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    15 January 2015, Volume 35 Issue 1
    Clematis diebuensis, a new specis of Ranunculaceae from Gansu
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2015, 35(1):  1-3.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.001
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    A species of the genus Clematis sect. Atragene(Ranunculaceae), C.diebuensis, is described as new from Gansu Province. The morphological differences between it and its ally and a smilar species are given.
    Lectotypifications of Twelve Names in Seed Plant
    LIN Yun1;WU Hui-Bing1;LIU Wen-Qun1;YANG Zhi-Rong2*;SUN Qian2
    2015, 35(1):  4-10.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.002
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    In type specimens deposited at China National Herbarium(PE), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of twelve names, Pinus leucosperma Maxim.(Pinaceae), Juniperus przewalskii Kom.(Cupressaceae), Juniperus zaidamensis Kom.f.squarrosa Kom.(Cupressaceae), Libocedrus formosana Florin(Cupressaceae), Salix pseudowallichiana Goerz ex Rehder & Kobuski(Salicaceae), Salix rockii Goerz ex Rehder & Kobuski(Salicaceae), Salix taoensis Goerz ex Rehder & Kobuski(Salicaceae), Carpinus tschonoskii Maxim.(Betulaceae), Corylus tibetica Batal.(Betulaceae), Lithocarpus cleistocarpus(Seem.) Rehd. & Wils. var. omeiensis W.P.Fang(Fagaceae), Lithocarpus dunnii Metc.(Fagaceae) and Quercus chingii Metc.(Fagaceae), of taxa in seed plant were found to be syntypes under Article 9.5 of International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). According to Article 8.1, 9.11 and 9.12, and Recommendation 9A.3, lectotypes for twelve names are here designated.
    Relationship between Anatomical Structures of Populus euphratica and Ecoenvironment
    WANG Gui-Qin;ZHENG Yu-Hua;HU Ding-Chao
    2015, 35(1):  11-15.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.003
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    We used light microscope, scanning electron microscope and histochemical localization techniques to study the relations between secondary vascular tissue and the ecological adaptation of Populus euphratica. P.euphratica has many structural characteristics and tuber member characteristics, which are adapt to ecological environment. The ratio of secondary phloem with developed phloem fiber to secondary xylem is 1/7 in width, and much cells with rich protein distributed in parenchyma. Less vessels in large diameter, with thick wall and multiple-pore distributed in the wood arranged radially, as a result, the tubal complex, mainly multiple-pore, supplemented by tracheid or bundle tracheid, was formed in secondary xylem of P.euphratica’ stem, while the xylem ray remained or evolved into fibrous tracheid. There are mainly pitted vessels in stem, occasionally trapeziform-pitted type, and both type vessels are very short with truncatus and leveled-perforation. The characteristics descripted above can explain the evolution and adaptation of secondary vascular tissue and tuber members of P.euphratica in a specific habitat.
    Stand Spatial Structure at Different Successional Stages of Secondary Forest in Qiandao Lake Region
    WU Chu-Ping;ZHANG Jun;SHEN Ai-Hua;ZHU Jin-Ru;YUAN Wei-Gao;JIANG Bo
    2015, 35(1):  16-21.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.004
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    We set three plots of 40 m×40 m to study the stand spatial structure pattern at different successional stages of secondary forest with different densities of masson pine in Qiandao Lake, and took censusing of every individual and coordinate positioning. We compared and analyzed the main tree species and stand holistic spatial structure for three plots by using three structure parameters (mingling, neighborhood comparison, and uniform angle indexneighboring tree distribution pattern). The masson pine was the dominant species and presented an aggregating distribution at the No.1 plots, the rest tree species were basically scattered and the growth were seriously suppressed. Masson pine and blue Japanese oak were the dominant species and all presented an aggregating distribution at the No.2 plots, the other tree species were scattered and the growth were suppressed. Castanopsis sclerophylla significantly presented an aggregating distribution at the No.3 plots, the mingling of the whole stand was higher, the size differences of C.sclerophylla forest were small, the growth of forest was in the mean state, and the tall trees with absolute advantage lacked. The whole stand of three plots presented an aggregating distribution. The results suggested that the No.1 and No.2 plots were all in the initial stage of succession, and alternative cutting management was needed to accelerate the succession of stands. The No.3 plots had a succession with dominant C.sclerophylla evergreen broad-leaved forest, and it still would take time to be mature climax community.
