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    20 July 2022, Volume 42 Issue 4
    Taxonomy
    Begonia holostyla, A New Species of Peltate-leaved Begoniaceae from the Karst Region of Northern Vietnam
    Wenhong CHEN, Jinxiu LI, Quang-Hieu NGUYEN, Sinh-Khang NGUYEN, Van-The PHAM, Changli FAN, Jianying XIANG, Yumin SHUI
    2022, 42(4):  521-527.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.001
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    A new peltate-leaved species of the genus Begonia(Begoniaceae), B. holostyla, was described and illustrated by photos. The new species was similar to B. pulvinifera in its peltate leaves and black dots on fruits, but differed in its styles combined to a half(vs combined at base), lunate stigma without a spiraled band(vs 2-cleft in a spiraled band). Additionally, the relationship of geographical distribution and morphology with the similar species, B. pulvinifera, was discussed.

    Systematic and Evolutionary
    Characterization of Inflorescence Type in Discorea nipponica
    Yuqing ZHANG, Runmei GAO, Shangni DANG, Yumei FENG, Liu YANG, Tianyu BAI
    2022, 42(4):  528-535.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.002
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    Inflorescence is a key character affecting plant reproduction and plays an important role in plant taxonomy and phylogeny. The inflorescence types of Discorea nipponica are diverse, but relevant data are few available and often controversial. In order to distinguish the inflorescence types and characteristics of D. nipponica, a morphological observation combined with paraffin sectioning techniques was carried out to investigate the morphological characters, quantitative characters and development process of inflorescences of D. nipponica respectively. The results showed that the female inflorescence was an axillary spike, and had vestigial anther and pollen sac but didn’t produce pollen. The male inflorescence of D. nipponica showed different characteristics from the description of existing data. The male inflorescence was an infinite one composed of scorpion-tailed monochasium, which belonged to the mixed inflorescence with axillary or terminal buds developed, was shaped like spike. The leaves on some lateral branches of male plants degenerated, and axillary inflorescences gradually shortened towards the tip, presenting conical type with the terminal inflorescence. Male inflorescences had higher values than female ones in terms of average length, the number of florets, the density of florets, and flowering time respectively. The study showed that the male and female inflorescences of D. nipponica morphologies were consistent with the evolution from finite to infinite, exhibited relatively primitive features, which ensured the success of pollination and adaptability to the environment.

    Numerical Taxonomy on Saxifraga diversifolia Complex(Saxifragaceae)
    Xiaolei MA, Liukun JIA, Qian CAO, Shilong CHEN, Qingbo GAO
    2022, 42(4):  536-543.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.003
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    Saxifraga sect. Ciliatae Haworth belonging to Saxifraga Tourn. ex L. has highly species richness, but phylogenetic relationships within the section have not been well resolved. S. subsect. Hirculoideae Engl. is the largest subsection in sect. Ciliatae, which is mainly distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas. Based on the morphological characteristics, the subsect. of Hirculoideae was divided into three complex group, and the species attaching to the bumped vein at the leaf submarginal was classified to the S. diversifolia complex. Based on specimen inspection, the morphological and distributional data of 657 specimens from 24 species and two varieties were obtained, and 24 morphological characteristics of each specimen were used for principal component analysis and cluster analysis respectively. A total of 443 geographical distribution records was used to construct the distribution pattern of complex group. The cumulative contribution rate of the first seven principal components with an eigenvalues greater than one was low, only 67.748%. Among the characters of ‘cauline leaves petiolate’, ‘proximal median cauline leaves shape’, ‘inflorescence’, ‘proximal median cauline leaves size’, ‘sepal veins confluent at apex’, and ‘base of leaves cordate’, the contribution value of the first three principal components was large 0.6, could be used as the key characters for classification and identification of S. diversifolia complex. Based on morphological clustering and geographical distribution patterns, S. diversifolia complex could be divided into three branches: Himalayan Branch, Mountains Around Sichuan Basin Branch and Hengduan Mountains Branch(Contained a widespread species: S. egregia), and the result was also supported by PCA.

