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    Variation of Stem-leaf Size Relationship of Woody Plants among Different LifeForms in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden
    SHANG Kan-Kan, ZHANG Xi-Jin, SONG Kun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 641-647.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.001
    Abstract533)      PDF (1190KB)(330)      
    There is a significant positive correlation between stem and leaves, which determines the plant architecture and biomass allocation. In this study, leaf and stem mass, total leaf area, stem cross-sectional area of 70 cm long leading-shoot were investigated for 149 woody species in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden. The stem-leaf size relationships were analyzed for individuals in similar habitats. The results showed that there was allometric scaling relationships with stem cross-sectional area and total leaf area with a common slop(a=1.148 6, CI=1.000 6-1.302 3) for different life forms. However, leaf mass was found to be isometrically related to stem mass(a=1.054 2, CI=0.921 3-1.205 6) for all life forms. For both of area-based or mass-based stem-leaf relationship, there were significant differences in allometric/isometric regression constants b(y-intercept) among different life forms. Deciduous trees had larger leaf area than evergreen trees and shrubs given the same stem cross-sectional area, while evergreen trees and deciduous trees had larger leaf mass than evergreen shrubs given the same stem mass. Therefore, this may be related to the difference of water competition efficiency and leaf construction cost among different life-forms of woody plants.
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    Comparative Analysis on Volatile Terpenoids in Nine Aromatic Plants of Lamiaceae
    ZHU Xiao-Jie, ZHOU Xiang-Yu, FAN Hang, GAO Xi-Feng, YANG Lei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 696-705.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.008
    Abstract469)      PDF (1852KB)(67)      
    The volatile components from the leaves of 9 aromatic plants was extracted by n-Hexane and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components were identified and compared. This study not only provides reference for the efficient utilization and rational development of aromatic plants, but also provides the basis for the study of the metabolism of plant terpenes. Among the nine aromatic plants, 77 volatile terpenoids were detected. Agastache rugosa contains the most species composition, which is 46, followed by Rosmarinus officinalis(35), Thymus mongolicus(33), Salvia officinalis(33) and Monarda didyma(31), caryophyllene and humulene are common components of the nine plants. The highest concentrations of volatile terpenes were found in Rosmarinus officinalis, followed by Salvia officinalis and Agastache rugosa. The total absolute content of monoterpenoids was significantly higher than that of sesquiterpenoids. Thus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Agastache rugosa, Thymus mongolicus and Monarda didyma are suitable materials for the volatile terpenes extraction. Comparatively, Origanum vulgare, Salvia elegans and Salvia sclarea are not suitable for volatile terpenes extraction. The ability of these aromatic plants to generate monoterpenoids in normal environment is higher than that to produce sesquiterpenoids. It may be related to the terpenoid synthase that contains. This result can provide data supporting for the study of terpenoids metabolism.
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    Adaptive Differentiation of NBA1/MERIT40 of Three Species of Hippophae L.——Discussion on the Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Hybrid Identification
    SUN Kun, DING Xue-Yang, ZHANG Hui, LI Xue-Li, WANG Ying, WANG Juan, LIU Ben-Li
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 648-658.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.002
    Abstract423)      PDF (1855KB)(180)      
    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, the study of molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution in the "Omics" level has become a hotspot of evolutionary research. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was carried out using materials of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, H.neurocarpa and H.goniocarpa that is a hybrid species from homoploid hybridization between the former two species, and the gene of subunit NBA1 of BRA1-A&BRISC complex was selected to deeply study on the basis of its positive selection(w>1). Bioinformatics analysis found that the coding region of NBA1 gene was 771 bp in three sea buckthorns in length, which was a nuclear localized hydrophilic protein that encoding a total of 256 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of NBA1 of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa have different loci which is loci of 218 and 236. The site of 218 which close to ligand binding sites in H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is different from the VWA domain of H.neurocarpa and terrestrial plants, and it has been mutated from conserved leucine to methionine. This resulted in a significant change in the protein tertiary structure of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa, and makes the protein binding sites have significant difference in spatial structure. Above all, we speculated that the NBA1 subunits differ in binding to another subunit. Mainly led to the difference in the BRCA1-A complex repair DNA damage repair function that caused by UV radiation, and it may be related to the adaptation of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa to different elevations. In addition, Sanger sequencing has verified the accuracy of the next generation sequencing results, and has proved that is a homozygous gene of single copy in two parental species H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa, and exists in codominant allele way in H.goniocarpa. Further analysis found that the next generation sequencing data is not suitable for identifying hybrids at the level of individual, but it can reflect the parental source of the hybrid randomly to some extent if we parallel sequencing in multiple individuals within the populations. This study provides a reference data for further revealing the molecular mechanism of adaptation of Hippophae L. to different altitudes, and proposes advice in choose transcriptome sequencing methods to identify hybrid species.