    Regeneration System for Axillary Bud of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.
    ZHANG Jian-Ying;QI Yong-Hui*;Lü Yue-Dong;LIU Jian-Ming;XING Ya-Juan
    2015, 35(1):  22-26.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.005
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    Browning takes place generally in tissue culture of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. and influences the growth and proliferation of cultures. We established the regeneration system for axillary bud of J.mandshurica Maxim. and studied the factors influencing the browning of cultures by changing culture environment and adding anti-browning agents into the culture medium. The inducing rate of 1-2 year axillary bud as explant was 75.8%, significantly higher than those of 10 and 30 year axillary buds. Browning rate was 56.7%, which was significantly lower than the others. DKW+BA 2.0 mg·L-1+IBA 0.1 mg·L-1 culture medium reduced browning and promoted plant growth, and the browning rate was lowered by about 10%. Na2S2O3 and AC effectively alleviated the browning, while the alleviated effect of PVP and VC on browning was not significant. Fiveday dark treatment after inoculation delayed browning time, and the browning rate reduced by about 10%. Adding 6 g·L-1 agar in culture medium resulted in browning rate of 56.7%. After subculture on DKW+BA 2.0 mg·L-1+IBA 0.01 mg·L-1 culture medium, the proliferation coefficient of seedlings was 14.4, and the seedling height was 2.33 cm. There was no significant difference between subculture cycles of 21 and 28 days, and a subculture cycle of 21-28 days was suitable for proliferation culture.
    Effect of NaCl Tolerance on Photosynthetic Physiology and Growth of Seedlings of Three Poplar Clones
    WANG Xiu-Wei1;JIA Gui-Mei2;MAO Zi-Jun2*;SUN Tao2;YUAN Xian-Lei2
    2015, 35(1):  27-33.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.006
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    We studied the response of photosynthetic physiological characteristics of three poplar clone seedlings to NaCl stress with three kinds of poplar(Populus L.) clones of poplar(Populus L.) clone seedlings including ‘A5’(Populus pseudo-simonii×P.nigra)×(P.simonii×P.nigra), ‘J7’(P.deltoidis×P.catyana CL.‘J7’) and ‘1344’(P.deltoids×P.cathayana CL.‘1344’) in Heilongjiang Province. Three NaCl stress treatments were established at the contents of 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% (percentage of NaCl in total dry soil mass). The salt injury symptoms first appeared in ‘1344’ under NaCl stress, followed by ‘J7’ and ‘A5’. Furthermore, under the same NaCl content, the maximum damage due to NaCl stress also occurred first in ‘1344’, followed by ‘J7’ and ‘A5’. The mean tree diameter at breast height and total tree height differed signi?cantly under three NaCl stress treatments. Moreover, the difference between three NaCl stress treatments gradually become bigger, which was 10%-35% lower than the control treatment during the late period of this experiment. With the increase of NaCl, the chlorophyll content decreased, with the decrease in ‘J7’ being much more obvious than in ‘A5’ and ‘1344’. With the increase of NaCl, the content of carotenoid in ‘A5’ increased, and ‘J7’ and ‘1344’ decreased. Chlorophyll b content under 0.3% NaCl stress in ‘A5’ and ‘1344’ was higher than that in the control, while the ‘A5’ chlorophyll b content under the 0.5% and 0.7% NaCl stress levels were in contrast not significantly different, but ‘1344’ under 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl stress levels was significantly higher than that in the control and the 0.7% NaCl stress level. ‘J7’ showed no significant difference when compared with the 0.3% NaCl stress, but was higher than the 0.5% and 0.7% levels. The photosynthesis of the clone seedlings reduced due to the NaCl stress. The Gs and Ci of the leaves decreased with the increase of the salt, while the Ls mainly decreased. One possible explanation for the phenomenon in this study may be that the photosynthetic physiology was greatly influenced by stomatal limitation and non-stomatal limitation. The WUE of three poplar seedlings under NaCl was maintained at a higher level, which may suggest that these poplar seedlings have a strong resistance to NaCl stress. Therefore, ‘A5’ had the strongest salt-tolerant ability among these three clones.