    Variations and Trade-offs in Reproductive Organ Traits of an Invasive Plant Plantago virginica in Different Habitats
    Li GONG, Wei ZHAI, Dan LÜ, Shihang ZHANG, Yuying GE, Zhi HONG, Ye TAO
    2022, 42(4):  544-555.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.004
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    Improving reproductive ability of invasive plants might be an important mechanism for successful invasion, but there might be different in variation of reproductive organ traits among the different habitats, especially in the trade-off relationship. The plant Plantago virginica was taken as material, the inflorescences in three habitats including lawn, wasteland and understory, were collected to investigate the differences of morphology, biomass, and the allometric relationship of spikelet and peduncle among different habitats. The results showed that, there were significant differences in most inflorescence morphological and biomass indexes of P. virginica in different habitats. The inflorescences of P. virginica in lawn and wasteland habitats were slender, while that in understory habitat was short and strong. The allometric relationships among different traits of reproductive organs of P. virginica were both conservative and variable, showing different environmental sensitivities. The size dependence of reproductive resource allocation of P. virginica in different habitats was also inconsistent. Therefore, the inflorescence traits and resource allocation of P. virginica in different habitats are both plastic and relatively conservative, which might be an important manifestation of its high invasive ability.

    Genetic Divergence and Demographic History of Gentiana algida var. purdomii on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Pengcheng FU, Qiuqian WEI, Mingyang SHI
    2022, 42(4):  556-564.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.005
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    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau(QTP) is one hotspot of studies about biodiversity, speciation and adaptive evolution. Gentiana algida var. purdomii, belonging to Gentianaceae, is endemic to the QTP and has high value in medicine. Based on populations across the QTP, we assessed its genetic structure, divergence and demographic history based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences in this study. Palaeo-distribution was also reconstructed by species distribution model. High level of genetic diversity was observed in G. algida var. purdomii. Genetic differentiation was high in plastid data(FST=0.452) but low in ITS data(FST=0.022), indicating high level of gene flow in G. algida var. purdomii. Neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis both showed signatures of recent population expansion. Species distribution modelling showed slight range expansion from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. Divergence time estimates suggested that the onset of intraspecific diversification generally fell into the Quaternary. The results indicated that the intraspecific divergence in G. algida var. purdomii should be related to geographical isolation and range fragmentation in glaciations. This study provides insights into genetic differentiation, adaptive evolution and conversation in Gentiana as well as alpine plants in the QTP.

    Phylogeography of Xanthopappus subacaulis(Asteraceae), an Endemic Species from the Northeastern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Yang ZHANG, Zilan MA, Shanshan XU, Xu SU, Meiying LI
    2022, 42(4):  565-573.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.006
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    Xanthopappus subacaulis is an endemic medicinal plant growing in the alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau(QTP). To explore the influence of Quaternary climatic oscillations on the population genetic structure and distribution pattern of X. subacaulis, 3 chloroplast DNA fragments(psbA-trnHrbcL and psbI-psbK) from 123 individuals of 20 populations were sequenced and analyzed respectively in the present study. The results showed that 6 haplotypes were detected in X. subacaulis, among which H1 was an ancient haplotype. All populations of X. subacaulis had haplotype H1 except for P7. H3, H5 and H6 were private haplotypes, among which H3 was a private haplotype of population P7, and H5 and H6 only existed in P18. H2 and H4 were mainly distributed in the population of Qinghai Lake basin. The total genetic diversity(He) and nucleotide diversity(π) were 3.101 and 0.008 903, respectively. The genetic variation among populations(68.98%) was higher than that within populations(31.02%), and the genetic differentiation among populations was relatively higher(FST=0.689 85,P<0.01). The genetic differentiation coefficient NST of populations(0.727) was higher than that of GST(0.656)(P>0.05), which indicated that there was no obvious phylogeographical structure in the sampling regions. The results of mismatch distributions and neutrality tests revealed that the population of X. subacaulis might have experienced recent expansion. Therefore, the study suggests there are micro-sanctuaries in Qinghai Lake basin of Qinghai Province and Lintan region of Gansu Province during the Quaternary glaciations, and suggests that the Quaternary climate change and QTP uplift shape the modern geographical distribution pattern of X. subacaulis.