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    Chloroplast Genome Characterization and Identification of Genetic Relationship of Relict Endangered Plant Amygdalus nana
    YANG Bin, MENG Qing-Yao, ZHANG Kai, DUAN Yi-Zhong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 686-695.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.007
    Abstract421)      PDF (1665KB)(57)      
    The chloroplast genome of Amygdalus nana in the Tertiary Period endangered plant was analyzed for structural characteristics, and its phylogenetic relationship with related species was explored. Getting the chloroplast genome through the Illumina HiSeq Xten for which to assemble, annotate and make feature analysis. The results show:①The chloroplast genome of A.nana is a circular tetrad structure with a total length of 158 596 bp, of which the length of LSC is 86 771 bp, the length of SSC is 19 037 bp, and both IRs are 26 394 bp. A total of 130 genes were annotated in the chloroplast genome of A.nana, including 85 PCGs, 37 tRNA and 8 rRNA. ②The expansion and contraction of IR boundary regions of 6 plants were analyzed, and there were some differences between the gene types and distribution in 4 boundary regions, and the closer the relationship was, the smaller the difference was. ③The 71 SSRs loci were predicted in the chloroplast genome of A.nana. ④By phylogenetic analysis, in the Subgen. Amygdalus, A.nana is closer to A.mongolica in phylogenetic relationship, but slightly farther from A.triloba and A.pedunculata. A large number of chloroplast genomes of angiosperms were involved, and the chloroplast genomes of A.nana were deeply analyzed to provide reference data for the evolutionary relationship and plant identification of Amygdalus L.
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    Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T6 on Rosa chinensis ‘Shi-Jie-Mei’ Growth
    DENG Jun-Jie, ABDUL MAJEED BALOCH, HOU Xue-Yue, LI Jia-Zhe, CHA Xin-You, ZHANG Rong-Shu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 666-672.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.004
    Abstract404)      PDF (1293KB)(209)      
    In order to develop the biocontrol fertilizer of Trichoderma for promoting growth of Rosa chinensis ‘Shi-Jie-Mei’, with Trichoderma harzianum T6 isolated and identified in our laboratory, the effects of Trichoderma T6 on the sprout of hard branches, seedling growth, the activity of defendant enzyme and the levels of endogenous hormone of rose were analyzed. T.harzianum T6 significantly increased the germination rate of hard branches and the length of the branches of rose seedlings, 1.4 and 1.82 times that of the control group. The dry weight and the water content in branches and leaves of rose were significantly increased. The activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the levels of hormone, including IAA, GA3, ZT, ABA, SA and JA in the leaves, were all significantly increased. The results displayed that T.harzianum T6 had the action of growing promotion on rose and enhancing its resistance, which would provide the theoretical basis for the development of biological fertilizer for rose growth promotion.