    Influences of Hormone Treatment and Temperature Stratification on Morphological After-ripening of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch Seeds
    GU Di-Zhou1;ZHUO Pan-Quan2;ZHANG Li-Fan1;WANG Qiu-Shuang1;ZHANG Xue-Shi1;ZHOU You1;ZHU Jun-Yi1
    2015, 35(1):  34-38.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.007
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    We studied the main factors with different levels for morphological after-ripening of Magnolia sieboldii seeds through repeated experiments with multi factorial. When the seeds of M.sieboldii were treated by soaking in the mixed solutions with 1.30-1.40 mg·L-1 6-BA and 2.00-2.20 mg·L-1 2,4-D for three days, mixing the seeds and sand (1∶4), with temperature change in 100-114 d, 18±2℃ and 8h in day, 7±2℃ and 16 h in night, the incidence rate of the heart-shape embryo was 97.8%, the incidence rate of the embryo with cotyledons was 95.6%, and the germination rate of seed was 98.0%. The morphological after-ripening of seed of M.sieboldii is suitable for industrial seedlings of M.sieboldii.
    Germplasm Selection of the Progeny Genetic Variation and Superior Pulpwood of Betula platyphylla
    NING Kun1;LIU Xiao-Ping2;LIN Yong-Hong2;ZHAO Xi-Yang1;LIU Gui-Feng1;YANG Yang1;SONG Xin1;LI Hui-Yu1*
    2015, 35(1):  39-46.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.008
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    We studied 49 six-year Betula platyphylla progeny testing forest families to determine their growth and wood traits in Maoershan Experimental Forest, and selected the superior families of B.platyphylla by using continuous selection and index selection of growth and wood traits. There were very significant variations in height, diameter at breast height (DBH), volume per plant and preservation rate within the families. By the multiple comparison of four growth traits, we selected five superior families and three inferior superior families. By variance analysis for the wood traits of eight superior families, there were significant differences in wood basic density, content of ligin and holocellulose except fiber length. We constructed index equations using selection index and selected I2 as the idealist multi-trait index equation, and determined the families for pulpwood production of 655, 604 and 630.
    Cloning and SNP Analysis of DREB2 Gene in Fourteen Leymus Species
    GAO Gang;DENG Jia-Bin;GOU Xue-Mei;WANG Qian;ZHANG Yan;YANG Rui-Wu*
    2015, 35(1):  47-51.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.009
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    DREB2 transcription factor plays an important role in response to abiotic stresses of drought and salinity. We obtained the DREB2 sequences from 14 Leymus species. By sequence analysis, the DREB2 gene and amino acid are conserved among 14 Leymus species. The similarity of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence are 98.05% and 97.78%, respecctively. There are 3 bp deletion CTT in L.mollis. Among these sequences, there are 79 SNP identified. The polymorphism frequence is 1SNP/10.6 bp. Fourteen Leymus species can be well separated by the phylogenetic trees of DREB2 gene.
