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    20 March 2014, Volume 34 Issue 2
    Delphinium furcatocornutum,A New Species of Ranunculceae from Sichuan
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2014, 34(2):  145-147.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.001
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    A species of the genus Delphinium(Ranunculaceae), Delphinium furcatocornutum, is described as new from Sichuan Province. In having sepals with furcate horn-like projections, this species is related to D.campylocentrum Maxim., in which the sepals also bear furcate horn-like projections, and from the latter differs in its 3-parted, abaxially glabrous leaf blades, 3-5 flowers arranged in corymbs, white-puberulous pedicels, slightly downward curved sepal spurs, and not 2-lobulate petals.
    Leaf Comparative Anatomy of Styrax(Styracaceae) in Hunan
    LIANG Wen-Bin;ZHAO Li-Juan;LI Jia-Xiang*;XIAO Jian
    2014, 34(2):  148-158.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.002
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    The leaf epidermal micromorphology and anatomical structures of ten species in the genus Styrax from Hunan province in China were examined and statistically analyzed under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results were as follows: (1)The epidermis was composed of a single layer of cells which are polygonal or irregular in shape and their anticlinal walls are straight, arched, or sinuous; (2)The size and density of stomata apparatus between species are significantly different; (3)The inner margin of the outer stomatal rim of stomata apparatus is nearly sinuolate or sinuous, and the cuticular ornamentation around stomata apparatus is characteristically distinguished by the bird’s nest-like cuticular ornamentation of S.tonkinensis and the bowl-shaped cuticular ornamentation of S.suberifolius; (4)The T-shaped thickening at either polar region of stomatal guard cells is found in S.hemsleyanus, S.dasyanthus and S.faberi; (5)The upper epidermis of S.suberifolius and S.macrocarpus was composed of large cells; (6)The mesophyll was differentiated into palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma, and the thickness of palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma and the ratio of palisade to spongy thickness are distinctly different among species. The palisade parenchyma of S.tonkinensis is differentiated into two layers; (7)The main vein vascular tissues constitute a closed ring structure in S.macrocarpus and S.odoratissimus but an open semicircular structure in other species. The leaf epidermal micromorphology and anatomical structures can be used as an important basis for the identification and classification between species of Styrax, which is of some taxonomic significance.
    Ultrastructural Observations on the Formation of Spore Ornamentation in Asplenium sarelii
    DAI Xi-Ling;CAO Jian-Guo;LI Xin-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi
    2014, 34(2):  159-163.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.003
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    The formation and development of the spores and their ornamentations of the fern Asplenium sarelii(Aspleniaceae) were studied by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results were as follows: ①The development of the sporangium of A.sarelii belongs to Leptosporangiate-type. ②The exospore is smooth, with a thickness of about 0.8-1.1 μm in the distal surface and 1.4-1.8 μm in the proximal surface. ③The perispore, with a thickness of about 4-5 μm, can be distinguished into an outer perispore and an inner perispore. The inner perispore is closely associated with the outer surface of the exospore. The inner perispore has cylinder, tuberculate, and verrucate projections on the out surface. The outer perispore uplifts and forms the lophate ornamentations. Simultaneously, cavities are formed inside the outer perispore and the fins are formed outside the perispore. ④The formation processes of the exospore and perispore of Asplenium-type spores are similar with that of Dryopteris-type spores. ⑤The maturity degree of the spore during development is a key factor for studying the spore palynology. Only the matured spore possesses stable spore ornamentation.
    Megasporogenesis and Development of Megagametophyte of Flueggea suffruticosa(Pall.) Baill.
    WEI Yuan;SHEN Guang-Shuang;ZHANG Nan;CONG Ming-Yang;SHI Fu-Chen*;LI Hou-Hun
    2014, 34(2):  177-181.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.006
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    Megasporogenesis and development of megagametophyte of the pistillate flower in Flueggea suffruticosa were observed by using the method of paraffin sections. The results showed that the pistillate flower of F.suffruticosa had epigynous ovary which was axile placenta; each ovary had 3 locules and bearing 2 anatropous bi-integument ovules in each locules. The ovules were crassinucellate and had nucellar beak and obturator. The development of embryo sac was of the Polygonum type. The mature embryo sac was consisted of two synergids and an egg cell near the micropyle, a central cell with two nucleus in the center, three antipodal cells by the side of chalaza. These results could provide basic data for the research of reproductive biology and pollination biology in Euphorbiaceae, meanwhile, for the research of plant taxonomy in Euphorbiaceae.
