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    20 January 2009, Volume 29 Issue 1
    A New Species of the Genus Armeniaca(Rosaceae)
    ZHANG Jia-Yan;WU Xiang-Zhu
    2009, 29(1):  1-2.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.001
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    A new species of the genus Armeniaca, Rosaceae-A. xianjuxing J.Y.Zhang et Z.X.Wu was found. The distinction between A. xianjuxing J.Y.Zhang et Z.X.Wu and Armeniaca vulgaris Lam are both sides of leaves with sophie short hair, the length of pedicel or stalk is 1-1.2 cm,the petal margin is crenation or lobule, and the edge of calyx with small blunt sawtooth.
    Two New Synonyms of Ophiorrhiza subrubescens Drake(Rubiaceae)
    DUAN Lin-Dong;LIN Qi*
    2009, 29(1):  3-5.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.002
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    Based on examinations of specimens housed at HNNU, IBSC, KUN and PE, Ophiorrhiza aureolina Lo f. aureolina and O. luchunensis Lo are treated as new synonyms of O. subrubescens Drake.
    A Revision of Perichaetium Morphology of Hepaticae
    GAO Chien;WU Yu-Huan;LI Wei
    2009, 29(1):  6-11.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.003
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    The perichaetium structure and origin of component of perichaetium of Hepaticae was studied through morphology comparing and anatomy research. We divided perichaetium of Hepaticae into Calyptra type, Perianth type, Coelocaule-perianth type, Coelocaule type, Perigynium type, Involucre type and Carpocephalum involucre type for the first time, among them, the Calyptra type was the most simple one and was the original group in evolution, the Carpocephalum involucre type was the most complex type and was the top class of evolution. We also presented diagrammatic sketch of perichaetium evolution and Diagramm perichaetia for expressing the structure and component of perichaetium.
    Chromosome Giemsa C-banding Analysis of Lilium leucanthum(Baker) Baker
    HU Feng-Rong;LIU Guang-Xin;XI Meng-Li;WU Zhu-Hua;SHI Ji-Sen*
    2009, 29(1):  12-14.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.004
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    The chromosomes from root tips of Lilium leucanthum(Baker) Baker were analyzed by Giemsa C-banding. The result showed that, the karyotype is 2n=2x=24, the banding number of one genome was 21.The C-banding karyotype would be: 2n=24=6C+2CI+2I+2CI++2CI++4I++2I++2T++2I+S. Significantly different C-banding points were shown on each chromosome. Most of the strong bands of L. leucanthum were distributed on the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. Each chromosome of L. leucanthum(Baker) Baker can be distinguished by Giemsa C-banding.
    The Karyotype of Cyclorhiza peucedanifolia(Franch.) Endemic to China
    XU Lei;DING Kai-Yu*;LU Zheng
    2009, 29(1):  15-17.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.005
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    Cyclorhiza peucedanifolia(Franch.) Constance (Apiaceae) endemic to China was karyo-morphologically studied.The result shows that its chromosome number is 22 and karyotype formula is 2n=22=10m+12sm. According to comparison this result with other cytological data of Apiaceae, it could be considered the classification of this species and C. waltonii in the same genus be reasonable and the genus Cyclorhiza be close to Vicatia DC in phylogeny.
    The Chromosomes and Karyotypes of Some Species in Caragana from China
    CHANG Zhao-Yang;LI Bin;SHI Fu-Chen;
    2009, 29(1):  18-24.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.006
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    The chromosome number of 10 species and karyotypes of 9 species of them in the genus Caragana from China were analyzed in this paper, and the results are as follows: C. roborovskyi, 2n=16=10m(2SAT)+6sm; C. erinacea, 2n=16=10m+6sm; C. densa, 2n=16=10m(2SAT)+6sm; C. acanthophylla, 2n=16=12m+4sm; C. stipitata, 2n=16=10m+6sm; C. opulens, 2n=16=12m(2SAT)+4sm; C. leucophloea, 2n=32=22m(4SAT)+10sm; C. camilli-schneideri, 2n=32=20m(4SAT)+12sm, C. tragacanthoides, 2n=32=20m(2SAT)+10sm+2st+2B. For two populations of C. licentiana, only chromosome numbers are reported here, both with 2n=4x=32, being tetraploid. From the results we inclined to suppose that the karyotype of chromosomes in Caragana is not so much differentiated, and if differentiated it always follows by some morphological characters. The diploid and tetraploid are the main ploidy level of this genus, with 2n=16 (diploid) or 2n=32(tetraploid). Triploid was found only in C. sinica, and hexaploid was seen only in C. ussuriensis. Those species with diploid chromosomes mostly are pinnate-leaved, and are mainly distributed in Estern Asia where probably is the genus’ ancestral areal, but those species with tetraploid chromosomes are majorly with digitate leaflets, and incline to adapt to desert areas in Northwestern China.