    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of bHLH Gene from Taxus chinensis var. mairei
    ZHOU Hua1;ZHU Qi1;YANG Yan-Fang2*;LIU Hong-Wei2;YU Fa-Xin1;QIU De-You2
    2015, 35(1):  52-59.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.010
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    We cloned a new bHLH transcription factor named TcMYC by RT-PCR technology from Taxus chinensis var. mairei, with GenBank accession number KC878013. By the Blast analysis, it belongs to MYC subgroup. By the bioinformatic analysis, the sequences length of TcMYC is 1 959 bp encoding one opening reading frame with 650 amino acid residues with hydrophilic property. The molecular weight of TcMYC is 71.4 kD, and the theoretical pI is 4.87. The predicated protein TcMYC is localized to cell nucleus, as well as contained one helix-loop-helix structure. By Blast and multiple sequences alignment analysis, TcMYC shares 98%, 45% and 44% identity with Taxus cuspidata, Vitis vinifera and Nicotiana tabacum, respectively. The constructed tree shows that the MYC transcription factors of the plants belonging to the same family clustered together, and as Taxus is a gymnosperms plant, TcMYC and TaMYC are not clustered with other angiosperms plants. The expression of TcMYC is a little declined in Methyl jasmonate induced Taxus cell culture. TcMYC may regulate Taxol biosynthesis in negative.
    Constructing and Analyzing SSH Library for the Early Response Genes in Wheat Brock after Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici Stress
    QIAO Shi-Yao;LIU Xiao-Ying;WANG Yan-Hong;XIAO Ying;SUN Shi-Nan;WANG Zhen-Ying*
    2015, 35(1):  60-67.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.011
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    We constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library for the early response genes in wheat Brock under Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici(Bgt) stress by using the cDNA from Bgt-inoculated Brock leaf as the tester and the cDNA from Bgt-uninoculated Brock leaf as the driver. Fifty positive clones were picked randomly and sequenced, 38 redundant sequences were acquired. By sequence comparison against the GenBank database, 28 sequences was homolog of known genes. The transcriptional levels were assayed by fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the ABC transporter, serine/threonine protein kinase, Lr1 gene-related protein, Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and Chlorophyll a/b binding protein were involved in the early response to Bgt stress in wheat cultivar Brock. Our work was useful for the powdery mildew resistance mechanism in wheat.
    SSR of Genetic Distance and Clustering Analysis on Different Populus Section Clones
    LI Shu-Chun1;XIA Hui2;YAN Dong2;MENG Bing-Nan3;YAO Li-Xin3;LIU Ting-Ting4;CUI Yong-Hong5;CHENG Yu-Fei6;ZHAO Xi-Yang2,5*
    2015, 35(1):  68-76.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.012
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    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) was employed to study the genetic analysis and genetic distance (GD) among 48 clones in Populus L. Sixteen polymorphism markers produced 81 alleles (size ranged from 100-600 bp) totally. GD ranged from 0.061 7-0.530 9 among 48 poplar clones with the average of 0.250 4. GD ranged from 0.148 2-0.274 1 between inter-section and from 0.330 2-0.401 2 between different sections. By cluster analysis, 48 clones were clustered into 5 groups at 0.70, of which the clones divided into 5 section (sect.Leuce; sect.Aigeiros; sect.Tacamahaca; sect.Leucoides and sect.Turanga) clearly. Genetic distance of different section of Populus by molecular method can provide theoretical basis for cross breeding and molecular breeding in poplar.
    Cloning and Transient Expression Analysis of Promoter of PnsICE1 from Populus simonii×P.nigra
    WANG Yan-Min1;BAI Hui1;YU Wen-Xi2;XING Ya-Juan1*
    2015, 35(1):  77-83.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.013
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    ICE1 encodes a MYC-like bHLH transcriptional activator, which could specially bind to active domain of CBF3 promoter and induce transcriptal expression of cold-responsive genes downstream of CBF3, play important roles in stress response. A 1 247 bp sequence of PnsICE1 promoter was cloned from DNA of Populus simonii×P.nigra by PCR amplification method. By sequence analysis, it consisted of a typical core promoter region of eukaryotic, beside the basic elements: TATA-box and CAAT-box, and there were some hormone responsive elements and multiple stress-induced elements of ABRE, DOFCOREZM, MYBCORE, MYCCONSENSUSATHSE and W-box. PnsICE1 promoter may associated with adversity stress and play important roles in response to various stresses in P.simonii×P.nigra. To verify the biology function, recombinant vector was designated as pBI121-ICEPro through replacing CaMV35S promoter in pBI121 by cloned PnsICE1 promoter fragment. In the vector, gus reporter gene was driven by PnsICE1 promoter. GUS histochemical assay in Arabidopsis thaliana after transient infection showed that gus expressed in both flower and root.