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    Effect of Interplanting Taxus cuspidata with Ficus carica on Growth of Two Plants and Activities of Soil Enzymes
    ZHAO Chun-Jian, LI Yu-Zheng, GUAN Jia-Jing, SU Wei-Ran, TIAN Yao, WANG Ting-Ting, LI Shen, LI Chun-Ying
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 679-685.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.006
    Abstract389)      PDF (1320KB)(54)      
    An interplanting experiment of Taxus cuspidata and Ficus carica under indoor control conditions was designed and compared with the single plantation of T.cuspidata and single planting F.carica. The differences in growth indexes, photosynthesis, and soil enzyme activities of T.cuspidata and F.carica were investigated, respectively. The results were as follows:①In terms of growth, the growth rate of interplanting T.cuspidata for 3 months was 152.6%, which was 1.56 times the growth rate of single planted T.cuspidata. The biomass of interplanting F.carica for 3 months in the same year was 68.4 cm3, which was 36.3% higher than that of single planted F.carica. ②In terms of photosynthesis, the net photosynthetic rates of interplanting T.cuspidata and F.carica for 3 months were increased by 19.0% and 5.3%, respectively, compared with the corresponding single planting species at the light intensity of 800 μmol·m-2·s-1. ③In the interplanting T.cuspidata and F.carica mode in July, the activities of sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase in soil were 51.6%, 58.5%, and 50.8% higher than the corresponding enzyme activities in the soils planted with single Taxus cuspidate mode, 85.5%, 47.5%, and 71.9% higher than the corresponding enzyme activities in the soils planted with single F.carica mode. There was no significant difference in soil polyphenol oxidase activity between different planting modes(P>0.01). In conclusion, the interplanting of T.cuspidata and F.carica can increase soil sucrase, urease and acid phosphatase activities, and promote the growth of both plants.
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    Nutrient Stoichiometry of Current-year Stems of Wild Apple Trees (Malus sieversii) in Mountainous Area of West Junggar Basin,Xinjiang,China
    LIU Xiao-Yan, ZHOU Xiao-Bing, ZHANG Jing, TAO Ye
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 530-542.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.007
    Abstract382)      PDF (2430KB)(45)      
    Malus sieversii is a relic and rare wild fruit tree species from tertiary, and is the ancestor of cultivated apple trees in the world. In order to understand the nutrient stoichiometric characteristics of differentiation of M.sieversii, a total of 20 plots were investigated in 2016 and 2017 in mountainous area of west Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China. The current-year stems of M.sieversii were collected, and the stoichiometric characteristics of nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) in stems, the differences in environmental gradients and the influencing factors were systematically analyzed. The N, P, K contents and N:P(7.03, 1.24, 5.96 mg·g-1 and 5.71, respectively) in stems in 2016 were higher than those in 2017(5.49, 1.08, 4.46 mg·g-1 and 5.13, respectively). Stem P had the lowest variability(CV=21.0% and 23.3%) while stem N had the strongest variability(CV=37.5% and 34.9%). There were significant correlations among stem N, P and K. Stem N:P, N:K were mainly influenced by N, while stem P:K were affected by K. ANOVA showed that significant differences in stem nutrient stoichiometry were detected among different years, sampling sites, degrees of altitude, grazing gradients, degrees of disease and insect pest, deadwood rates and fruit amounts. At the sampling plot level, longitude and latitude, slope position, grazing intensity and soil N content were the main factors affecting stem stoichiometry; at the individual plant level, the degree of diseases and insect pests and fruit amount were the key factors. When the in situ rejuvenation of M.sieversii is carried out, the moderate grazing, increasing soil N content and management of diseases and insect pests should be well considered.