    Development of Gametophyte and Oogenesis of the Fern Lygodium japonicum
    GUO Yan-Dong;CAO Jian-Guo*;Li Xin-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi
    2014, 34(2):  164-169.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.004
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    Gametophyte development and oogenesis of the fern Lygodium japonicum were studied using microscopy. The spores are tetrahedral and trilete. The spore germination pattern is the Anemia-type. The gametophyte development showed various forms. When the filaments length reached 3-5 cells, they can produce plate by longitudinal division of the apical cell, and finally formed the heart-shaped prothallus, which can produce antheridia(an) and archegonium(ar). However, the gametophyte can also produce 10 cell-lengthed filaments. These filaments usually produce irregular prothallus, which can produce antheridia and do not produce archegonia. The development of the prothallus is the Adiantum-type. Sex organs are the Leptosporangiate-type. Sections observations showed that the archegonium develops from a superficial initial cell under the growth point. Two divisions of the initial cell result in a tier of three cells, i.e. the upper cell, primary cell and basal cell. The primary cell finally develops into a neck canal cell, a ventral canal cell and an egg by two unequal divisions. These three cells were closely associated with each other. Then the neck canal cell and the ventral canal degenerated gradually. A separation cavity was formed around the matured egg. Light microscope observation showed that no typical egg envelope was formed in the surface of the egg and no fertilization pore was observed in the matured egg.
    Inflorescence and Floral Organ Development in Carpinus cordata
    ZHU Jun-Yi;ZHANG Li-Fan;SHEN Peng;REN Bao-Qing;LIANG Yu;CHEN Zhi-Duan
    2014, 34(2):  170-176.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.005
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    Morphogenesis of inflorescence and flowers in Carpinus cordata was observed under scanning electron microscope for the first time, which would provide micro-morphological evidence for the phylogeny and evolution in Betulaceae. The female inflorescence in C.cordata was composed of cymules arranged spirally; one primary bract and a group of cymule primordial meristem were differentiated from one cymule primordium, and two floral primordia and two secondary bracts were differentiated from the cymule primordial meristem; two carpel primordia were differentiated to form one bicarpellary pistil. The abaxial portion of secondary bracts developed faster than the adaxial one, which arranged in an unequal joint configuration. One layer circular perianth occurred in the base of pistil. The male inflorescences were catkin-like, composed of cymules arranged spirally. One primary bract and a group of cymule primordial meristem were differentiated from one cymule primordium, and three floral primordia were differentiated from the cymule primordial meristem, which differentiated into three small flowers without perianth, with two flowers laterally each having two stamens, and the small flower between them hasving four stamens. The total number of stamens of one cymule was eight, rarely ten. Three flowers are in a dichasial cyme, and the flower merosity is two.
    Pollen Germination and Storage of Magnolia sinostellata
    LU Lu;YU Ze-Zhi;LIU Xue-Yan;TONG Zai-Kang;SHEN Ya-Mei*
    2014, 34(2):  182-187.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.007
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    The pollens of Magnolia sinostellata were employed as experimental material to study the effects of different concentrations of sucrose, boron, calcium on pollen vitality of M.sinostellata through single factorial experiment and the orthogonal design. Moreover, the effects of storage condition and storage time on pollen germination were studied. The results showed that: the optimum medium was sucrose 30 g·L-1+H3BO3 200 mg·L-1+ CaCl2 200 mg·L-1, in which the rate of germination was 74.56%. Low temperature contributes to the maintaining of the vitality of M.sinostellata. Storage under -80℃ condition, the vitality of pollen dropped in a slow rate. As the increase of storage time at low temperature, the vitality of pollen dried by silicone was higher than the moist pollen.