    Leaf Epidermal Feature of Astragalus L. Subgenus Pogonophace Bunge(Leguminosae) from China and Its Systematic Significance
    KANG Yun;ZHANG Ming-Li;*
    2009, 29(1):  25-32.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.007
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    The leaf epidermis of 16 species and 1 variety of Astragalus subgenus Pogonophace was investigated by the light microscopy (LM) and partially by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result shows that the stomatal apparatus of these species are present in both abaxial and adaxial epidermis. It is shown that the leaf epidermal cells are polygonal or irregular in shape. The patterns of anticlinal walls are straight, sinuous or sinuate. Based on the shape and the anticlinal wall patterns of the epidermis cells, there are four types of epidermis can be recognized. The four epidermis types are consistent with the sections of Pogonophace to some extent but not all. Under SEM observation, because of the cuticular layer of the leaf epidermis, the stomatal appatatus is at a lower place. The outer stomatal rim and its inner margin of these species are almost the same. In a few species, the cuticular layer of the leaf epidermis has a special appearance. Therefore, this character can be used as a criterion to identify these species in Pogonophace.
    The Leaf Epidermis Characteristics of Six Species of Coniogramme
    DAI Xi-Ling;WANG Quan-Xi;LI Xin-Guo;LU Wei
    2009, 29(1):  33-38.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.008
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    The epidermal structures of the six species of Coniogramme in Hemionitidaceae were investigated under light and scanning electron microscopes.The results indicate that: There are no trichome on both upper and lower epidermis of leaves in the six species; There are 7 types of stomatal apparatus(Polocytictype, Axillocytictype, Aisocytictype, Anomotetracytictype, Copolocytictype, Coaxillocytictype and Anomocytictype), the components of stomatal apparatus are polymorphic, all the stomatal apparatuses only occur in the lower epidermis, no caved in; Their epidermal cells are irregular, anticlinal walls undulate or sinuate. The six species of Coniogramme are different in the size of cell of leaf epidermis, the size of stomatal, Stomatao density and Stomatal index.These provide evidences for systematics of Coniogramme.
    Morphological Difference of Arabidopsis thaliana Ethylene Mutants Affected by Drought Stress
    DUAN Xi-Hua;SUN Lian-Hui;GUO Xiao-Rui;WANG Hua-Nan;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2009, 29(1):  39-42.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.009
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    The ethylene mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, including ein2-5, ein3-1, EIN3ox, EIL1ox and wild type Col-0 were conducted to investigate the morphological difference in control and drought stress. It is demonstrated that the rosette leaf diameter, leaf area, inflorescence, water potential of four ethylene mutants and A. thaliana wild type were significantly different under the conditions of drought stress, so were the morphology adaptation features of the mutants. These results indicate that ethylene is actively involved in shaping the plant morphology, and has a close correlation with plant drought-resistance.
    Practicability of 7 Light Responsive Curve Models to Different Plant Species
    WANG Xiu-Wei;MAO Zi-Jun*
    2009, 29(1):  43-48.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.010
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    Light responsive curve models have been widely used in plant physiological studies. However, most of the researchers emphasize their study aims, ignoring the practicability of the used models to their special plant materials. In this paper, 7 different light responsive curve models were compared to investigate the fitted effects using birch(Betula platyphylla Suk.) and larch(Larix gemelinii(Rupr.)Rupr.). The fitted results using the different models for the same species were different. Furthermore, the fitted results using the same model for the leaves of different parts of the same species were different also. These results indicated that it is necessary to consider the practicability when a model is used to a selected plant species and the optimal model is essential to ensure the accuracy of the estimated physiological parameters.