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    Effect of Soak Stems Overnight with Deionized Water on Measuring Maximum Hydraulic Conductivity in Xylem of Stem Segments of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Age-relate Difference
    LIANG Zhao, WEI Kai-Lu, YANG Dong-Mei, PENG Guo-Quan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 706-717.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.009
    Abstract374)      PDF (2230KB)(24)      
    The maximum hydraulic conductivity in xylem of branches is one of the core indexes in plant water physiology research. The method of flush the stem by perfusing solution at higher pressure which dissolves and expels the emboli is the most commonly used method which be used to measure the hydraulic conductivity in xylem of stem segments. However, it is necessary to find a reliable method to obtain stable maximum hydraulic conductivity prior to experiment.In this study, the differentyears branches of Robinia pseudoacacia L. was used as the experimental materials, and we compared the effect of two different sample treatment methods on measuring hydraulic conductivity in xylem of stem segments(i.e., without soaked stem segments overnight with deionized water and soaked stem segments overnight with deionized water prior to experiment), the reliability of the maximum hydraulic conductivity determination was determined by test whether the maximum hydraulic conductivity in xylem of stem segments can be kept constant with increasing flushing time, and explore the effective method to improve the stability of measuring maximum hydraulic conductivity of branches. Our results demonstrated that:①the water conductivity of the branches that had not been soaked overnight with deionized water decreased linearly with increasing flushing time after the maximum hydraulic conductivity was reached by 150 kPa pressure flushing, while the hydraulic conductivity of the branches that had been soaked overnight with deionized water prior to experiment kept constant by the same experimental method. ②The hydraulic conductivity of two-year-old branches kept constant after 150 kPa pressure flushing, regardless of whether they were soaked overnight with deionized water or not. However, after soaking stems overnight with deionized water, the time required for two-year-old branches to reach the maximum hydraulic conductivity was significantly shorter than that of non-soaking treatment. ③According to the percentage of xylem area on the cross section of stem and the wood density of branches, the lignification degree of current-year branches was significantly lower than that of biennial branches during the experiment. We speculate that the decrease with increasing flushing time of hydraulic conductivity in the current-year's branches without soaked overnight is due to the blockage of vessel lumen caused by the secretion produced by mechanical injury of branches, and that soaked stem segments overnight with deionized water prior to experiment can effectively reduce the possibility of secretion being introduced into vessel lumen. Therefore, the soaking stem segments overnight with deionized water prior to experiment can improve the stability of maximum hydraulic conductivity measuring.
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    Relation between Forest Cover Rate and Time Lag of PM2.5
    LI San, GUO Jin-Lu, ZHENG Yu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 659-665.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.003
    Abstract366)      PDF (1195KB)(155)      
    With 170 820 data from 13 cities(districts) in Heilongjiang Province, by using the 2SLS method to take 11 influencing factors such as forest cover as variable, we established three different time periods of static panel and dynamic panel regression models, and discussed the relationship between the lag effect of PM2.5 and the influencing factors such as forest cover rate. The results show that:①the time lag effect of PM2.5 is the influencing factor of the PM2.5 concentration accumulation in the current period, and the promotion effect of the PM2.5 time lag effect on the PM2.5 concentration accumulation was gradually weakened with the passage of time. ②With the gradual weakening of the time lag effect of PM2.5, the forest cover rate and air temperature gradually increased the hindrance of PM2.5 concentration accumulation, PM10 and CO gradually enhanced the promotion effect of PM2.5 accumulation, however, the obstacle effect of wind speed increasing PM2.5 concentration accumulation was gradually weakened. ③While the time lag effect of PM2.5 showed inertia, the effects of forest cover, PM10, CO, air temperature, and the wind speed on PM2.5 also had inertia.
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    Determination and Analysis of Alkaloid Content in Aconitum kusnezoffii Seeds from Different Areas
    SHAN Dan, QU Lu-Lu, LI Xiao-Jie, MA Yi-Ming, WANG Jun-Jie
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 768-774.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.016
    Abstract360)      PDF (1066KB)(27)      
    The experiment was conducted to determine the content of alkaloid in the seed of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. from different habitats, and to compare its alkaloid content with its content in root and leaf. High pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to determine alkaloid content in seed of wild A.kusnezoffii collected from Zhalute of Tongliao City, Aru Kerqin of Chifeng City, and Bahrain of Chifeng City. The HPLC column used was Supersil ODS2 5 μm(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm). The HPLC mobile phase was 0.1 mol·L-1 methanol and triethylamine(V:V 75:25) and the flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1 under the detection wavelength of 235 nm with column temperature as 35℃. Two types of alkaloid were detected in the seed of A.kusnezoffii and the content of benzoyl aconitine was the highest while the content of diester alkaloid was comparatively lower. Total alkaloid content in seed content from Zhalute of Tongliao City, Alu Kerqin of Chifeng City, and Balin of Chifeng City was 7.647 9, 8.256 3 and 7.512 6 mg·g-1, respectively. The total A.kusnezoffii seed alkaloid content collected from Tongliao was significantly higher than that from Chifeng City. The content of monoester alkaloid in A.kusnezoffii seed was significantly higher than diester alkaloid, and can be used for the comprehensive utilization, screening, and breeding of A.kusnezoffii germplasm with different seed alkaloid content.