    Effects of Canopy Position on Leaf Structures in Golden-Leaf Privet(Ligustrum×vicaryi)
    YUAN Ming;DONG Li-Hua;JIA Xue-Jing;YUAN Shu;DU Lei
    2014, 34(2):  188-193.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.008
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    Ligustrum×vicaryi is widely used as a landscaping shrub for horticultural ornamentation. It possesses leaves with two contrasting colors in the upper and lower positions. The upper leaves are golden while the lower leaves tend to be green during the whole growth season due to their positions. Light intensity may play a key role in generating these two types of leaves. In this paper, leaf anatomy in the upper golden leaves and lower green leaves was investigated. The results showed that light intensity did not affect the upper epidermis significantly; but under low light, the lower epidermis cells were smaller, and the stomatal density decreased. Mesophyll tissues in the lower leaves were thinner than those in the upper leaves, and the size of mesophyll cells increased and arranged loosely under low light. Thylakoids arranged more closely and the number of chloroplasts per leaf volume decreased under low light than those under high light. Low position promoted the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and made leaves dark green. The effects of canopy position on leaf anatomy in the golden-leaf shrubs were similar to other plants, but the content of photosynthetic pigments varied more largely than other plants. Taken together, golden-leaf privet could be an ideal plant to study leaf morphology, structures, development, physiology and biochemistry responses to canopy position.
    Analysis on Composition of Pollen Exine and Pollen Morphology in Five Species of Gymnosperm
    ZHANG Min;LUO Kai-Ge;LI Hong;ZHANG Lei;WANG Li*
    2014, 34(2):  194-199.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.009
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    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the composition of pollen exine in five species of gymnosperm, including Ginkgo biloba L., Abies firma Sieb et Zucc., Cedrus deodara(Roxb.) G.Don, Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook, and Cryptomeria japonica(L.f.) D.DON. The results showed that the infrared spectra of these pollen exines are mainly composed of the absorption bands of protein, lipids and polysaccharides, however, there were different components of pollen exine in these 5 species of gymnosperm. For example, there was much protein in pollen exine of G.biloba; rich lipids in pollen exine of Sonko; and polysaccharides in pollen exine of Taxodiaceae. In addition, there are significant differences in the spectra of different genus. Using scanning electron microscope, we observed that the pollens of C.deodara and A.firma are big in size, with two sacs. In contrast, the pollens of the other three species are small in size, without sacs. The surface of pollen exine in C.japonica and C.lanceolata showes orbicules, but that of C.deodara(Roxb.) G.Don and A.firma Sieb et Zucc shows the ornamentation of microgranulates with rough surfaceand smooth surface showing apertures.
    Effects of Long-term High-temperature Stress on the Biomass and NonStructure Carbohydrates of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Seedlings
    LI Na;SUN Tao;MAO Zi-Jun*
    2014, 34(2):  212-218.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.012
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    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings were collected from three diverse geographic populations, Honghuaerji, Heihe and Mohe of Northeast China. As the study subjects, these seedlings were grown up for four years in greenhouse of Northeast Forestry University under the stress of long-term high-temperature cultivation experiments by artificial control. The effects of long-term extreme high-temperature stress (+15℃, +18℃, +21℃) on plant height, base diameter, root-shoot ratio, biomass allocation and non-structure narbohydrates (NSC) of P.sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings were studied, The degree of P.sylvestris var. mongolica tolerance to high temperature was ascertained. Our results showed that significant differences (P<0.05) was found among the different geographic populations of plant height, base diameter, root-shoot ratio, biomass allocation. Among diverse geographic populations, the largest plant height, base diameter and biomass allocation was found in Heihe population, the lowest was in Mohe population. But the largest root-shoot ratio was in Honghuaerji population, the lowest was in Mohe population. There were significant differences among both soluble carbohydrate and starch of different organs in the same population and different populations of the same organ. The largest proportion of soluble carbohydrate and starch content among the three different populations was in Heihe, and the lowest proportion was in Mohe. Among the different organs, the largest proportion of soluble carbohydrate and starch content was in the foliage, and the lowest proportion was in stem. Our study demonstrated that the P.sylvestris var. mongolica seedings from Heihe showed strong ability to adapt long-term high temperature stress, had stronger physiological basis of resistance to high temperature stress compared with the other two populations, it indicated that P.sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings can adapt the temperature rise in 15℃, while the temperature rise in 20℃ could produce severe stres, which was the ideal P.sylvestris var. mongolica provenance in the future of the global climate warming of Northeast China.