    Physiological Responses of Iris to NaHCO3 Stress
    ZHANG Yu-Dong;JIANG Zhong-Zhu
    2009, 29(1):  49-53.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.011
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    The Iris deal with NaHCO3 of different concentrations solution, In order to study Iris leaf membrane permeability, soluble protein and lipid peroxide content changes. In this experiment, 1-year-old Iris seedlings is the study object. According to the measurement of cell membrane permeability, MDA, SOD, POD, the soluble protein and other indicators, the response and adapt ability of Iris deal with NaHCO3. The result shows that: with more NaHCO3 concentration and increasing stress time stress, the content of Iris leaves soluble protein influenced by NaHCO3 salt stress tends to totally decline after the first prompt; on the 30th day, the content of Iris soluble protein with the stress of 0.4% and 0.6% concentration increases by 21.7%, 38.6%, respectively more than those of contrast; membrane permeability of Iris leaves slightly declines in the condition of NaHCO3 salt stress; during the 10th day and the 20th day, membrane permeability has a rapid increase. on the 20th day under NaHCO3 press, the POD activity has reached the maximum, by 32.1%,13.8% and 29.5% respectively, compared to control; with the same salt stress and time extension of salt press, SOD activity first increases and then decreases; on the 30th day, as the product of membrane lipid peroxidation, the content of MDA in Iris leaves at 0.6% concentration accumulates dramatically, along with the increase in salt concentration and salt stress time. Based on the above analysis, there is salt(NaHCO3)-stress resistance ability in Iris which is the important saline-alkali plant. Therefore, the study provides powerful evidence of salt-stress resistance in Iris, which strengthen the theoretical basis that Iris should be applied to the saline-alkali field control.
    Optimization on the Extractive Technique of Starch Phosphorylase in Lily Bulb
    SUN Hong-Mei;YUAN Si-Shi;WANG Chun-Xia
    2009, 29(1):  54-57.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.012
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    For a deep study on the characters of starch phosphorylase(SP) as well as its physiological effects during starch metabolism, the optimum extractive techniques and measurement conditions of SP in the bulb of Lilium davidii var. unicolor were ascertained, furthermore, some biochemical nature of this enzyme were preliminarily studied in this experiment. The results indicated that the best extractive buffer was succinic acid solution with pH 5.8. The optimal reaction system comprised 25 mmol·L-1 Glc-1-P as substrate, and incubating for 10 min at 30℃. Within the pH scale from 5 to 6, SP presented higher activity. However, SP in lily bulb couldn’t be reserved for a long time and couldn’t sustain higher temperature. Stored for 12 hours at 4℃, SP activity only remained 50%, and almost lost completely after incubating for 30 min at 40℃.
    The Morphology and Process Changes of Peltate Glandular hairs in Alnus mandshurica Leaf Epidermis
    ZHU Jun-Yi;LIU Xiu-Yan;LIANG Yu;
    2009, 29(1):  58-60.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.013
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    Using scanning electron microscopy techniques to observe the leaves surface of Alnus mandshurica and find it far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs. It made up of two-cells,four stem cells and 20~25 head-cells,with the accumulation of secretion material,cells rupture,finally disappear. Theree is no peltate glandular hairs far axial epidermis, in young leawes only has stoma distribution. The cross section of A. mandshurica leaves showed it belongs to bifacial leaf, cells of far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs connect with leaf vein vascular tissue, the author consider this peltate glandular hairs shoule belong to “Peltate glandular hairs”, and suggest that the nouns of “Glandular scales”,“Peltate gland”,“Peltate scale”,“Peltate glandular hairs” should be normalized.The process of shields-glandular in A. mandshurica leaf epidermis and the component of secretion material need to be further studied.
    Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Three Achnatherum sibiricum Populations in Inner Mongolia Steppe
    LIN Feng;LI Chuan;ZHANG Xin;BAO Xiao-Ying;REN An-Zhi;GAO Yu-Bao*
    2009, 29(1):  61-68.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.014
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    We assessed how Neotyphodium infection influenced the photosynthetic characteristics of three natural populations of Achnatherum sibiricum, one of the main resources of forage in Inner Mongolia Steppe. We used the Licor6400 apparatus to measure the parameters including photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). Some environmental parameters such as photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) and air temperature (Ta) were automatically recorded. We also obtained the light response curve under a gradient of controlled PARs. The results showed that in Leymus chinensis plot of the IMGERS-CAS population and Xi Ujimqin Qi population, the diurnal average photosynthetic of E+ plants were significantly higher than those of E- plants, but in Hulingol population the difference was not significant. The effect of Neotyphodium on photosynthetic might have some correlation ship with the water condition of the local habitat. In lower water availability habitats, the endophytes tended to increase the photosynthetic ability of the host plants, while in higher water availability habitats, the endophytes had no significant contribution. In each population, the Tr, Gs, Ci, LUE(light use efficiency) and WUE(water use efficiency) were not significantly different between E+ and E- plants. The decrease of mid-day Pn was caused by non-somatal factors, and has nothing to do with the endophytic infection.