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    Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition of Quercus mongolica Forest
    LIU Wan-Sheng, LI Xiang, CHEN Fu-Yuan, ZHU Meng-Ting, MU Li-Qiang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 552-558.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.009
    Abstract352)      PDF (1275KB)(26)      
    Quercus mongolica forest is one of the typical forest types in Northeast China. The Hegyi competition index was used to analyze the intraspecific and interspecific competition status of Q.mongolica using fixed sample circle method in a 1 hm2 permanent plot of Q.mongolica forest in Heilongjiang Zhongyangzhan Black-Billed Capercaillie National Nature Reserve. The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of Q.mongolica accounted for 28.08% and 71.92% of the total competition intensity, respectively. Some species, includingBetula platyphylla,B.dahurica and Larix gmelinii,with big size and large quantity, gave a high competition pressure to Q.mongolica. The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of Q.mongolica was:Betula platyphylla > Quercus mongolica > Betula dahurica > Larix gmelini > Populus davidiana > Tilia amurensis > Salix raddeana. The DBH of Q.mongolica has a power function relationship with the competition intensity of the whole stand, intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity. With the increase of the DBH of the objective trees, the three types of competition decreased. When the DBH Q.mongolica is less than 20 cm, the competition intensity is greater. When the DBH is greater than 20 cm, the competitive pressure on Q.mongolica is less and tends to stabilize. The obtained model can well predict the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of Q.mongolica.
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    Effect of Warm Water Soaking on Protective Enzyme Activity and Endogenous Hormones Content of Eucommia ulmoides Seed During Different Stages of Germination
    WANG Ning, DONG Ying-Ying, YUAN Mei-Li, WANG Ya-Nan, ZENG Sheng-Yun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 523-529.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.006
    Abstract350)      PDF (1351KB)(24)      
    The experiment was conducted to investigate the regulation mechanism of enzymes and endogenous hormones of different stages of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver seed germination, aiming to provide scientific basis for taking effective treatment measures during the different stages of seed dormancy and germination to increase seedling emergence rate. The effects of warm water soaking on the germination of E.ulmoides seeds were studied with room temperature(CK), 40℃, 50℃, 60℃ and 70℃. And the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD), and malondialdehyde(MDA) content were determined by routine physiological and biochemical methods. Levels of 4 endogenous hormones, such as gibberellin(GA3), indole acetic acid(IAA), zeatin riboside(ZR) and abscisic acid(ABA) were quantitatively determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result showed that:①The seed germination rate could be increased by soaking seeds with different temperature water, and the germination rate reached its maximum under 50℃ warm water treatment. ②Compared with room temperature water treatment, the activity of SOD and POD in the seeds were increased under 50℃ warm water, and reduced the degree of cytoplasm membrane was oxidized, and the content of MDA was decreased continuously, thus promoted the development of seeds in a direction favorable for germination. In addition, treatment with 50℃ warm water promoted the growth of endogenous GA3, IAA and ZR in seeds, and decreased the content of endogenous ABA, and the values of GA3/ABA, IAA/ABA and ZR/ABA were significantly higher than those of room temperature water, which ultimately promoted the germination of E.ulmoides.