    Phylogeography of Medicinal and Edible Homologous Plant Allium macrostemon
    Tian SHI, Zhongmei MO, Min WU, Cai ZHAO
    2022, 42(4):  574-583.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.007
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    In order to reveal the distribution pattern of genetic variation and haplotype geographical distribution pattern of Allium macrostemon, and to infer the refugia in the quaternary glaciation, the chloroplast gene fragments(psbA-trnH, rps16 and trnL-F) and nuclear gene fragments(ITS) of A. macrostemon in 14 regions of China were analyzed respectively. The results showed that the genetic diversity of A. macrostemon chloroplast gene(cpDNA) was lower than that of nuclear gene(nrDNA) (cpDNA:HT=0.868; nrDNA:HT=0.890). The AMOVA analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA showed that the genetic variations occurred mainly among populations (cpDNA:92.84%; nrDNA:98.40%), there was significant genetic differentiation among populations(cpDNA:Nst=0.918,Gst=0.866,Fst=0.928;nrDNA:Nst=0.984,Gst=0.855,Fst=0.984), and had an obvious phylogeographical structure in A. macrostemon populations(Nst>Gst). A total of 11 chloroplast and 14 nuclear haplotypes were identified in the A. macrostemon populations. The haplotype network and geographical distribution map showed that the chloroplast haplotype H3 and nuclear DNA genotype H1 had the highest frequency and were located in the center of the network structure, which might be the ancient haplotype. In addition, the glacial refuge hypothesis suggested that the region with high genetic diversity, ancient haplotype and more endemic haplotype might be the glacial refugia of A. macrostemon. Therefore, it was speculated that in the quaternary glaciation, A. macrostemon might be multiple glacial refuges in Dapanshan, Tianshui and Tonghua. The analysis could provide references for the evolution of similar herbs and enrich our understanding of the molecular phylogeography of herbaceous plants in East Asia.

    Genetic and Breeding
    Prokaryotic Expression, Preparation Polyclonal Antibody and Protein Expression of BoMAPK4 of Ornamental Kale(Brassica oleracea var. acephala)
    Heming LI, Hongtao QIN, Deqiang WEI, Xu LI, Xingguo LAN
    2022, 42(4):  584-591.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.008
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    The mitogen-activated protein kinase 4(MAPK4)cDNA were isolated from the stigma of ornamental kale(Brassica oleracea var. acephala)self-incompatibility line(S13-bS13-b )by RT-PCR. The obtained BoMAPK4 cDNA contained a 1 122 bp open reading frame in length, encoded 373 amino acids, and had a serine/threonine domain, no signal peptide and transmembrane structure. The deduced amino acid sequence of BoMAPK4 shared 99.7%, 99.5% and 95.4% identity with Brassica napus BnMAPK4, Brassica rapa BrMAPK4, Arabidopsis thaliana AtMAPK4, respectively. The ORF of BoMAPK4 was constructed into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-14b and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)for expression. SDS-PAGE showed that BoMAPK4 protein was specifically expressed at a molecular weight of 45 kDa. The recombinant BoMAPK4 was obtained by affinity chromatography, and the polyclonal antibody against BoMAPK4 was prepared by immunizing mice. The total proteins of sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas, styles and ovaries of ornamental kale were extracted, and protein expression was detected by Western blot. The results showed that BoMAPK4 was less expressed in petals, anthers and ovary, more expressed in sepals and styles, and the highest expressed in stigmas. The study lays the foundation for exploring the biological functions of BoMAPK4.