    Floristic Analysis on Spermatophyte Genera in Wudalianchi
    HUANG Qing-Yang;ZHU Dao-Guang;Zhong Hai-Xiu;XIE Li-Hong;NI Hong-Wei*
    2014, 34(2):  200-203.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.010
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    Because of special geographical location and genesis, there are unique ecological characteristics and huge scientific value in Wudalianchi. According to the theory and methods in floristic, floristic analysis on spermatophyte genera in wudalianchi was studied. The analysis showed that: (1) The Wudalianchi seed floristic composition is abundant, there are 869 kinds of seed plants belonging to 369 genera and 99 families. The ratio of single-species and few species is very high, reaching 89.16% of total area. (2) The composition of floristic is complex, it contains 14 distribution type and10 variants type. The temperate elements of genera dominate obviously. (3) The origin of the flora is ancient, China unique genera is not obvious.
    Relationship between Plant Diversity and Environmental Factors of Excentrodendron hsienmu Community in Karst Mountains in Pinguo County,Guangxi
    OU Zhi-Yang;;ZHU Ji-Yu;;PENG Yu-Hua;;HE Qin-Fei;;PANG Shi-Long;
    2014, 34(2):  204-211.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.011
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    Excentrodendron hsienmu is a species endemic to tropical limestone areas. It is one of the constructive species in north tropical limestone seasonal rainforest. The mixed forest dominated by E.hsienmu is very important to the karst ecosystem. So far, little is know about the main environmental factors affecting the plant diversity in this community. To explore the effects of variations in soils and topography on the species diversity in this community, woody plants with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1.0 cm, shrubs, herbs, soils, and topographic factors were investigated in 15 plots in the karst mountains of Pinguo County, located in Guangxi, south China. α diversity indexes were calculated, and 7 soil properties were measured. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were employed in this study. It was observed that the community composition was simple, and the α diversity indexes were low. All the species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index in tree layer were the greatest, followed by shrub and herb layer. Results of PCA showed the accumulative variance contribution of the first three principal components was 78.8%. The eigenvalue of first principal component was 5.29, and it encompassed 44.0% of the total variation, which mainly reflected the variation in soil nutrients. Results of CCA showed α diversity of tree layer was sensitive to the variation of soil nutrients. Shannon-Wiener diversity index of tree layer was negatively correlated with total phosphorus (TP) and positively with total nitrogen. Shannon-Wiener diversity index of shrub layer was sensitive to the topography gradient. It was positively related to both slope position and elevation. Meanwhile, there was close coupling relationship between soils and topography. TP was positively correlated with position, and pH negatively with per. of covered rock.
    Characteristics of Chlorophyll Fluorescent Parameters and Daily Dynamics of Photosynthesis in Female and Male Populus cathayana Cutting Seedlings
    HE Jun-Dong;XU Xiao;*;HUAN Hui-Hui;YANG Shuai;QIN Fang;
    2014, 34(2):  219-225.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.013
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    A field research was conducted on the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescent parameters and daily dynamics of photosynthesis in dioecious Populus cathayana cutting seedlings. The results showed as follows: The curves of diurnal variation in Pn, Tr and Gs of dioecious cutting seedlings leaves had two peaks, and a significant midday depression phenomenon, although there were differences in the time and the value of the peaks and valleys occurred in terms of Pn, Tr and Gs. WUEi decreased from morning to noon, reached the lowest value and then increase, he female individuals had the highest value of WUEi at 16:00; The photosynthetic indexes of male individuals such as Pn, Gs, Tr, WUEi, Fm, Fo, Fm′, Fo′, Fv′/Fm′ and ETR were significantly higher than those of female individuals (P<0.05), but significantly lower NPQ than female individuals. Moreover, the gender-pecific differences of male and female cutting seedlings in Ci, Ls, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, ФPSⅡ and qP were not significant (P> 0.05); Correlation analyses showed that the parameters affecting Pn could be ranked, from the highest to the lowest, as Gs>Ca>RH>VPD>Ta>PAR, and the factors Tr could be ranked as Gs>Ca>RH>VPD>PAR>Ta. The effects of climate factors on photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate of P.cathayana were obvious. Comparing with the female, the male had higher efficiency of light energy captured, electron transport rate, photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency, and thus, had greater resistance against adversity.