    Induction Technique of Picea koraiensis Nakai Embryogenic Callus
    LIU Bao-Guang;LI Cheng-Hao*;WANG Wei-Da;ZHANG Han-Guo
    2009, 29(1):  69-73.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.015
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    Culture conditions for embryogenic callus induction from immature zygotic embryos of Picea koraiensis were studied. The effect of basal medium, light conditions, collection period of immature seeds on induction rate of embryogenic callus were compared through L16(42×2) mixed level orthogonal experiment, subsequently culture temperature optimization experiment were also performed. The results were as follows: the optimal basal medium and culture conditions were improved RJW medium, dark culture, zygotic embryo collection date of July 20, culture temperature of 22 ℃。The highest embryogenic callus induction rate(81.3%) was achieved on the improved RJW medium supplemented with 1.0 mg·L-1 BA, 5.0 mg·L-1 NAA, 20 g·L-1 sucrose, 450 mg·L-1 L-glutamine, 750 mg·L-1 casein hydrolysate, 2.0 g·L-1 gelrite, dark culture under 22℃, the average induction frequency was 81.3%.
    Functional Identification of Plant Stress-resistant Protein(LEA3) and Its 22-mer Motifs in Yeast
    LIU Yun;LI Ran-Hui;WANG Wei-Mao;LIANG Xiang-Yu;ZHENG Yi-Zhi*
    2009, 29(1):  74-79.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.016
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    Soybean PM2 protein belongs to the family of group 3 LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins. In the present paper, yeast expression vectors encoding full-length PM2 protein and deleted polypeptides containing 22-mer motif were constructed. The yeast recombinants were obtained after transformation. Expression of PM2 and the deleted polypeptides of PM2A, PM2B and PM2C were identified in yeast lysis by SDS-PAGE and ESI-MS/MS or MALAI-TOF/TOF analysis. The growth performances of yeast recombinants and their control with empty vector were tested under normal, high salinity(1.5 mol·L-1 NaCl)or high osmotic(2 mol·L-1 sorbitol)conditions. The results showed that: 1) the expressions of PM2 protein and its 22-mer motif are not deleterious to the growth behavior of yeast recombinants under normal condition; 2) the recoveries of 4 recombinants are better than that of control with the empty vector under high salinity conditions, indicating that PM2 protein and its 22-mer motif could improve salt tolerance of yeast directly. The high salt tolerance of yeast conferred by 4 polypeptides are PM2C>PM2B≈PM2A≈PM2; 3) no growth difference was observed between the 4 recombinants and the control under high sorbitol stress. These results showed that 22-mer motif is a functional domain in PM2 protein and it is consist with the results described as in E. coli. All these results provide directly experimental support for the hypothesis that “LEA proteins may represent analogous protection to the high salinity stress in prokaryotes and eukaryotes” for the first time.
    Establishment and Optimization of RAPD-PCR Reaction System for Larix gmelnii(Rupr.) Rupr Using Orthogonal Design
    LI Xue-Feng;ZHANG Han-Guo*;GUAN Chun-Yu;ZHANG Yao
    2009, 29(1):  80-85.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.017
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    The orthogonal design was used to optimize RAPD amplification system of Larix gmelnii(Rupr.) Rupr with five factors (Taq polymerase, Mg2+, dNTP, primer, DNA templet) at four levels, respectively. Through the deep analysis, a suitable RAPD-PCR reaction system was established, namely 20 μL reaction system containing 1.0 U Taq DNA polymerase, 2.5 mmol·L-1 Mg2+,0.25 mmol·L-1 dNTP, 0.5 μmol·L-1 primer, 1×PCR buffer, 90 ng DNA template. 20 primers with stable amplification and rich polymorphism for RAPD were screened. The optimal annealing temperature for RAPD-PCR reaction was proposed by gradient PCR. The result provided a standardizing RAPD-PCR program for the analysis of genetic diversity of L. gmelnii(Rupr.) Rupr.