    Analysis of the Promoter Sequence and Response Characteristics of the BpPIN3 gene in Betula platyphylla
    Kun CHEN, Gonggui FANG, Huaizhi MU, Jing JIANG
    2022, 42(4):  592-601.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.009
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    As an important auxin efflux carrier family in plants, PIN protein family shows extensive physiological effects in plant growth and development. In order to further understand the function of BpPIN3 and explore its response to different hormone signals and abiotic stresses during Betula platyphylla development,the BpPIN3 promoter sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Tissue expression patterns of roots, stems, leaves and apical buds of annual and biennial B. platyphylla clones were analyzed respectively. The seedlings were used as conduct hormone induction and light stress treatment with 100 μmol·L-1 auxin(IAA), 100 μmol·L-1 gibberellin(GA3), 200 μmol·L-1 abscisic acid(ABA) and long light conditions, respectively. RNA was extracted from leaves and roots of B. platyphylla at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h after hormone treatment and at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after light stress, and qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of BpPIN3. The results showed that the BpPIN3 promoter sequence contained different types of auxin response elements such as gibberellin, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate, as well as multiple stress-related cis-regulatory elements. BpPIN3 was expressed in many tissues of birch in different growth years, especially in leaves, and the expression of BpPIN3 in the second year was higher than that in the first year. The relative expression of BpPIN3 gene was different in different parts under different treatment conditions. IAA and GA3 could induce the up-regulation of BpPIN3 expression in leaf. Under ABA treatment, except for 16 and 48 h, the expression pattern of BpPIN3 gene was opposite to that under IAA treatment. IAA, GA3 and ABA could induce the expression of BpPIN3 in root, but shading stress induced the expression of BpPIN3 gene in leaf, the relative expression of BpPIN3 gene was significantly higher than that of the control(0 h) from 12 h in root, IAA, GA3 and ABA could induce the expression of BpPIN3 in root, shading stress induced the expression of BpPIN3 gene in leaf; the relative expression of BpPIN3 gene was significantly higher than that of the control (0 h)from 12 h in root. The results suggested that BpPIN3 gene played the important regulatory role in the growth and development of B. platyphylla,and the signal transduction pathways of IAA, GA3 and ABA and plant light response.

    Characteristics of Complete Chloroplast Genome and Phylogenetic Analysis of Rhodiola himalensis (Crassulaceae)
    Yu ZHANG, Xu SU, Yuping LIU, Tao LIU, Changyuan ZHENG, Dandan SU, Yanan WANG, Ting LÜ
    2022, 42(4):  602-612.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.010
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    The complete chloroplast genome of Rhodiola himalensis was sequenced, assembled and annotated using high-throughput sequencing technology, and R. himalensis was used as material, an endemic medical species to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results showed that the complete chloroplast genome of R. himalensis was 151 074 bp in length with a GC content of 37.8%. It had a typical tetrad structure with a long single copy region, a short single copy region and a pair of inverted repeat regions, and the sequence length of them was 82 309, 17 017 and 25 875 bp, respectively. The complete chloroplast genome encoded 130 genes, including 86 protein coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and seven rRNA genes. Based on the chloroplast genome of R. himalensis, a total of 25 513 codons was detected, among which the largest proportion of codons was Leu. In the IRa and IRb regions of R. himalensis, the gene of rps19 and ycf1 was deletion, and the gene of trnH in LSC region was contraction. And R. himalensis and R. sacra had the closest genetic relationship were also found. Besides, the variation frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) was the highest within the SSC region. The complete chloroplast genome of R. himalensis was reported, assembled, annotated and analyzed, which could provide the theoretical basis for the study of genetic diversity and rational development and utilization of R. himalensis in the future.