    Composition and Characteristics of Seed Rain in Baishanzu Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest
    ZHOU Li-Meng1;ZHOU Rong-Fei2;WU Meng-Si1;YE Zhen-Lin2;DING Bing-Yang1;LUO Zheng-Rong3*
    2015, 35(1):  84-91.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.014
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    We established 50 seed rain traps in a 5 hm2 forest plot in Baishanzu National Natural Reserve to study the composition and temporal dynamics of seed rain in community of Baishanzu broad-leaved evergreen forest. We collected seeds and fruits twice a month during 2009-2012, then identified and divided into four types, including mature fruit, immature fruit, young fruit and seed, and counted by types. During the four-year research period, we collected 13 627 fruits and 10 132 seeds, including 5 632 mature fruits accounting for 41.33%, belonging to 47 species, 30 genuses and 16 families. Six dominant species' mature fruits took a comparatively low rate in total fruit number of that species, showing the feature of r-stratagem in Grime's theory. There was no significant correlation (P>0.05) between the important value of the dominant species in the plot and their seed density, indicating the different conditions between seed rain and life history pattern afterwards. The asynchrony in seed rain dispersal peak time can relieve interspecific competition and increase species co-existence. The seed rain density of dominant species, except Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, showed obvious interannual variability.
    Effects of three Arbuscular Mycorrhizas on Different Provenances of Amur Cork Seedings
    ZHOU Zhi-Qiang1;HU Yan-Ni1;PENG Ying-Li1;SUN Ming-Long1;ZHANG Yu-Hong1;LIU Tong2*
    2015, 35(1):  92-100.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.015
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    As the most widely distributed Mycorrhizal type, arbuscular mycorrhizal plays a very important role in plant growth and environmental improvement. Many studies confirmed that the arbuscular mycorrhizal can affect the process of plant secondary metabolism, and change the secondary metabolites. We screened three kinds of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungis, and chose three different sources of amur cork seedings as the research object in the inoculation experiment. By combining the different species and different kinds of sources, we explored the impact of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and alkaloid content of amur cork and its difference among different provenances. The growth and the alkaloid content of amur cork with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungis are better than those of the control group. The mycorrhizal fungi can effectively promote the growth of amur cork and the accumulation of alkaloid content. Overall, it is the Glomus mosseae that affects the content of berberine and jatrorrhizine mostly, and for palmatine it is Glomus intraradices. From the experimental results, there is difference among provenances in the impact on alkaloid with arbuscular mycorrhizal, and the difference may be related to the provenance.