    Side-hain Modification of Aliphatic Glucosenolates by Peptide Methionin S Reductase PMSR2 in Arabidopsis
    WANG Chuan-Qi;ZHANG Xian-He;WANG Hong-Bo;YU Xin-Xin;LI Jing*
    2014, 34(2):  226-231.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.014
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    Glucosinolates are amino acid-erived secondary metabolites. Aliphatic glucosinolates are derived from methionine and have diverse biological activity dependent on chemical modification of the side chain. According to the glucosinolates profile in different tissues of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) combined with bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that there is possible reduction reaction from methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates to methythioalkyl glucosinolates in aliphatic glucosinolates side chain modification and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase 2(PMSR2) might be the candidate gene. To verify this assumption, transgenic plants overexpressing PMSR2 were established. Glucosinolates profile was determined and compared in PMSR2 overexpression line, wild type and pmsr2 mutant. Overexpression of PMSR2 did not alter glucosinolates profile but pmsr2 mutant showed higher MS GSL/MT GSL. The results indicated that PMSR2 is involved in side-hain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates and catalyze the conversion from methylsulfinylalkyl to methythioalkyl glucosinolates by S-educing. The identification of PMSR2 as a reductase in glucosinolates side-hain modification is helpful to better understand the biosynthesis and function of aliphatic glucosinolates.
    Biomass Study on Pinus koraiensis Plantations in Eastern Heilongjiang Province
    SUN Mei-Ou;JIA Wei-Wei*;LI Feng-Ri;DONG Li-Hu;XIAO Rui
    2014, 34(2):  232-237.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.015
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    Two compatible biomass equations of Pinus koraiensis single tree were built using nonlinear simultaneous equations modeling theory, then biomass of each tree organ of every plot was calculated. The forest biomass distribution in tree organs based on forest age, diameter at breast height and forest density was analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of main forest factors on forest biomass was discussed. The results were as follows: Young age P.koraiensis plantation forest biomass are positively correlated with the average diameter at breast height; Forest density has a great effect on forest biomass and the most suitable forest density is 1 000-1 400 N·ha-1; The distribution law of young and middle-age P.koraiensis plantation forest biomass are the same, stem>root>branch>leaf, biomass of aboveground forest is the main part of stand biomass and accounts for about 79%; The proportion of aboveground and underground biomass is about 3.8∶1.