    Genome‑wide Identification and Stress Response Analysis of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels(CNGC) Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa
    Xueying WANG, Ruiqi WANG, Yang ZHANG, Cong LIU, Dean XIA, Zhigang WEI
    2022, 42(4):  613-625.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.011
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    The plant cyclic nucleotide-gated channels(CNGC) family has a variety of biological functions and plays an important role in the growth and development of plants and the response to stress. In this study, bioinformatics methods and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the basic physicochemical properties, structural characteristics, phylogeny, gene structure and conserved motif, cis-acting elements of the promoter and gene expression patterns of the PtrCNGC gene family members respectively. The results showed that a total of 19 PtrCNGC genes were identified in the whole genome of Populus trichocarpa. PtrCNGC gene family could be divided into four subgroups(Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ), and subgroup Ⅳ could be divided into two subgroups(Ⅳa and Ⅳb). The proteins encoded by the PtrCNGC genes were all basic proteins, and only one member of the PtrCNGC gene family was hydrophobic protein, while all the other members were hydrophilic proteins. A total of 19 PtrCNGCs were distributed unevenly on 11 chromosomes of P. trichocarpa, while the remaining 8 chromosomes had no members distributed. The PtrCNGC gene family contained seven pairs of homologous genes and the Ka/Ks value between them was far less than one. There was little difference in gene structure and protein conserved motif distribution among the family members. Predictive analysis of cis-acting elements in the promoter region of the PtrCNGC gene sequence showed that there were acting elements related to various hormones and stress. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of PtrCNGC gene family was specific in different tissues, with higher expression levels in stems and lower expression levels in roots and leaves. Under salt stress and drought stress, most members of the same branch of the PtrCNGC gene family showed similar expression patterns. The results of this study provid a reference for further study on the function of PtrCNGC family in abiotic stress.

    Molecular biology
    Evolutionary Analysis of Chloroplast Genome of Parnassia
    Mingze XIA, Faqi ZHANG, Xiaofeng CHI, Shuang HAN, Shilong CHEN
    2022, 42(4):  626-636.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.012
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    Sequence variation and gene composition of chloroplast genome could effectively reflect the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among plants. In this study, DNA libraries were prepared and sequenced by the Illumina HiSeq, chloroplast genomes offive species of Parnassia and allied genera were assembled respectively, and the structural characteristics, sequence genetic variation and codon preference of protein coding genes of Parnassia chloroplast genome with related species were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the chloroplast genome of Parnassia was conserved tetrad structure, and pseudogenization of several genes were found in P. palustris, but the chloroplast gene composition of other species was the same, encoding 115 genes. Compared with the relative species, the intron of rpl16 gene were lost in all species of Parnassia. The ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate of protein coding genes was low, and chloroplast genes might experience purification selection. Codon preference was consistent with the phylogenetic relationship shown by protein coding sequences. This study reveals that selection pressure may play an important role in the evolution of protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of Parnassia, which could enhance the understanding about evolution and adaptation of this genus.

    Karyotype and Cluster Analysis of Six Freesia hybrida Cultivars
    Xueying GUO, Kailin ZHU, Xin CHEN, Xueqin FU, Dongqin TANG
    2022, 42(4):  637-646.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.013
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    The root tip of six cultivars of Freesia hybrida was used as the plant material for karyotype analysis to reveal their karyotype characteristics. Then cluster analysis was performed to clarify the similarity among the six cultivars and to explore their relationship. The results showed that the six freesia cultivars were all tetraploid with 44 chromosomes. The karyotype formula of six cultivars of F. hybrida were as follows respectively: 2n=4x=44=33m+11sm for ‘Gold River’, 2n=4x=44=1M+34m+9sm for ‘White River’, 2n=4x=44=35m+9sm for ‘Castor’, 2n=4x=44=32m+12sm for ‘SN Hongtaige’, 2n=4x=44=38m+6sm for ‘Pink Passion’ , and 2n=4x=44=37m+7sm for ‘Red River’. The karyotype asymmetry coefficient ranged from 57.00% to 60.07%. The karyotype types were all 2B, and the degree of evolution was medium,which was in the transition stage from symmetry to asymmetric. The evolution trend of karyotype was: ‘Pink Passion’→’Red River’→‘Gold River’→‘White River’→‘Castor’→‘SN Hongtaige’. The clustering results showed that when the genetic distance was 15, it could be divided into two categories: the first category included ‘Gold River’, ‘SN Hongtaige’ and ‘Castor’, the second category included ‘Pink Passion’, ‘Red River’ and ‘White River’. The difference of its karyotype parameters could be used as the basis for the classification of different cultivars of freesia plants, provided theoretical reference for its cytological inheritance and breeding practice in future.