    Effect of Fire Disturbance on Nutrient Content and Soil Microbial Biomass of Two Forest Types
    HU Hai-Qing;LI Ying;ZHANG Ran;WU Wei;SUN Long*
    2015, 35(1):  101-109.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.016
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    In the burned area of Betula platyphylla and Larix gmelinii forests shortly after the fire in Yichun, we used the chloroform fumigation extraction method to examine the content of soil microbial biomass carbon(Cmic) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen(Nmic) from the two forest types in different months(June, August, October and December). We explored the relationship between Cmic and Nmic, and the influencing factors including soil water content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen after the fire. The overall mean Cmic of the burned plots was lower than that in the unburned plots, and the overall mean Nmic was increased after the fire in B.platyphylla. Compared with the unburned plots, Cmic had no significant effect in different months shortly after the fire, the mean Cmic in June, August, October and December in the burned plots(unburned plots) was 1 389.6(1247.2), 886.7(759.0), 1 098.9(1 052.6) and 1 421.4(1 749.7) mg·kg-1, respectively, yet the Nmic was significant higher than that in the unburned plots in June, August and October with the mean Nmic of 214.5(143.4), 101.9(67.5), 119.6(89.4) and 150.2(183.3) mg·kg-1, respectively. The soil microbial biomass was positively correlated to the soil water content, and Nmic was influenced by soil pH significantly. Compared with the unburned plots, the overall mean Cmic and Nmic of the burned plots were lower than those in L.gmelini. The soil microbial biomass had no significant effect throughout different months of L.gmelinii. The mean Cmic in June, August, October and December in the burned plots(unburned plots) was 689.7(695.9), 612.3(910.4), 361.6(474.7) and 1288.5(1353.8) mg·kg-1, respectively, and the mean Nmic was 105.7(124.4), 91.4(111.4), 44.0(76.9) and 118.9(134.5) mg·kg-1, respectively. Cmic and Nmic were significantly positively correlated with soil water content, but negatively with soil pH. The overall mean soil pH ,soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen of the burned plots were higher than the unburned plots, yet oil water content was decreased in Betula platyphylla. The overall mean soil pH ,soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen of the burned plots were lower than that in the unburned plots, however, soil water content was increased after the fire in L.gmelinii.
    Effect of Thinning on Respiration Rate and Soil Carbon Density of Young-age Poplar-birch Stands in Western Changbai Mountains
    LIANG Jing1,2;WANG Qing-Cheng1*;XU Li-Juan1;WU Wen-Juan1
    2015, 35(1):  110-116.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.017
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    We used young-age Poplar-birch stands to set three thinning treatments level to collect litter decomposition rate, carbon storage of soil Layer A and Layer B and soil respiration rate, analyzed the effect of differ thinning treatments of soil carbon storage, and discussed the theory of impact of soil carbon accumulation. Thinning was helpful to the accumulation and decomposition of forest litter, leaf litter decomposition weightlessness rate average size of T2>T0>T1, but at the end of litter decomposition T1 intensity carbon to release a quantity was the largest, 34.73% of the total weight before decomposition, higher than T0 and T2. Different thinning intensity was not significant effect on soil carbon content in each layer, but has a tendency to increase forest soil carbon, T1 thinning intensity of soil total carbon storage is largest and it’s Layer A of soil total carbon ratio reached 80.95%, higher than T0 and T2. The regression of the soil respiration rate and soil temperature relationship was not significant, but thinning changed the soil temperature with the increase of thinning intensity, and soil respiration rate had a tendency to reduce. Different thinning of sensitivity of soil respiration rate of soil temperature was different, Q10 value for T1<T2<T0. Thinning accelerated the decomposition of forest litter accumulation and had a tendency to reduce the soil respiration rate, so the appropriate intensity of tending thinning achieved the aim to increase the forest carbon fixed amount.
    Effect of Ca2+ on Mediating the MeJA-induced Synthesis of Triterpenoid in Suspension Cells of Betula platyphylla Suk.