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    Expression of MYB Genes of Birch in Response to Hormones,Salt and Drought
    LIU Jia-Xin, LIU Hui-Zi, SHI Jing-Jing, YU Ying, WANG Chao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 743-750.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.013
    Abstract347)      PDF (1470KB)(38)      
    Transcription factors are involved in different signaling pathways of plant hormones and the regulation of abiotic stress. In order to study the response of birch MYB transcription factor family genes to different hormone signals and abiotic stress, we used wild-type birch(Betula platyphylla) seeds:10 μmol·L-1 methyl jasmonate(MeJA), 100 μmol·L-1 ethylene glycol(ETH), 20 μmol·L-1 abscisic acid(ABA), 50 μmol·L-1 cytokinin(KT), 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 100 mmol·L-1 Mannitol and water were used as controls. Phenotypic observation and gene expression analysis were performed on hormone-treated 4 weaks birch hypocotyls. The hormone treatment could affect the growth of birch hypocotyls and radicles. The hypocotyls and roots of the treated birch were shorter than those of the water-treated control, and the KT-treated birch hypocotyls and roots were longer than those of the water-treated control; MeJA, Ethylene, and ABA treatment negatively regulated the expression of most BpMYBs, while BpMYB2,8,12 genes were up-regulated. After KT treatment, only BpMYB11 was down-regulated, and other BpMYBs genes were up-regulated. After NaCl treatment, most genes showed an expression pattern of down-regulation and then up-regulation, and was highly induced at 48 h; Mannitol simulated under drought conditions, most of the gene expression pattern showed slight increase after the first cut. These results indicate that birch MYB family genes can respond to hormone, salt and drought treatments, and play a role in regulating the development of birch hypocotyls and radicles in response to external signals. This study provides data and materials for exploring the molecular mechanism of hormone-regulated woody plant growth and development.
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    Callus Induction and Differentiation from the Filaments of Paeonia ostii ‘Feng Dan’
    DU Yi-Ming, ZHONG Yuan, SHANG Hong-Qin, CHENG Fang-Yun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 514-522.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.005
    Abstract346)      PDF (1611KB)(55)      
    With the filaments of Paeonia ostii as explants, the effect of developmental stage of explant, basal media and PGRs on callus induction, proliferation and differentiation were investigated, and the morph-histological observation of different types of callus was performed. The translucent and white filaments from flower bud of 13-19 mm in diameter is optimal for callus induction. The optimal callus induction medium was SH containing 1 mg·L-1 2,4-D, 2 mg·L-1 NAA and 0.2 mg·L-1 BA. The optimal proliferation medium was SH containing 0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D, 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA and 0.25 mg·L-1 BA, and the proliferation rate was 3.86. The filaments callus can be divided into three types according to their morphological and microstructural characteristic, the type Ⅰ callus presented typical embryogenic callus characteristics, and somatic embryogenesis was observed from this kind of callus; there were plenty of vascular tissues formed in the type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ callus, and shoot organogenesis was observed from the type Ⅱ callus, but no morphogenesis from the type Ⅲ callus. These results suggested that the filaments have important regeneration potential as a good novel explant source, which have important value in establishing in vitro regeneration system of tree peony.
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    Peristome Submicro Structure of Hypopterygium in Karst Tiankeng
    WU Jin, ZHANG Zhao-Hui, WANG Zhi-Hui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 481-489.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.001
    Abstract345)      PDF (1839KB)(68)      
    The microenvironment of Karst Tiankeng has a significant effect on the characteristicsof plant structure.In order to provide reference for the structural adaptation of the peristome of moss in the microenvironment, the submicrostructure of the peristome of the Hypopterygium in the karst Tiankeng was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM).From the submicroscopic morphology of peristome, two species of Hypopterygium, named H.flavo-limbatum C.Muell and H.japonicum Mitt, have obvious differences in the shapeof their dentium, tropism of dentium, dorsal ridges of the exstomium, ventral lateral stripes of the processus and whether they have ganglioma or not.It belongs to the characteristic of stability and can be used as the basis of system classification. On the other hand, the length and width of dentium, number of plates, transverse raphe and middle raphe are variable characteristics, which should be screened when the peristome of mosses are used as the basis of systematic classification.Illuminance, air temperature, air humidity and altitude are the main environmental factors affecting the development and growth of peristome morphological and structural of H.flavo-limbatum in Tiankeng. Air humidity, illuminance and artificial interference are the main environmental factors affecting the development and growth of peristome morphological and structural of H.japonicum in Tiankeng. Both of the peristome structures of two species of Hypopterygium are most affected by humidity, andtheir habitats are mostly humid and rich in soil moisture.
