-Jian;XU Hui-Nan;LI Ran;QIU Ling;WANG Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2010, 30(4):  473-478.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.016
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    Though studying the ameliorated influence of Saline-alkali soil’s soil properties, photosynthesis and growth of different plants, we found that, after Saline-alkali ameliorations, soil properties significantly changed. The soil total porosity was 5% to 20% higher than control (bare land); field capacity was increased by 3%~13%; soil bulk density from the control of 1.2~1.4 g·cm-3 down to 0.7~1.0 g·cm-3; soil compaction in control 2 000~2 500 kPa reduced to 500~1 000 kPa; soil capillary rise height and soil permeability rate were also higher than control; soil conductivity reduced by an average 1 288 μs·cm-1; soil pH value averagely decreased 1.5; shallow groove and deep groove treatments respectively improved nitrogen by 50% and 100%; shallow groove and deep-groove treatments improved soil CO2 concentrations 2 500~3 500 μL·L-1 and 3 000~3 500 μL·L-1; Deep-groove treatment dropped the soil oxygen concentration to about 17%. The photosynthetic capacity of plants had been increased; Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zea mays and Sabina chinensis var. sargentu in the deep-groove treatment were increased by 2.5~12 μmol·m-2·s-1. There were obviously improvements in biomass, including Z.mays, Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus and S.chinensis var. sargentu, etc. The deep groove treatment was much higher than the others. It was proved the requirement of these plants to high soil organic matter. The biomass differences of Medicago sativa, G.uralensis, Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera and Iva xanthifolia in different ameliorations were not obvious. Our finding indicted the ideal plants for large-scale Saline-alkali soil amelioration should fully consider soil condition and plant adaptability.
    Relationship Between Intraspecific and Interspecific Competitions of Natural Pinus koraiensis Forests
    LIU Hong-Run;LI Feng-Ri*
    2010, 30(4):  479-484.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.017
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    Based on the investigation data of 3 sample plots in Muling Forestry Bureau, the effective competitive trees were identified by using the concept of dynamic radius in competition zone. The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities for natural Korean pine(Pinus koraiensis) forests were quantitatively analyzed based on Hegyi competition index. The results showed that intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities of Korean pine were 18%, 82% of total competition intensity, respectively. Hence, competition pressure of Korean pine mainly came from interspecies rather than intraspecies. Some species, such as Acer mono, Picea koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis, which were in a dominant position because of their big size and large quantity, gave a high competition pressure to Korean pine. The relationship between DBH and CI for competitive trees of Korean pine was negative power function and the competitive intensity decreased gradually as DBH increasing. When DBH of Korean pine is smaller than 25 cm, it is under higher competition; on the other hand, that above 25 cm was under lower and steady competition.
    Comparison of Growing Progress of Betula platyphylla in Different Natural Habitats
    SHI Yong-Chun;SUN Zhi-Hu*;LI Kai-Long
    2010, 30(4):  485-489.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.018
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    The growth of natural birch(Betula platyphylla) in different habitats (wet and moderate-water habitats) was studied. The results showed that the density and DBH of natural birch in different habitats were significantly affected by soil water. The density of birch forest in moderate-water habitat was lower than that growing in wet habitat, decreased by 46.8%. The DBH of birch in wet habitat was higher than that growing in moderate-water habitat, increased by 52.4%. The DBH distributions of birch in moderate-water and wet habitats were normal and left-skewed distributions, respectively. The DBH and height growing processes were impacted by soil water. The volume growing process was slightly affected by soil water. The fast time of DBH increment in wet habitat was longer than that in moderate-water habitat, the former was 6~15 year, the latter was 9~12 year. The mature age of DBH in moderate-water habitat was 1~2 year older than that in wet habitat. The fast time of height incerment in wet and moderate-water habitat was 6 year. The mature age of height in wet habitat was 3~6 year older than that in moderate-water habitat. The fast time of volume increment in wet and moderate-water habitat was excess to 24 year. The mature age of volume in wet and moderate-water habiat was also excess to 24 year.
