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    15 March 1988, Volume 8 Issue 1
    NOTES ON SOME ACANTHACEAE OF SOUTH CHINA(cont.Ⅱ)
    Lo Hsien-shui
    1988, 8(1):  1-6. 
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    DUAE SPECIES NOVAE ORCHIDACEARUM SINICARUM
    Chen Sing-chi, Tsi Zhan-huo
    1988, 8(1):  7-12. 
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    POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE FAMILY ARALIACEAE IN CHINA
    Shang Chih-bei, D. Callen
    1988, 8(1):  13-48. 
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    The pollen grains of 34 species and 2 varieties in Araliaceae from China, were examined by light microscope and in which 22 species rep-resenting 21 genera of the family by scanning electron microscop. Theircharacteritic details are given in the generic diagnosis. According to their shape, form and sculpture of exine etc., these genera can be distinguished except Tupidanthus and Schefflera, because they have similar pollen characteritic. A pollen key to the genera based on these observations is presented. 1. based on the shape of pollen grains can be grouped the followingmain three types:(1). Spheroidal type (P/E=0.88-1.14):Trevesia, Fatsia, Oplopanax, Merrilliopanax, Nothopanax. (2). Subprolate type (P/E=1.14-1.33):Hedera, Tetrapanax, Sincpanax. (3). Prolate type (P/E=1.33-2):Kalopanax, Tupidanthus, Heteropanax. The shape of some pollen grains in the genera with many species isvariable such as Schefflera, from subprolate to prolate, Acanthopanax, from spheroidal to subprolata etc. 2. Based on the sculpture and structure of exine four types can be also grouped:(1). Tuberculate or clavate type:Fatsia, Trevesia. (2). Reticulate type:three forms A. Fine-reticulate form:The tectum is psilate or the lumina is incouspicuous as Merrilliopanax, . B. Middle-reticulate form. The lumina with 0.5-1.5μ in. diam. as Aralia, Acanthopanax. C. Crass-reticulate form. The lumina is over 1.5μ in diam. as Kalopanax, Panax Hedera. (3). Interrupted-tectum type:only in Osmoxylon. (4). Areolate type:only in Diplopanax. In this paper are discussed some taxonomic problems:The characteritic of pollen between the Brassaiopsis and Euaxaliopsis is so similar that it is impossible to separate it into two genera. specialized pollen grains and the large fruit with One-seed (Locule) of the genus Diplopanax Hand.Mazz. indicate that this genus does'nt belong to Araliaceae or Cornaceae, but to Aralidiaceae. The evidence of the pollen, and other morphological features as racemose inflorescences, evergreen trees support that it is best to separate Parapentapanax Hutch. from the Pentapanax Seem. Finally, According to each pollen type and correlation with othermorphological characters (see table 2), a proposed scheme of phylogene-tic relationships of the genera in Araliaceae from China is shown in Fig.I. by author.
    ON THE ORIGINAL PLANTS OF THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE “QIN-PI”(CORTEX FRAXINI)--Studies on the Genus Fraxinus L.(Oleaceae)in China(Ⅱ)
    Sun San-sheng
    1988, 8(1):  49-56. 