    MA Hong-Si1;PAN Ya-Jie1;WAN Yan1;YIN Jing1*;ZHAN Ya-Guan1,2;ZHAO Wei1;ZHANG Meng-Yan1;LIANG Tian1
    2015, 35(1):  117-126.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.018
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    We investigated the role of Ca2+ in the MeJA-induced biosynthesis of triterpenoid by treating suspending cells of Betula platyphylla with CaCl2, MeJA and combining with inhibitors of Ca2+. MeJA could promote the synthesis of total triterpenes and oleanolic acid in the cells significantly, which, respectively reached the peak of 46.90 and 1.31 mg·g-1 after 48 hours’ treatment. The induction effect of MeJA decreased after treating by MeJA+EGTA and MeJA+LaCl3·7H2O. The accumulation amount of oleanolic acid were still higher than that of the control. By analyzing the activity of defense enzyme, the activities of CAT, PAL, APX were enhanced after treated by CaCl2 and MeJA+CaCl2, while the SOD was inhibited by Ca2+. After adding two inhibitors of Ca2+, all enzymes were effected significantly. The expression of key enzyme genes in the triterpene pathway such as FPS, SS, SE, BPW, BPY BPX2 was significantly upregulated after two hours’ MeJA treatment. The expression of BPW was reduced after two hours’ treating with MeJA+LaCl3·7H2O. The expression of BPY, BPX2, SS and SE regulated by MeJA+LaCl3·7H2O were higher than those treated by MeJA. Meanwhile the expression of BPW, BPX2, SS, SE and FPS were down-regulated at two hours after MeJA+EGTA treatment compared with MeJA treatment. Therefore, Ca2+ played a role in triterpenoid biosynthesis induced by MeJA, but two Ca2+ inhibitors had different effect and mechanism in triterpenoid biosynthesis.
    Optimizing Polysaccharide Extraction from Peony Tree Pod Using Response Surface Method and Assessing Its Antioxidative Activity
    WANG Hong-Zheng1,2;LI Yuan-Yuan1,2;LIU Wei1,2;WANG Hua1,2,3;ZU Yuan-Gang1,2*;ZHAO Xiu-Hua1,2
    2015, 35(1):  127-132.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.019
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    We optimized the polysaccharide extraction from the peony pod and studied its antioxidant activity. By single factor design, we identified extraction parameters of particle size of material, extraction temperature, extraction time, liquid-solid ratio and final concentration of ethanol in precipitation step. A 3-factor, 3-level central composite design involving three independent variables followed by response surface analysis was performed for the further optimization of the extraction parameters. The optimal extraction conditions were 60-80 mesh of particle size, extraction temperature of 100℃, extraction time of 40 min, liquid-solid ratio of 20 mL·g-1, and precipitated ethanol with the final concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the predicted and experimental extraction yields of pod polysaccharides were 8.76% and 8.77%, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pod polysaccharide was determined by DPPH and reducing activity. The pod polysaccharide has the antioxidant capacity.
    Seed Development, Lipid Accumulation and Its Relationship with Carbohydrates and Protein in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
    ZHAO Na;ZHANG Yuan;WANG Jing;LIU Xin;ZHAO Cui-Ge;GUO Hui-Hong*
    2015, 35(1):  133-140.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.020
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    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, belonging to the family Sapindaceae, is one of the most valuable oil trees widely distributed in northern China. We studied the lipid accumulation and its relationship with carbohydrates and protein in developing X.sorbifolia seeds. Seed development can be divided into stage Ⅰ from flowering to 33 days after anthesis(d), stage Ⅱ(34-47 d), stage Ⅲ(48-68 d) and stage Ⅳ(69 d to maturity) based on morphological traits combined with weight measurements. Oil bodies were first observed in the green embryo at around 33 d. Rapid lipid accumulation commenced at around 40 d and continued to 68 d. The long period of rapid lipid accumulation contributes to a high lipid level in the mature embryo (60% of dry mass). Differences in the accumulation patterns of lipid, carbohydrates and protein indicate that the lipid synthesis is achieved largely by soluble sugar directly from the photosynthesis of source leaves rather than transiently accumulated starch, and the lipid and protein accumulation are independent processes in the developing embryo. We detected six fatty acids in the developing embryo. Among them, oleic and linoleic acid dominated the lipid composition, but they exhibited contrasting accumulation patterns.