    GGE-Biplot Analysis on Gene Expression of Seven Key Genes Mediating Biosynthesis of Steroidal Glycoalkaloid in Potato
    BAI Jiang-Ping;;CUI Tong-Xia;;ZHANG Jin-Wen;;ZHANG Jun-Lian;;WANG Di;*
    2014, 34(2):  238-244.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.016
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    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are a family of secondary metabolites that closely associate with the eating and processing qualities of potato tuber. In the present study, GGE-Biplot was used to analyze the transcriptional gene expression of seven genes that involved in the SGAs biosynthesis pathway. The microtubers of five varieties (genotypes) were incubated for 6, 12 and 24 h under red light, and the expression of seven genes were measured with RT-PCR and further analyzed via GGE-Biplot. The data indicated that the expression levels of pvs1, sgt1 and sgt3 were significantly higher among all tested genes. In addition, the transcriptional abandon of sgt3 was high and stable in all tested genotypes, but showed less stability among the light treatment durations. The very similar expression patterns of seven genes were observed for both 12 and 24 h treatments, while expressions of all except pvs1 were relatively lower after 6 h treatment. Among all tested genotypes, similar expression patterns of all genes were observed for HA and Zh-3. The genes that mediated different stages of SGAs biosynthesis also showed great variations among genotypes. Therefore, the results demonstrated that GGE-Biplot is a very useful tool to analyze and display the differential expression profile of seven key genes in potato tubers under red light illumination. According to the quantitative data, the results also presented the relationship among treatments and genotypes. The outcome of this study thus provides valuable reference for future study on SGAs biosynthesis, as well as the potato tuber quality improvement via manipulating the SGAs biosynthesis.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cyclophilins A(CyPA) Gene form Chlorella
    WANG Xu-Hui;QIAO Kun;WANG Zhen-Juan;GUAN Qing-Jie*;LIU Shen-Kui
    2014, 34(2):  245-251.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.017
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    Cyclophilins (CyPs) are widely distributed in organisms, and play important roles. Cyclophilin A-like was screened in our study from Chlorella sp. cDNA library. By extracting Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that was transformed the 35S::CyPA::GFP fusion plasmid, it showed that CyPA located in the chloroplasts. Overexpression of CyPA gene in yeast enhanced the InV yeast growth ability to resistance of NaCl, NaHCO3 and drought stress. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that under abiotic stress conditions, CyPA gene expression quantity increased. So we speculated that CyPA genes were associated with abiotic stress resistance, through the cyclophilin A involved in improving survival ability of resistant organisms.
    Cloning of Coding Sequence of Glutamin Synthetase from Polygonum sibiricum Laxm. and Its Expression under Alkali Salinity Stress
    ZHAO Shu-Ting;QU Chun-Pu;XU Zhi-Ru;LI Yang;LIU Guan-Jun*
    2014, 34(2):  252-257.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.018
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    The full-length of Glutamin synthetase (termed PsGS) gene was cloned using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end) technology based on GS partial sequence obtained from a random clone in SSH library of Polygonum sibiricum Laxm.. The acquired 1 273 bp sequence includes a 5′ untranslated region of 178 bp, a 3′ untranslated region of 24 bp with poly (A), and an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 356 amino acids. Based on the comparison with amino acid sequences of other plant glutamin synthetase and the phylogenetic analysis of protein evolution, this gene was divided into glutamin synthetase family. The expression analyses by RT-PCR showed that PsGS expressed in leaves, stems and rhizomes of P.sibiricum Laxm.. Under the induction of 3% NaHCO3, the expression of PsGS was significantly influenced, which suggested that PsGS might play an important role in alkali salt stress resistance.
    Comparative Analysis on the Metabolic Compositions of Flower Bud and Rachis of Tussilago farfara Based on GC-MS Fingerprinting Approach
    ZHANG Li-Zeng;MI Xia;XUE Shui-Yu;LI Zhen-Yu*;QIN Xue-Mei
    2014, 34(2):  258-265.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.019
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    Flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. is a widely used herbal medicine in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, due to the increasing demands, adulteration with rachis is frequently encountered in the marketplace. In this study, chemical differences and pyrrolizidine alkaloid contents of flower bud and rachis were compared. No report demonstrated the chemical and pharmacological differences between flower bud and rachis before. Chemical differences between flower bud and rachis were compared by GC-MS based on metabolic approach, and the metabolites were identified by NIST data base search and comparison with the authentic standards. The transformed data matrix was introduced into SIMCA-P 11.0 software for multivariate analysis. Content of pyrrolizidine alkaloid was determined by UPLC. 54 metabolites were identified by GC-MS, and the PCA analysis revealed the clear separation between the rachis and flower bud, indicating the obvious chemical differences existing between them. The loading plot of OPLS-DA indicated that the rachis contained less inositol, aromadendrene, stigmasterol, palmitic acid, and more sucrose and arachidonic acid. UPLC results revealed that the flower bud contained more senkirkine (102 μg·g-1) than the rachis (64 μg·g-1). Due to the obvious chemical differences between the flower bud and rachis, to guarantee the clinical effect, rachis should be picked out before use, and set the limit of rachis in the quality standards.