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    This part(Ⅱ) of the paper(part Ⅰ, see vol. Ⅴ, no 1, 37-70, 1985)has dealt with the following species, which have been thought to be thebotanical onigins of the traditional Chinese nedicine "Qinpi" Chinese Drug:(criex Fraxini). They were misinterpreted in the past, especiallytheir Latin name have been in confusion for a long time. (1) Fraxius meaioinalis S. S. Sun, sp. nov. The new species were formerly labeled as Fraxinus chinensis var. acuminata Lingelsh., even were wrongly regarded as Fraxinus chinensis var. rhynchophylla Hemsl. or Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance. It is mainly distributed in Shaanxi (陕西) and Gansu. (甘隶) A. Lingelsheim (1920) improperly established the variety-Fraxinus chinensis var. acuminata Lingelsh., but I bave found that its syntype shouldbe separated at least into three parts:cited specimens from Japan may be Fraxinus longicusfis S. & Z.;cited ones from Kansu (viz. Gansu)and Schensi(viz. Shaanxi) may well be the new species;yet cited ones from Hupeh, Kanton, etc. need further researching. It is ifferent from Fraxicus chinen. is Roxb. in that flower is polygamo-dioecious;calyx in pistillate or hermaphrodite is obconic or broad-campanulate with irregularly lobes;style shorter;stigma bifid or capitate;especially the length of samara's upper wing always longer than the length of the seed part;its leaflets apex always acuminate or attenuate, rarerostrate. It is distinct from F. obovata Bl. to be mentioned below (viz. Fraxinus chinen is var. rhynchophylla Hemsl. or F. rhynchophylla Hance) It is leafletsare fairly minor ca 5-6 cm long, 2-4 cm late, especially along the midrib and veins beneath always bear white fine hair, without any dense brownish villose like the later. The perules of the terminal bud are thiner than that of the later. It must be pointed out that the new species is not coincident with Fraxinus caudata J. L. Wu (1982), because Wu's name refer to Fraxinus chinensis var. acuminata Lingelsh., but the new species in this paper merely refer tothe part distributed in Gansu and Shaanxi. Besides, Wu's name unwittin-gly involved the type of Fraxinus szaboana Lingelsh (1907), so has become asuperflous name of the latter, hence should be rejected by current ICBN. (2) Fraxinus obovata Bl.(sensu lato) The older name has been overlooked and misinterpreted for a long time.As far as its protologue (original description) is concerned, the species appears to be quite puzzling (cf. Blume 1850). A. Lingelsheim once said:"the flowers of this species are unknown and has never been seen since Blume described it". He took it as "Species non Satis Congnitae", and thendisposed of it as "Species excludendae". However, I have by chance found that some root suckers (surculus), which is sprouted from a block of the stump, much similar to the type features of Fraxinus obovata Bl. which was showed in the publication of Nakai et Koidzumi (1927) fig. 193 (the duplication of that photo is pl.Ⅲ in this paper). The appearance immediately appealed to me, so I managed to investigate on the habit, habitat, morphological change and differentia-tion within species. It has been confirmed that those root suckers (surculus)turned out to be Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance. Although the epithet "obovata" based on such especial appearence seemsto be improper for the species, the older Latin name Fraxinus obovata Bl. is still legitimate. On account of priority in nomenclature, the name Fraxinus obovata Bl. must be taken into use again. From the point of view of nomenclatural stability, I had hoped I might be albe to dispose of the older name as "ncm. rejioienda" or "nom. dubium". Unfortunately by ICBN Art. 69-1, a specific name can only be reje-cted if it has been widely and persistantly used for a taxon or taxa notincluding its type. Nevertheless, I should like to uphold Dr. P. S. Green'sproposal:"The next International Botanical Congress will incorporateinto the Code of Nomenclature, for such overlooked names, the simple expedient of nomina specifica rejicienda". Acording to the study in field work over large district and in in herbftriua, from tbe available data and specimens, it has been proved that the species .should be disposed of as a polymorphical species of higher evolutionary ,4egree# It is distributed widely from North China,Far East USSR, Korea to North Japan, Consequently obevata Bl. sensu lato in this paper refers to Fraxinus rhynchopylla Hancc, F. japonica Bl. ex K. Koch and their synonyms.The long and confused synonymy in this paper may well be helpful to set forth!the correct name.It must be pointed out that this species (sensu lato) have been further separated into sevaral subspecies, on the basis of the analytical results (N. Bf be published in the next paper), by means of "Fuzzy Glustering Analysis Method" as is called, with computer simultaneously in view of "geographical race" or "ecctype".