    Removal Ability of Three Submersed Macrophytes on Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Water
    PAN Bao-Yuan1,2;YANG Guo-Ting1;MU Li-Qiang1*;MA Yun2;LI Jing2
    2015, 35(1):  141-145.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.021
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    We studied the effects of three submersed macrophytes of Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Myriophyllum verticillatum L. on eutrophication water under different nutrition conditions. Three submersed macrophytes eliminated total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) effectively in water. The eliminate capacity for TN from high to low was H.verticillata, C.demersum L. and M.verticillatum L., and for TP the order was H.verticillata, M.verticillatum L. and C.demersum L.. Therefore, the submersed macrophytes is a significant method to reconstruct the eutrophic water ecosystem, and H.verticillata is a good purifying plant in eutrophic water.
    A Micro-propagation Technique of Corylus heterophylla×C.avellana
    ZHANG Ling
    2015, 35(1):  146-149.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.022
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    In cold resistance appraisal of fine varieties hybrid hazelnut leaves, stems, axillary bud cotyledons, we studied various treatments on cold resistance hybrid hazelnut micro-propagation system with different culture medium, hormones and contents. By using ten tissue cultures of a fine varieties hardiness of F1 hybrid varieties, we selected the effect of three superior varieties 84 226, 84 310, 84 253. By using three culture medium of DKW, MS and WPM, WPM was more suitable for cold resistance hazelnut callus induction medium, and MS was the most suitable medium culture propagation. The basic training callus induction based formulations was cultured in WPM+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 1.5 mg·L-1, and axillary bud propagation was in MS in good condition with the hormone of 6-BA 1.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1. Our study can be used in cold resistance of hybrid hazelnut low coefficient, and can provide a theoretical basis for further industrial production plantlets.
    Zn Stress Changchun Spend Different Parts of Zn Accumulation by Exogenous Ethephon Regulation
    JIN Ling;GAO Mei-Jiao;DUAN Xi-Hua;GUO Xiao-Rui*
    2015, 35(1):  150-153.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.023
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    Catharanthus roseus root enrichment ability of Zn is stronger on exogenous zinc stress, so Zn damage to the root is larger. C.roseus root response to enrichment ability of zinc stress on the absorption of Zn with the concentration of Zn increased exhibit advanced in low concentration but controled in high concentration, Zn content of stem, leaves increased gradually with increasing Zn concentration, shows strong enrichment ability of C.roseus for Zn, and there is some potential hyperaccumulator. While the Zn transport ability is strong from mature tissue to young tissues. In the zinc stress based on adding exogenous ethylene, reducing the organization position of plant enrichment ability of Zn, reducing the zinc stress of C.roseus. To promote the Zn transport rate of mature tissue to young tissue, but inhibited Zn transport in C.roseus other tissue.
    Polysaccharide Extraction from Peony Seed Pods by Water Bath
    LU Qi;GAO Yue;XIANG Feng-Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*;ZHANG Ying
    2015, 35(1):  154-157.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.024
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    We investigated polysaccharide extraction yield from peony seed pods by single-factor experiments with water extraction method under extraction temperature of 40-100℃, extraction time of 15-240 min and solidliquid ratio of 1∶5-1∶40 g·mL-1. Under the optimum extraction process of orthogonal test, extraction temperature of 100℃, extraction time of 60 min and solidliquid ratio of 1∶15 g·mL-1, the polysaccharide extraction yield reached to 8.34%. Water extraction method has the advantages of the simple process, no environmental pollution and no solvent recovery problem. Our results can provide the experimental evidences for peony seed pod utilization.
    The Improved Stained Methods of Paraffin Sections Production
    WANG Xiu-Wen
    2015, 35(1):  158-160.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.025
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    Paraffin section is one of the most direct and effective way to observe plant and animal tissues. We sliced rice leaf of 9 311 and stained with 1% Safranin-ethanol solution and Aniline blue-ethanol solution. The organization of our improvement is more complete than traditional paraffin, stained effect is more clearly than traditional method, and sliced rice leaf in this method can significantly shorten the rehydration and dehydration time in the late production and improved work efficiency.