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    Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Dihydromyricetin from Seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Using Response Surface Methodology
    ZHANG Xiao-Nan, ZHU Hong-Wei, ZHAO Shan-Bo, BAI Chen, SHI Ya-Nan, XU Hao-Peng, YIN Lian, HU Shu-Min, YIN Hua
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 775-781.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.017
    Abstract344)      PDF (1433KB)(30)      
    Dihydromyricetin is an important component in the seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. The extraction of dihydromyricetin from seeds of H.dulcis by ultrasound-assisted method was carried out on the basis of single factor investigation of ethanol volume fraction, ultrasound irradiation power, extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio and ultrasound irradiation time. The Box-Behnken response surface design method was used to establish a quadratic polynomial model of ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound irradiation time and liquid-solid ratio, and optimized extraction process. The optimum conditions for the extraction were as follows:ethanol volume fraction of 60%, ultrasonic irradiation power of 140 W, ultrasonic irradiation time of 30 min, liquid-solid ratio of 20.5 mL·g-1, and extraction temperature of 40℃. Under these optimal conditions, the yield of dihydromyricetin was 2.14±0.09 mg·g-1. The extraction method is simple, rapid, and high in efficiency, which is beneficial to the comprehensive processing and utilization of the H.dulcis resources.
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    Physiological Responses of Two Astragalus membranacus Seedlings to Sulfur Deficiency
    ZHANG Ye, YANG Nan, LIU Yang, TANG Zhong-Hua, GUO Xiao-Rui, WANG Hong-Zheng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 496-504.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.003
    Abstract338)      PDF (1743KB)(61)      
    The responses of biomass accumulation, photosynthesis capacity and secondary metabolites accumulation to sulfur deficiency were investigated in the herbs of Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. (A.membranaceus) and its variety of mongholicus(A.membranaceus var. mongholicus) using a hydroponics culture system. Compared with the application of whole Hoagland solutions, the decreasing of sulfur concentration inhibited the elongation growth and biomass accumulation in the both plants, and led to the appearances of leaf chlorosis and root browning. Additionally, sulfur deficiency reduced the contents of chlorophylls and the photosynthesis capacity in leaves, as well as elevated the degree of membrane lipid peroxide in the whole plant. However, we found that the effect of sulfur deficiency on A.membranaceus var. mongholicus was lower than that on A.membranaceus. Under the condition of no sulfur application, the non-photochemical quenching in A.membranaceus var. mongholicus was significantly increased. More than that, more isoflavonoids(calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O-β-flucoside and ononin) were induced by sulfur deficiency in var. monholicus than A.membranaceus. We concluded that sulfur deficiency affected the chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis, led to the membrane peroxide, and finally caused the inhibition of growth and development of A.membranaceus and its variety. However, the variety showed stronger adjustability to sulfur deficiency through the increasing of the light protection capability and synthesis of more isoflavones.