    Physiology and Ecology
    Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Root Structure and Physiology of Symbiont of Potentilla sericea and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi
    Bing GAO, Pengfei GAO, Weifang FAN, Zhenghong FENG, Jianhui WU
    2022, 42(4):  647-656.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.014
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    In order to reveal the response mechanism of the symbiont of Potentilla sericea -arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to cadmium stress at the physiological level, the perennial plants of P. sericea were inoculated with Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae respectively. The mycorrhizal infection rate was determined with different concentrations of cadmium stress after 80 d, and the changes of physiological indexes and structural changes of symbiosis plants with higher infection rate was studied. The results showed that the mycorrhizal infection rate of F. mosseae was 100% higher than that of R. intraradices, while the infection rate of R. intraradices was 89.33%. Plants inoculated with F. mosseae, when the concentration of Cd reached 10 mg?L-1, the cell wall ruptured in a small range and the vacuoles tended to become smaller, and when the concentration of Cd(20 mg?L-1) was high, the root cell wall ruptured and the cells could not maintain their original morphology. The MDA content of Cd(5 mg?L-1)-Cd(10 mg?L-1) was significantly increased(P<0.05), and the SOD activity and proline content of Cd (0mg?L-1)-Cd (5mg?L-1) were significantly changed(P<0.05). The soluble protein content and chlorophyll content of Cd(0 mg?L-1)-Cd(5 mg?L-1) were significantly decreased(P<0.05), but the soluble protein content and chlorophyll content of Cd(10 mg?L-1)-Cd(15 mg?L-1) had no significant changes(P>0.05). The results showed that plant could resist cadmium stress in a certain range. In conclusion, inoculation with F. mosseae could enhance the stress tolerance of P. sericea to cadmium stress, which provided a theoretical basis for the remediation with P. sericea of soil contaminated by cadmium.

    Physiological Characteristics of Early Spring Flowering Plants under Northeast Forest
    Liben PAN, Xue YAN, Jia LIU, Kexin WU, Yang LIU, Shaochong LIU
    2022, 42(4):  657-666.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.015
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    In order to explore the flowering strategies of early spring flowering plants at low temperatures, five early spring flowering plants and five non-early spring flowering plants were collected,and the endogenous hormones and secondary metabolites between early spring flowering plants and non-early spring flowering plants were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and metabolomics. The results showed that the content of auxin(IAA) and zeatin(ZT) in early spring flowering plants were significantly lower than that in non-early spring flowering plants, while gibberellin(GA3) and abscisic acid(ABA) were significantly higher than that in non-early spring flowering plants, indicated that GA3 and ABA might play a regulatory role in promoting the flowering process of early spring plants. In the secondary metabolites, L-phenylalanine, the precursor of phenolic metabolites, was usually higher in non-early spring flowering plants than in early spring flowering plants. In addition, there were C6C1 phenolic compounds, including vanillic acid, syringic acid and protocatechuic acid; C6C3 phenolic compounds, including ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid; Flavonoids, including apigenin, genistein, hesperidin, chrysin and galangin, were generally higher in non-early spring flowering plants than in early spring flowering plants. The changes of these secondary metabolites might be due to a large amount of material loss caused by the flowering process of flowering plants in early spring, which reduced the level of secondary metabolism. The results showed that endogenous plant hormones and secondary metabolites regulated the physiological process of flowering plants in early spring, and laid a foundation for further understanding the flowering process of plants under low temperatures.