    Seasonal Change of Contents of Six Taxanes in Branches and Leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei
    GAO Yin-Xiang;YANG Feng-Jian;ZHANG Yu-Hong;ZHAO Chun-Jian;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2014, 34(2):  266-270.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.020
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    Taxol is a natural anticancer agent mainly extracted from Taxus species. Taxanes are the precursors or branches of taxol metabolites, also have the potential for developing as anti-tumor drugs. The seasonal change of contents of six taxanes i.e. taxol, 10-deacetylbaccatin Ⅲ(10-DAB), 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl-taxol (7-xyl-10-DAT), 10-deacetyltaxol (10-DAT), cephalomannine (CE) and 7-epi-10-deacetyl taxol (7-epi-10-DAT) in the branches and leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei was studied by high Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The results showed that the contents of Taxol and 10-DAT were the lowest in August and September, at the same time the contents of 10-DAB and 7-xyl-10-DAT were relatively higher. The seasonal content change of taxol was negatively correlated with 10-DAB, and positively correlated with CE. The seasonal content change of 7-xyl-10-DAT was positively correlated with 10-DAB and 10-DAT, respectively. This paper provided the theory bases for the metabolism and accumulation rules of taxol and related taxanes, it is not only helpful to clarify the biosynthesis key steps and physiological regulation mechanisms of taxol, but also has the guidance significance for Taxus resources development.
    Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Paeoniflorin and Paeonol from Peony Pod Using Response Surface Methodology
    ZHOU Qi-Chao;YAO Huan-Huan;CHEN Feng-Li;DU Xin-Qi;ZHAO Chun-Jian*;WANG Hua;YANG Lei;WANG Gui-Bin;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2014, 34(2):  271-275.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.021
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    In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the main factors of microwave-assisted extraction for paeoniflorin and paeonol from peony seed pods, including liquid-solid ratio, microwave power and time. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: liquid-solid ratio was 10∶1, microwave power was 253 W, microwave time was 10 min. Under these condition, the yields of paeoniflorin and paeonol were 2.92 and 0.91 mg·g-1, respectively. Compared with the traditional extraction method, microwaveassisted extraction method could reduce extraction time, save raw material usage and enhance extraction rate, which was an efficient extraction method.
    GC-MS Analysis on Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile Oil from Pyracantha fortuneana Flowers
    GE Li-Na;HAN Xue;REN Ke-Ke;ZHANG Fu;PENG Yong-Yu;BI Shu-Feng*
    2014, 34(2):  276-281.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.022
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    The volatile oil from Pyracantha fortuneana flowers was extracted by watersteam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The antioxidant activity of volatile oil was evaluated by DPPH·and sodium nitrite scavenging capacity with VC and BHT as the positive controls. Seventy-seven compounds, which occupied 83.77% of total constituents and contained many bioactive constituents, were identified. Terpenes and their derivatives (50.31%), alkanes (18.52%), and aldehydes (5.54%) were found to be dominant components in the volatile oil. The volatile oil exhibited significant scavenging capacity against DPPH·and sodium nitrite in a concentration-dependent fashion. When the scavenging rate against DPPH· and sodium nitrite of volatile oil was 50%, the volumes of volatile oil were 43.51 and 79.48 μL, respectively. The scavenging capacity against DPPH· of volatile oil was slightly worse than that of 1 mg·mL-1 Vc and the scavenging capacity against sodium nitrite of volatile oil was better than that of 1 mg·mL-1 BHT.
    Research Progresses in the Regulation of miRNAs Biogenesis and Function in Plants
    XIONG Xue-Mei;WU Ying;*;WANG Yang
    2014, 34(2):  282-288.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.023
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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate their target mRNAs post-transcriptionally through transcript cleavage and translational inhibition, and are widely involved in plant development, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. The roles of miRNAs have been attracting increasing attention. Many factors, such as proteins, nucleotide sequences, genes, and even miRNAs themselves, can regulate miRNA transcription, maturation, and function, which make the biological processes regulated by miRNAs more complicated and diverse. This review summarizes recent progresses in the regulation mechanisms of plant miRNAs biogenesis and function, which provides a theoretical basis for further research and new ideas.