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    Gender Differences in Growth and Physiological Respond of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in Condition of Overshadow
    ZHANG Ling, ZHANG Dong-Lai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 735-742.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.012
    Abstract335)      PDF (1599KB)(43)      
    This paper analyzed the differences of morphological indexes, physiological indexes and metabolism indexes caused by the seedlings gender in condition of overshadow, and discussed the strategies response to overshadow, provided theoretical basis for the protection of wild resources and forestation of the seedlings. The differences of morphological characteristics, biomass distribution, antioxidative enzyme activity and metabolism of the biennial Phellodendron amurense seedlings were studied by using the control experiment with three shading gradients and sun light as the control. The results showed that overshadow was more beneficial to the growth of P.amurense, the biomass accumulation of female plants in light shading were better than male plants, but in severe overshadow male plants were better than female plants, overshadow had a significant effects on chlorophyll a and the total chlorophyll content(P<0.01), and there was no significant effect on gender, and shading treatment was promotive to the chlorophyll accumulation of P.amurense seedlings; shading treatment had a significant effect on enzyme activity and MDA content, however, activities of POD and CAT were decreased with the shade intensity increased, MDA content was the highest in the control treatment, soluble sugar and starch content decreased under shading condition, but there was no significant effect on gender. The seedlings of P.amurense adapted to the shade by changing the component properties, biomass, antioxidant enzyme activity and metabolic substance content. The gender differences of the effects of shading on the growth and physiology of P.amurense would lay a foundation for the individual development, population formation, adaptation mechanism and population reproduction of P.amurense under shading environment, and would provide scientific reference for the protection and utilization of dioecious plant resources.
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    Urban Street Tree Species Composition in 35 Cities of China
    WANG Ke, XIAO Lu, TIAN Pan-Li, ZHANG Xi-Ting, WANG Hong-Yuan, WANG Wen-Jie
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (4): 568-574.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.04.011
    Abstract332)      PDF (1280KB)(44)      
    Clarifying the composition of the urban forest tree is the base of urban forest construction and management.Previous studies were mostly located in a singlecity or region, and it was difficult to reveal its general rule.We selected China's 35 majorcities, with a total of 88 632 plots by using Baidu Street View(BSV).These cities were divided into Northern, Southern, Qinghai-Tibet and Northwestern cities, according to their geographical region location. We compared the differences in street tree composition between cities and between regions. Results showed that:①There were 99street trees commonly used in the 35 cities based on the street BSV survey.The most common tree species were Populus spp., Salix spp., Cinnamomum camphora, Cedrus deodara and Sophora japonica. ②Most of the street trees in Southern cities are broad-leaved trees e.g.,Cinnamomum camphora, while in Northern and Northwestern cities, Populus spp., Salix spp. and S.japonicawere dominant, and in the Qinghai-Tibet area, Populus spp. and conifer were dominant. ③Only Kunming and Guilin street species configuration were reasonable at species levelaccording tothe 10/20/30 "rule of thumb". In particular, the relative abundance of Populus spp. was as high as 61.2%, in Karamay. The proportion of Cinnamomum camphora trees exceeds 50% of the total number of tree species in Changsha and Hangzhou.The primary reason was that single-species occupy absolute predominance which made the relative abundance ratio of other tree species less or even no. In the four areas,street tree configuration was unreasonable at the species level. To solve this problem, we should reduce the use of Populus spp., Salix spp., Cedrus deodara, S.japonica in the North, and other trees suitable for native growth should be added in Northwest, Qinghai-Tibet, and Southern. Our study provides important parameters for the nationalplanning of urban forest, scientific evaluation and construction, systematic comparison of multiple cities, support of urban forest management and comprehensive improvement of ecological service functions.
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    Callus induction and Plant Regeneration of Euonymus microcarpus(Oliv.) Spraggue
    YUAN Yun-Xiang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 673-678.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.005
    Abstract330)      PDF (1169KB)(164)      
    With the young stems of Euonymus microcarpus(Oliv.) Spraggue as explants, L9(34) orthogonal test was used to study the effects of different sterilization combinations and different basal medium and combinations of different plant growth regulator on the induction and regeneration and rooting of callus. The most appropriate method of surface sterilization on leaves was with 75% alcohol for 30 s, and then 0.1% HgCl2 for 15 min, the optimal medium for callus induction was MS containing 6-BA 3.0 mg·L-1 and 2,4-D 1.0 mg·L-1 with a maximum induction rate of 79%, the optimum medium for shoot differentiation was MS containing 6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1 and NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 with 78.83% of differentiation rate, and the suitable rooting medium was 1/2MS containing NAA 1.2 mg·L-1 with 83.23% of rooting rate.
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