6 genus 9 species, 15 populations of Athyriaceae from Heilongjiang province were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marks. The results show that: (1)Pseudocystopteris might be placed into Athyrium. (2)Cornopteris has a close relationship with Athyrium, as Gymnocarpium with Cystopteris. (3)Allantodia is an independent genus which has relatively little relationships with other genus in Athyriaceae. According to morphological characteristics and DNA levels, it is suggested that Athyriaceae from Heilongjiang province may be better divided into 3 subfamily, i.e. Cystopterioideae, including Cystopteris and Gymnocarpium; Athyrioideae, including Athyrium, Pseudocystopteris and Cornopteris; Diplazioideae including Allantodia.