    Effects of Different Water and Nutrient Treatments on Growth and Biomass Distribution of Eucalyptus urophylla Clones
    Huixiao YANG, Fang XU, Xiaohui YANG, Huanqin LIAO, Weihua ZHANG, Wen PAN
    2022, 42(4):  667-676.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.016
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    To elect excellent clones of Eucalyptus urophylla suitable for different water and nutrient conditions, 34 clones were selected as materials, and the variance analysis and genetic parameters were evaluated for growth and biomass in 18 months under different water and nutrient treatments by using a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the growth(height and diameter) and biomass(trunk, branch, root) of E. urophylla reached significant or extremely significant levels in different block, water, nutrient, water × nutrient interaction and clones, indicated that water, nutrient and clones affected the growth and biomass of each organ of E. urophylla. Under the combined treatment of water and nutrients, the growth and biomass of each organ were better under the combination of 33 and 32 treatments. The total fresh biomass in combination 32 was the largest, which increased by 135.70% compared with combination 11. There were significant positive correlations among fresh and dry in trunk, roots and leaves, and these values were above 0.90 respectively. The component variance for height, ground diameter and biomass ranged from 4.28-31 255.80, and the individual repeatability of most traits was above 0.15 that reached significant levels. ZQUB39 and ZQUC23 grew well in soil with low water and nutrient, while UD42, LDUC1 and ZQUA3 grew well in soil with high water and nutrient with 15% selection rate using BLUP predicted genotypes of E. urophylla clones. These excellent clones would be promted in the future.

    Effects of Shouyun Iron Mine Abandoned Soil on the Growth of Two Sedum Species
    Shubing BAI, Xiaoyi XING, Wenyu GUAN, Li DONG
    2022, 42(4):  677-687.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.017
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    To evaluate the potential of Sedum in vegetation restoration of abandoned metal mining areas, the S. hybridum‘Immergrunchen’and S. spurium ‘Coccineum’were used as materials to study their adaptability by growth indexes condition in the abandoned iron mine soil(including mining soil, dump soil, tailing sand) by pot experiment within two growing seasons, and correlation analysis and canonical correspondence analysis were used to discuss the main soil physicochemical properties that affecting Sedum growth. The results showed that the abandoned soil significantly affected the survival rate of two Sedum species in the second growing season. The soil survival rates of the two Sedum species in mining area, dump soil and tailings soil were 40%~66%, 68%~90%, 33%~46% respectively. Different abandoned soils had significant inhibitory effects on the growth indexes of the two species. S. hybridum‘Immergrunchen’could be used as the recommended variety for the restoration of mining areas and S. spurium‘Coccineum’could be used for the dumps. Aerated porosity and soil water content were the main factors affecting the Sedum growth, 12.4% and 8.6% respectively.

    The Germination Characteristics and Dormancy Type of the Seed of Castanopsis sclerophylla
    Xingui LE, Zhengwei WANG, Xin NING, Xiqing SUN, Yigang SONG
    2022, 42(4):  688-693.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.018
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    The seed germination is an inherent property that plant adopt to environmental changes and the study of seed germination would help us to understand the population regeneration and seedling nursery. This study aimed to elucidate the type of seed dormancy and seed germination characteristics of Castanopsis sclerophylla, an important resource plant in China, the results showed that ①a very high proportion of the fruits was the seeds; ②the water absorption of the seeds was limited by the pericarp; ③seed germination was impeded by the pericarp, and seeds germinated in a wide temperature range after the pericarp removed;④the germination of seeds was difficult at15/5℃ or 20/10℃, but the germination was rapid at 25/15 ℃, 30/20 ℃ and 35/25 ℃ respectively. The results indicate that the diaspore(fruit) of C. sclerophylla had physical dormancy(PD), Fagaceae is a new recorded family with PD and dehydration sensitivity. The results also support the hypothesis that PD is a relatively evolved trait.