(3) Fraxtnus paxiana Lingelsh. The species is one of the botanical origins of the "Shaanxi Qinpi"(陕西秦皮)is well as Fraxinus meaiciralis S, S. Sun, but its amount of the natural resources is rather limited. Its chief features are,Urge tree, big leaves with 7-11 leaflets,lateral petiolulcs rather short;along the midrib and veins base beneath covered with dense or lightly browish villose, or nearly glabrious; large inflorescence with a great deal of flowers (i. c. densiflora). Especially, s'aminate flowers bear fragrant petals, while pistillate flowers appear to be no petals, as the petals are so indistinct or early easy dec inev The axis of the inflorescence is stout, redish or brownish with obvious leniicels.Ou affi ities, this species is very closed to Fraxinus suaveclcns W. W. Smith, which is chiefly distributed in Southwest China. Besides, Fraxinus sikkimen.is Haud Mazz. (1936) is a puzzling species so far. Its appearence is evry sinular to the female body of Fraxinus paxiana Lingelsh. Certainly, these opinions need to be confirmed.(4) Fraxinus stylosa Lingelsh. (sensu lato) This species is usually a small tree or shrub. Its leaves are rather sttfiller,up to 20 cm long,3-5-(7) leaflets. The axis of the iafloiescent^ is rather slender,flowers are sparse, petals are spathulate or oblanceolate, up tu 1,5-2 mm loag.Fraxinus fallax Lingelsh. is identical in all details with F. stylosa Lingelsb. but the former's leaves have not any hair on both surl aces.Frarinus oacnicccalyx H.M. ex Stib. is also similar to it. In view of classification equivalence, all of these species should fall within the range of variation.(5) Fraxinus chinensts Roxb.This is, ia fact, a widely cultural species in China. True wild plant have la dly been found so far all over the country. Its chief characteristics ares dioecious (flowers are strictly unisexual);calx in the pistillate flower is always long campanulate and lightly irregularly toothed, while calyx in stamiaate flower is rather little;no petals in any flower. The shape and feature of the samara appear to be unique the terminal wing of the samara is acute and attenuate like ploughshare, and obviously shorierw than tbfc ieed part.As A. Lingelsheim did not clearly know the above key characters, he not only toolc a few related species into confusion,but published several inappropriate varieties. A lot of related species specimens without flowers, used to be wrongly determined as Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. So many speciments in China have been wrongly labeled this name.It is said that this species is not the original plant of the current "Qinpi" goods, but the cortex may be used as the substitute of the Traditional Chinese Medicine "Qinpi", owing to pharmacists study. (S) Fraxinus bungeana DC.Formerly,it was thought to be a main original plant of "Qinpi". This is a "good species" in Taxonomy. It is easy to be determined owing to its unique rhombic leaflets, pubescent shoot and flower bearing linear whitr petals.It is chiefly distributed in Hebei, Henan, Liaoning and Shanxi, bat lots of speciments of other species distributed in many other regions, used to be wrongly re&arded as Fraxinus bungcana DC.
    PRELIMINARY RESEARCH OF VEGETATIONAL SUCCESSION ON THE SONG-NEN PLAIN SINCE LATE PLEISTOCENE
    Wang Pei-fang, Xia Yu-mei
    1988, 8(1):  87-96. 
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    According to the characteristics of spore-pollen assemblages from six section of the Song-nen plain and C14 dating. Since late period of the latepleistocene, the vegetational succession divided into six stage. Stage Ⅰ. (60000-30000 yr.) The formation is characteristed by dark co-niferous forest-steppe, Which mainly consists of Pinus, Picea, Chenopodiaceae.Artemisia and accompany Botrychum, Lycopodium. That time climate was cold and humic. Stage Ⅱ. (30000-21000 yr.) The formation is dominated by theropeu-cedrymion-steppe or brich forest-steppe. In which, Pinus, Betula, Artemisia or Betula and Artemisia is dominated, At that time, the climate was mild andcold. Stage Ⅲ. (21000-11000 yr.) The formation is dominated by dry steppeor open steppe or weed. Which has Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia or Pinus and Chenopodiaceae. Vegetation rare. The climate was dry cold. Stage Ⅳ (11000-7500 yr.) The formation is dominated by theropeuced-rymion, rare forest-meadow or meadow-steppe. In which, Pinus and. Betula ispredominated. On the middle plain, increase of the decidous broad-leavedtree. The climate was mild and slight humid. Stage Ⅴ. (7500-2500 yr.) The formation is dominated by decidousbroad-leaved forest, forest-meadow or forest-steppe.Which mainly consists of Pinus, broad-leaf tree. Cyperaceae and Artemisia. The species has Juglans, Tilia, Carpinus and a lot of Cyperaceac. The swamp is developed. Peat isaccumulated. The climate was warm, moist. Late period the climate slightcold. Stage Ⅵ. (2500-Present) The formation is dominated by the conifrousforest. theropeucedrymion or meadow-steppe. The climate resemble recent. It is proved C14 dating and fossil of the vertebrate. Stage Ⅰ-Ⅲ belongto late period of the late Pleistocene. Stage Ⅳ belong to early Holocene.Stage Ⅳ belong to middle Holocene, Stage Ⅵ belong to Late Holocene. During late period of the late pleistocene, due to it is influenced bythel ow temeperate weather from terrestric glacier of the Sibirica. All the North-East plain by control of the preglacier climate, it is cold and grown a lot of xerophytes, formed an especial plant association. its contain treepollens:Pinus, Picea, Betula. Herb pollen:Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Gramineae and Spores of fern:Botrychum, Selaginella, Locopodium. That late period of the late pleistocene, the vegetational type arethree model vegetational landscape of the preglacier and sporepollen ass-emblages is model assemblage under preglacier climate also. Its was one ofthe symbol layer of late pleistocene.
