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Bulletin of Botanical Research ›› 2023, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 140-149.doi: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.01.015

• Plant synecology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Competition Pattern of Standing Trees in Secondary Pinus Forest in the Ziwuling Mountains, China

Shuzhen ZOU1,2, Caijia YIN1, Qian YANG1, Long MA1, Di KANG1,2()   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation(Ministry of Education),China West Normal University,Nanchong 637002
    2.The Research Center of Recycle Agricultural Engineering and Technology of Shaanxi Province,Yangling 712100
  • Received:2022-06-09 Online:2023-01-20 Published:2022-12-23
  • Contact: Di KANG E-mail:kangyuyao@foxmail.com
  • About author:ZOU Shuzhen(1990—),female,doctoral candidate,mainly engaged in environmental ecology and community ecology.
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(31800458);Applied basic Research Foundation of Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province(2018JY0475)


In order to reveal the driving mechanism of competition dynamics and pattern formation in the process of arid forest restoration and succession, the competition and spatial distribution pattern of standing trees in arid forest China were studied, and a typical secondary Pinus tabuliformis forests was investigated in the Ziwuling Mountains, China, and four larger sample sites(0.25 hm2 each) in different developmental stages were selected, according to the method using space instead of time, and some details of population, size, inter-tree competitions and spatial pattern of four sample sites were acquired respectively. The results showed that, in the four communities at different stages of succession, population densities of P. tabulaeformis were 1 476, 996, 800 and 648 per ha2 respectively; population densities of Betula platyphylla were 48, 32, 44 and 16 per ha2 respectively; and population densities of Populus davidiana were 64, 28, 24 and 12 per ha2 respectively. Competition index of main tree specials decreased with succession, and showed P. tabulaeformis>B. platyphylla>P. davidiana. Quantity of small individuals(diameter at breast height from 2-15 cm) decreased obviously; but quantity of large individuals(diameter at breast height larger than 30 cm) increased. In all succession stages, the competitive intensity of P. tabulaeformis decreased with the increase of diameter. The horizontal spatial competition pattern of P. tabulaeformis showed a patchiness distribution. P. tabulaeformis clumped at the scales 0-5 m, and negative correlated with other tress specials at the scales 5-15 m. Quantity of small size Pinus individuals decreased obvious in later developmental stage. Inter-tree competition of P. tabulaeformis was stronger than other tree species, and inter-tree competition decreased in the later developmental stage. The conclusions are as follows: the size of trees are negatively correlated with the competition index; the competition index of P. tabulaeformis is higher than other species; the competition at community scales decline as development, and the quantity and range of the patches with an intense competition decline, but do not disappear yet. Competition and spatial relations are observed within the scales of 5-15 m which are larger than the average crown size of Pinus. The conditions suggest that the range of inter-tree influence could expand indirectly beyond their crown range through unknown methods, which should be further investigated.

Key words: Pinus tabulaeformis, arid area, vegetation restoration, competition, spatial pattern

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