    Effects of Fertilizing on Trees Growth and Understory Vegetation of Young Teak Plantation
    Qingqing ZHANG, Zaizhi ZHOU, Guihua HUANG, Weiwei ZHAO, Xiyang WANG, Guang YANG, Gaofeng LIU
    2022, 42(4):  694-703.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.019
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    To investigate the effects of fertilization on teak growth and understory vegetation diversity, the four-year-old teak Tectona grandis L. f. plantation in Guangxi was studied by randomized block design and carried out different kinds of fertilizer treatment respectively(included F1: 0.5 kg NPK complex fertilizer, 1.0 kg calcium fertilizer and 1.0 kg MgSO4 fertilizer; F2: 1.0kg NPK complex fertilizer, 0.5 kg calcium fertilizer and 0.5 kg MgSO4 fertilizer; F3:1.0 kg NPK complex fertilizer and 0.5 kg MgSO4 fertilizer; F4: 1.0 kg NPK complex fertilizer; CK: no fertilization). The results showed that fertilization significantly accelerated growth of teak tree height, diameter at breast height and volume. Compared with control, the average annual increment of H, DBH and V increased 0.13-0.32 m, 0.17-0.26 cm and 4.35-9.63 dm3, respectively. The growth increment of F3 was the largest, and the growth rate of DBH and V promoted significantly by 10.35% and 10.55% than CK. Understory vegetation types of young teak plantation were relatively abundant and involved 25 families, 39 genera and 42 species, among which Compositae and Gramineae were the main dominant species. There were significant distinctions in Shannon-Wiener index(H′), Simpson index(D) and Pielou evenness index(Jsw) (P<0.05) and these indexes of F1 and F3 treatments were significantly higher than CK, but the Gleason species richness index(Dg) was no significant(P>0.05) between five treatments. The comprehensive evaluation scores of 12 indexes that included tree growth and understory were F3,F1,F4,F2,CK in turn. The rational fertilization of 4-year-old young teak plantation could promote the growth of trees and increase the richness and diversity of understory. The low-input application of 1.0 kg NPK fertilizer and 0.5 kg MgSO4 fertilizer in young teak plantation is more beneficial to the growth and community stability.

    Effects of Hormone Combinations, Carbon Source Type and Proliferation Cycle on Embryogenic Callus Proliferation of Pinus koraiensis
    Yuhui REN, Shuai NIE, Chunxue PENG, Ling YANG, Hailong SHEN
    2022, 42(4):  704-712.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.020
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    In order to solve the poor growth and low somatic embryo production in the embryogenic callus proliferation of Pinus koraiensisP. koraiensis embryogenic callus 1-100 cell line was used as material to explore its effect on the somatic embryogenesis and the changes of physiological and biochemical characteristics by adjusting hormone, carbon source and proliferation culture cycle in proliferation medium. The results were as follows: ①the optimum proliferation condition was 1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.25 mg·L-1 6-BA, the best carbon source was sucrose, and the best culture cycle was 14 days. Under the conditions, the largest number of somatic embryos were obtained(166·g-1); ②in the process of optimizing proliferation culture, the stored substances provided energy for somatic embryogenesis; There was no significant difference in soluble protein mass fraction between hormone types and their concentrations, carbon source types and proliferation culture cycles; ③high CAT activity in callus was harmful to somatic embryogenesis, which might be due to excessive accumulation of toxic metabolites such as H2O2.

    Review
    Recent Advances on Salt Stress Sensitivity and Related Calcium Signals in Plants
    Jiaorao CHEN, Xu XU, Zhangli HU, Shuang YANG
    2022, 42(4):  713-720.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2022.04.021
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    Salt stress had a critical impact on plant growth and development, including osmotic stress and ion toxicity, which seriously damaged agricultural production and food security. Under salt stress, plant related receptors were stimulated to send Ca2+ enter the cytoplasmic matrix through the Ca2+ channels opened on the cell membrane and intracellular calcium storage membrane, resulting in the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and calcium signal. Ca2+, as an important second messenger, transmited signals within and between plant cells, downstream, and caused a series of physiological responses to salt stress at different growth and development stages. Calcium signals mainly included calmodulin(CaM), calmodulin like protein(CML), calcium dependent protein kinase(CDPK) and calcineurin B-like protein(CBL) and CBL interacting protein kinase(CIPK), and sensed and transmited specific calcium signal information to the downstream, and activated plant physiological response to salt stress. This paper reviewed how plants perceived salt stress stimulation and the mechanism of calcium signal regulation, and looked forward to the problems should be solved in this research field.