    Comparison of Morphological Characteristics and Biomass Allocation of Module in Medicinal Plants of Epimedium from Sichuan
    NIE Yong;LI Yun-Xiang;*;MA Yong-Hong;QUAN Qiu-Mei;
    2010, 30(4):  490-495.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.019
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    In order to investigate the morphological characteristics, clonal architecture and biomass allocation of medicinal plants of Epimedium from Sichuan at modular level, three species of Epimedium under the natural conditions were sampled, i.e., E.brevicornu, E.sagittatum and E.pubescens. The results indicated that the morphological characteristics of clonal modules of three species had significant differences, these clonal modules had large variability, the coefficients of variation (CV) among these clonal modules ranged from 29.29% to 48.31%. Clonal architecture of E.sagittatum tended more to “guerilla”, while those of E.brevicornu and E.pubescens tended more to “phalanx”. Three species of Epimedium allocated the highest proportion of biomass to rhizomes or leaves, next to stems, and the last to roots. E.pubescens had the highest clonal ability among three species. The biomass of clonal modules of E.pubescens was the largest in unit area, and E.pubescens preferred to grow in introduction and cultivation.
    Effect of Low-phosphate Supply on the Root System Architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana
    WANG Xue-Min
    2010, 30(4):  496-502.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.020
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    Using Johnson medium, under climatic chamber condition, we detected the change of root architecture under Pi starvation in Arabidopsis. Results showed that the P deficiency inhibited primary root growth, enhanced lateral root concentration and stimulated root hair elongation and root hair proliferation. Moreover, P-starvation decreases the distance from root tip to first lateral root primordium and to first root hair. These changes increased the root specific surface area and distributed the root system closer to soil surface, therefore enhanced the absorption ability of root. P starvation also induced the cell distortion, arrested columella cells development. The kinetic assays on cell length and primary root growth showed a reduction in the primary root elongation and in the cell length when compared with high P-grown plants. CycB1;1:GUS staining suggested that P-starvation destroyed cell division in root meristem. Therefore, the reduced primary root growth was due to the reduced cell elongation and cell division.
    Bioactivity of Extracts from Jatropha curcas L. Branches and Leaves Against Plant Pathogenic Fungi
    GUO Qiao-Sheng;LI Yu-Chuan;SHAO Qing-Song;GUO Fei;ZHANG Xue-Hai
    2010, 30(4):  503-507.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.021
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    The inhibitory effects of crude extracts from Jatropha curcas L. branches and leaves using six different solvents were tested against Fusarium graminearumPyricularia oryae Cav., Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan. and Phytophthora capsici Leon, using mycelium growth inhibition method. Then active component separation and bioactivity assay were conducted on the crude extracts with the highest bioactivity. The results showed that the most active extracts from J.curcas L. branches and leaves against four plant pathogenic fungi was alcohol extracts,the inhibition rate to the mycelial radial growth of four plant pathogenic fungi was 87.1%, 90.3%, 86.4% and 77.9% when concentration was 0.8 g·L-1, there was no obvious difference when comparing to 10% difenoconazole. In the bioassays of alcohol crude extracts by partitively extracting of five different solvents against Pyricularia oryae Cav. and Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan. We found that the antifungal activity of petroleum ether and water fractions were all higher,the inhibition rate to the mycelial radial growth of two plant pathogenic fungi were all higher than 50% at concentration of 0.8 g·L-1. It is suggested that the branches and leaves of J.curcas L. contain abundant substances with antifungal activity, the active components with the inhibitory effect on plant pathogenic fungi mainly exit in petroleum ether and water fractions of alcohol extracts from J.curcas L. branches and leaves.
    The Seasonal Dynamic of the Agronomic Traits and the Content of Alkaloid of the Cultivated Catharanthus roseus
    WANG Hua-Nan;TANG Zhong-Hua;ZU Yuan-Gang*;LIANG Sheng-Nan;YANG Lei
    2010, 30(4):  508-512.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.04.022
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    This assay studied the seasonal dynamic of the agronomic traits and the content of alkaloid of the cultivated Catharanthus roseus in a growth season. It showed that the height, biomass and the leaf numbers of C.roseus presented the similar growth tendency, they all had three obviously seasonal growth characteristic, namely the earlier period (May-July) the growth of them was slow, the intermediate stage (July-September) it was fast and the later period (September-October) it was slow. The trend of the total of flower also showed the similar growth characteristic, but in later period (September-October) it was vapidly dropped. The seasonal dynamic of the content of three kinds of alkaloids in the leaves of C.roseus was obvious, and the tendency was consistent, namely increased first, reduced and increased again, moreover, the content of three kinds of alkaloid appeared two obvious crest values in the late July and October. There were strongly positive correlation of the vinblastine content with catharanthine and vindoline content in the leaves of C.roseus(L.)G. Don, moreover, the correlation between the content of vinblastine and vindoline was marked (p<0.05), and there was remarkably positive correlation between the content of catharanthine and vindoline (p<0.05). Therefore, the best harvest season for artificial planted C.roseus is in the late of October, and we can induce the increase of vinblastine analogues by changing the environment at factors.