    Study on Wheat-Rye Translocation Lines
    DING Hai-Yan;YU Yong-Zhong;CHEN Xia;XING Lu-Lu;ZHANG Hai-Tao;LI Ji-Lin*
    2009, 29(1):  86-90.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.018
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    In order to creat wheat-rye translocations which have very important value in wheat breeding and production, we selected the lines with common wheat rye’s characters in the crossing between wheat-rye substitution line 5R/5A and 6R/6A. Now we have obtained 9 lines of F6, 6-26,06-60-11,06-6-24,06-6-15,06-6-35,6-34,6-28,06-6-17,06-6-14. These lines are useful for the genetic stability and fertility and dry and disease resistance and they have multispikelets with more number of grains per ear, higher grain weight, more ears per plant as well as other good characters. Twenty primer pairs located on chromosomes 5R and 6R were used for SSR amplification in these lines and their parents.The results showed that the molecular marker SCM268 was singled out from 20 primers,which could amplify the specific molecular marker SCM268150 of rye in 8 of 9 lines,6-26,06-60-11,06-6-15,06-6-35,6-34,6-28,06-6-17 and 06-6-14.It can be deduced from the result that the 8 lines are wheat-rye translocation lines which have very important value in production and wheat breeding.
    A Simple Method to Evaluate the High Temperature Tolerance of Celosia cristata
    LI Yong-Hong;WEI Yu-Xiang;
    2009, 29(1):  91-95.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.019
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    To establish a rapid assay for heat-tolerance of Celosia cristata, seeds and ten-leaf stage seedlings of six cultivars of C. cristata were studied under high temperature stress which increased 5℃ every four hour from 30 to 50℃, respectively. Wilting index, seed germination rate, percentage of seedling establishment, relative electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde(MDA) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) were measured. The results showed that seed germination and percentage of seedling establishment were significantly reduced under high temperature stress, and the most sensitive organ to high temperature stress is terminal bud. Seedlings can be recovered normally in the recovery solution if wilting index is below 4. Under the high temperature stress, both leaf relative electrolyte leakage and MDA increased, while the activities of SOD increased initially but decreased later. Leaf relative electrolyte leakage and MDA increased dramatically after reaching 45℃, and the activities of SOD reached its peak at 45℃. The heat tolerance among 6 C. cristata cultivars was ranked in the order from most tolerant to least tolerant as follows: variety-Centrury Green,Dollbaby, Newlook,Plumosa-Castle,Kimono and Variety-Century Copper. All the physiological indexes measured can be used to assess heat tolerance for C. cristata.
    Floristic Analysis of Seed Plants in Tianjin
    SHA Ting;ZHANG Wen-Hui*;LIU Xin-Cheng
    2009, 29(1):  96-102.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.020
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    There are 1 471 species (including infraspecific taxon) of the seed plants belonging to 140 families and 720 genera in Tianjin. Among them, they include 16 species of gymnosperm belonging to 10 genera and 7 families and 1 455 species of angiosperm belonging to 710 genera and 133 families. In addition, there are 11 Chinese endemic genera to China. Based on the analysis of compositions and the geographical elements and characteristics of the flora, the paper has discussed the major characteristics of the flora as follows: the flora contain abundant plant species; the flora is ancient origin, but also has younger elements; the geographical elements of the flora are comparatively complex, and the genera of north temperate are the dominant areal types, but there are so large proportional genera and species of tropic, subtropic in the region of temperate show that the flora of temperate relates to the flora of tropic, presenting transitional features from the subtropical zone to the temperate zone; the flora is crisscrossing and assembling of diversified geographical elements, and widely relate to their surrounding flora; the geographical elements of the flora is mainly made up of the North China components.
    Similar Distribution Patterns Between Genus Size of Spermatophyte Flora and Species Abundance
    GAO Bang-Quan;ZHANG Guang-Fu;CHEN Rui-Bing
    2009, 29(1):  103-107.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.021
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    Genus size analysis is an important component in floristic research. The distribution pattern of genus size can reflect taxonomic diversity and phylogenetic diversity of a certain flora to some extent. In floristic studies, we cannot perform meta-analysis with mean genus size for its dependence on flora size. We applied logseries model to fit genus size distribution patterns of 8 spermatophyte floras in China, and achieved good fitting result. The goodness of fit R2>0.99, indicating similar patterns between genus size distribution and species abundance distribution. Rarefaction analysis and correlation analysis showed that, mean genus size is not significantly correlated with its original values before rarefaction when the sampling size is small, while α index from the logseries model is stably correlated with its original values. Moreover, α index is significantly correlated with mean genus size for all sampling size, thus it could be taken as a stable index to describe the flora richness.