    TWO NEW SPECIES OF AGARICS FROM NORTH GUANGDONG PROVINCE OF CHINA
    Bi Zhi-shu, Li Tai-hui
    1988, 8(1):  97-102. 
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    This paper reports thirteen species of Agarics collected by authors fromNorth Guangdong Province. Among them there are two new species whichare Hygroaster trachysporus Bi sp. nov. and Chamaeota dextrincidespora Bi sp.nov., and 11 new records to China. Latin and Chinese diagnoses for thetwo new taxa has been provided. All taxa are deposited in the Herbarium of the Institute of Microbio-logy of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou.
    A NEW SPECIES OF BOTRYODIPLODIA
    Zhong Zhao-kang, Zhao Min
    1988, 8(1):  103-106. 
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    A NEW VARIETY OF ULMUS PUMILA L
    Guo Jian-hua, Li Yu-shan, Li Jing-hua
    1988, 8(1):  107-108. 
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    IS AN ANCESTOR OF SEQUOIA SEMPERVIRENS(LAMB.)ENDL. EXTINCT?
    Li Lin-chu
    1988, 8(1):  109-114. 
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    The present paper reviewed Stebbins' article "The Chromosomes andRelationships of Metasequoia, and Sequcia". The author advanced the dif-ferent opinions that except MetaSequcia glyftostrobcides, another diploidancestor of Sequoia sempervirens may be not extinct and it was Sequoiadendron giganteam perhaps.
    A NEW VARIETY OF POPULUS FROM INNER MONGOLIA
    Qu Shi-zeng, Chen Zhen-feng
    1988, 8(1):  115-116. 
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    A NEW SPECIES OF ILEX FROM SICHUAN
    Tan Zhong-ming
    1988, 8(1):  117-120. 
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    A NEW FORMA OF ALBIZIA FROM GANSU
    Yao Te-shen
    1988, 8(1):  121-122. 
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    A NEW SPECIES OF SCHISANDRACEAE
    Sun Cheng-ren
    1988, 8(1):  123-125. 
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    STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS, REGENERATION AND SILVICULTURE OF LARIX FORESTS IN NORTHEAST CHINA
    Chou Yi-liang, Wu Hong-qi, Chen Tao
    1988, 8(1):  127-146. 
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    RESEARCH ON TYMPANIS IN NORTH-EASTERN CHINA
    Xiang Cun-ti, Song Rui-qing
    1988, 8(1):  147-152. 
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    This article reported five species, one variant of Tympais of northeastern China, including one new species (Tympanis tiliae Xiang et Song), four new recorded species (T. confusa Nyl., T. abietina Groves, T. piceina Groves, T. alnea (Pers.) Fr.), one new recorded variant (T. alnea var. hysterioides Rehm). We have studied the morphological and cultural charactersto every species and verified that T. confusa is a pathogen causing bleebingcanker of korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by Koch's postulates.