    Bioassay on Allelopathic Effect of Polytrichum commune and Conocephalum japonicum
    CHEN Yuan-Yuan;GUO Shui-Liang*;LOU Yu-Xia;SHU Wen-Yan
    2009, 29(1):  108-112.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.022
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    The allelopathic effect of the aqueous extraction of Polytrichum commune Hedw. and Conocephalum japonicum(Thunb.) Grolle.on the seed gerimination and seedling growth was determined. The seeds of Vigna radiate, Raphanus sativus and Brassica campestris were used as bioassay materials, and the indices including the germinating rate, germinating index, germination energy, seed vitality, weight of seedling and radicle, as well as root length were determined. The experiments show that Vigna radiate is an ideal bioassay material, and the seed vitality index, seedling root weight, and root length are perfect bioassay indices for the two bryophytes. Besides, the effects of the aqueous extractions of the two bryophytes on the seed germination and seedling growth are somewhat similar to those of phytohormones, the aqueous extraction at low concentration is able to promote the seed germination and seedling growth, while inhibit at higher concentration.
    The Biosystematic Relationships among Psathyrostachys,Critesion and Hordelymus Based on the Micromorphological Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis
    SU Xu;CAI Lian-Bing*
    2009, 29(1):  113-117.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.023
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    The leaf epidermises of the major species of Psathyrostachys, Critesion and Hordelymus in Poaceae were examined, their similarities and differences on the leaf epidermis were summarized, and the taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal features among them also were discussed. Furthermore, according to the evolutionary trends of leaf epidermal characters of the three genera, their evolutionary positions and relationships were inferred as well. The results show that the genus Psathyrostachys is the most primitive one among the three genera, the genus Critesion is slightly more advanced than the former, and the genus Hordelymus is the most advanced of them; the genus Psathyrostachys might produce immediately the genus Critesion, whereas the genus Hordelymus might derive immediately from the genus Critesion. The biosystematic relationships of the three genera are corroborated by the evolutionary trend of trispikelet in the external morphology.
    A Test Study of Liparis kumokiri F. Maek Exists in the Northeast of China
    ZHANG Shu-Mei;WANG Yun-Suo;LI Dong-Liang;SUN Feng
    2009, 29(1):  118-119.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.024
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    Liparis kumokiri F. Maek is distributed over Japan,Korea and Russian Far East, it had been reported existent in the northeast of China. But it is doubt whether exists in the northeast of China by S C.Chen in Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. This study proves that L. kumokiri F. Maek does exist in the northeast of China.
    Extraction and Analysis of Secondary Metabolites in Poplar Phloem
    SUN Shou-Hui;LI Wei;LÜChang-Li;GAO Guo-Ping;Qi Jin-Yu;XU Zhe
    2009, 29(1):  120-123.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.025
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    Ten secondary metabolites in phloem of different strains of poplars were extracted by different chemical methods and their contents were determined. The effect of different treatment process for samples on the extraction efficiency of tannin, phenols and phenolic acids was studied in detail. The results showed that the contents of phenol and pyrocatechol in Populus alba×P.berolinensis were maximum, while these values were minimum in P. nigra. The temperature of sample preparation had influence on the extraction efficiency of tannin. It was found that the sample treated at 75℃ had the optimal extraction result for tannin, phenol and phenolic acid constituents. In addition, the experimental results also indicated that there were no alkaloids in poplar phloem or their contents were too low to be detected within the detection limit of instrument.
    Study on Purification Process of Total Flavonoids from Euonymus alatus(Thuhb) Sieb. by Macroporous Resins
    ZHAO Zhan-Yi;SUN Xue-Bin;CHEN Ming-Gang;WU Yan-Li;LIN Feng;DONG Lu-Lu;*
    2009, 29(1):  124-128.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.01.026
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    The optimum macroporous resin and process were optimized for the purification of total flavonoids from Euonymus alatus,orthogonal-test method was adopted to study the effects of several factors including the kinds of resins, the concentration of eluent, the pH, etc., on the purification. The concentration of flavonoids in E. alatus was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry,the adsorption capacity, the rate of desorption and the content of total flavonoids in the extract were calculated to determine the suitable conditions. AB-8 resin is suitable for enriching and purifying total flavonoids of E. alatus, the optimum adsorption capacity and the rate of desorption are 7.32 mg·g-1 and 90.98% respectively. The content of total in the extract was increased from 764% to 52.12%. This resin can be used to enrich and purify the total flavonoids of E. alatus, which can increase the content of total flavonoids in the extract.