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    20 May 2021, Volume 41 Issue 3
    Research report
    Plant Regeneration System from Cotyledon of Camellia japonica (Naidong)
    Hong-Mei TIAN, Xiao GUO, Kui-Ling WANG, Ying-Kun SUN
    2021, 41(3):  321-328.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.001
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    As the floral emblem of Qingdao,Camellia japonica(Naidong) is a precious ornamental species during the winter of the north, but the quantity of C. japonica(Naidong) cultivars cannot meet requirements for application in landscape at present, so it is necessary to enlarge propagation by the means of tissue culture. In order to establish the regeneration system of C. japonica(Naidong), different factors affected on callus induction and plantlet regeneration were studied from mature cotyledons of C. japonica (Naidong). The optimum timing of sterilization in C. japonica(Naidong) seeds was soaked for 8 min in the 2% NaClo, callus induction rate was 100%. The optimal hormone combination of cotyledon callus subculture was 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA+1.5 mg·L-1 6-BA, the multiplication rate was 4.06. After 2-time subcultured, the callus was transferred to MS+1.0mg·L-1 NAA+10.0 mg·L-1 6-BA for differentiation of adventitious buds, the rate of adventitious bud differentiation was 10.7%. The shoot base was immersed in 500 mg·L-1 IBA solution for 70 min, then transferred to 1/2MS, the rate of rooting could reach 40%. Regeneration system from mature cotyledons of C.japonica(Naidong) by inducing callus, adventitiousshoots and roots was established, which would provide technical support for the vegetative production and innovation of its germplasm resources.

    Sporogenesis and Gametogenesis on Endangered Dayaoshania cotinifolia
    Hui-Ai SHI, Fa-Ju CHEN, Hong-Wei LIANG, Yu-Bing WANG
    2021, 41(3):  329-335.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.002
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    To explore the possible endangered embryology causes of Dayaoshania cotinifolia , the paraffin section method to observe mega-microsporogenesis, development of female and male gametophyte, and embryogenesis was employed. The main results as follows: The ovules were anatropous, single integument, thin nucellus, and with an integument tapetum. The megaspore mother cell had undergone meiotic divisions and developed into a linear tetrad. The chalazal megaspore of the tetrad was functional one and developed into a Polygonum type embryo-sac, another 3 megaspores degenerated. The anther was tetraposiform, the anther wall was composed with an epidermis, endothecium, two-layered middle layer, and a glandular tapetum. In the meiosis of microsporocyte, cytokinesis was a modified simultaneous type. The tetrads were tetrahedral and mature pollen grain was two-celled. The development of endosperm was cellular type and exhausted during embryo development. The process of the mega-microsporogenesis and development of female and male gametophyte of D.cotinifolia were normal, which was not the cause of its endangerment. The embryo developed to the globular embryonic stage at ripe fruit, the morphological after-ripening process of the embryo could be completed after dormancy. The undeveloped embryo might be one of the reasons for the difficulty of natural regenerates naturally.

    Stability Analysis and Genetic Variation in Seedling Growth of 51 Larix olgensis Clones from Different Sites
    Fang WANG, Lu-Ping JIANG, Qin-Hui ZHANG, Zhi-Min LU, Yu-Chun YANG, Jian-Qiu ZHANG, Xi-Yang ZHAO
    2021, 41(3):  336-343.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.003
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    Larix olgensis is one of the most important fast-growing timber species in northeast China. In this study, 51 L. olgensis clones from different stites were used as materials, the height and ground diameter of the 2-year-old seedlings were investigated and analyzed on the genetic stability and variation respectively. The results showed that the differences of seedling height and ground diameter for L. olgensis were extremely significant(P<0.01) within sites, clones or sites×clones respectively. The phenotypic variation coefficient of seedling height and ground diameter at different sites were from 23.89%-36.82%; and the repeatability of the ground diameter was 0.172 at Siping, but the repeatability of the rest sites were from 0.573-0.891 respectively. Genetic stability analysis results showed that 28 clones including LO 13 had the higher genetic stability respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that there was an extremely significant positive correlation between seedling height and ground diameter. 10 clones with good comprehensive performance were selected from different site using the method of comprehensive evaluation of multiple traits with a selection rate of 20%; Both clones LO 10 and LO 26 were selected as elite clones showing the excellent performance and the stronger genetic stability in the different cite respectively.

    Genetic Analysis of Phenotypic Traits in F1 Hybrids of Forsythia intermedia×F.mandschurica
    Yang XU, Yu-Tong WU, Zheng-Tian ZHAO, Jian-Shuang SHEN, Qi-Xiang ZHANG, Hui-Tang PAN
    2021, 41(3):  344-353.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.004
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    In order to clarify the genetic characteristics of main ornamental traits and cold resistance of Forsythia, the F1 hybrid obtained from Forsythia intermedia ‘Lynwood’×F. mandschurica was taken as material. The 12 phenotypic traits such as corolla diameter, corolla lobe length and cold resistance were measured, and correlation analysis and mixed genetic model analysis of these traits were carried out. The results showed that F1 population varies significantly and the new phenotypic traits precede parents. Except for corolla lobe length, corolla lobe width and leaf length, the coefficient of variation of other phenotypic traits was more than 15% respectively, reaching a medium level or above. There was a certain correlation between the phenotypic traits, and the cold resistance was significantly positively correlated with flower density, but was significantly negatively correlated with corolla diameter and crown width of the plant. Mixed genetic model analysis revealed that corolla lobe length, corolla lobe width, length-width ratio of corolla lobe, leaf length, leaf width, length-width ratio of leaf, shoot length, cold resistance were controlled by minor-polygene respectively; corolla diameter and crown width were controlled by a pair of additive-dominant major genes respectively; flower density was controlled by two pairs of additive-dominant major genes; plant height was controlled by two pairs of equally additive-dominant major genes. The heritability of major-gene for corolla diameter, crown width, flower density and plant height were 76.05%, 60.3%, 72.22% and 64.75%, respectively. This research results would provide a basis for target breeding of new varieties of Forsythia with excellent comprehensive traits.

    Transcriptome Analysis in Vascular Cambium and Xylem of Paulownia tomentosa
    Yun TENG, Zong-Bo QIU, Wen-Li WANG, Xue-Ru ZHANG
    2021, 41(3):  354-361.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.005
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    We obtained about 16.35 Gb transcriptome data in total from vascular cambium and xylem zone of Paulownia tomentosa by Illumina HiseqTM 2500 sequencing. After assembled, 104 432 unigenes were obtained, the average length of unigene were 662 nt. Then, the unigenes were blastn and annotated by public databases, and 40 789(Nr: 39.05%), 31 675(NT:30.33%), 15 539(COG:14.87%), 29 168(GO:27.93%), 16 316(KEGG:15.62%), 30 499(SwissProt:29.20%) and 28 828(Pfam:27.6%) unigenes were annotated respectively. By GO analysis, 29 168 unigenes were potentially involved in 55 functional categories of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions respectively. By COG analysis, 15 539 unigenes were classified into 25 functional groups; whereas, by KEGG analysis, 16 316 unigenes were assigned to 130 known pathways. In addition, 16 118 simple sequence repeat(SSR) loci were determined in the transcriptome of P.tomentosa. This study provided a basic data for further exploration of important functional genes in P. tomentosa.

    Identification of Knockout of BRI1 Mutant in Arabidopsis Mediated by CRISPR/Cas9
    Guo-Fan WU, Hong-Bin CHENG, Yu-Jun WU, Juan SHEN, Wang-Ze WU
    2021, 41(3):  362-371.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.006
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    CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used to specificity edit the BRI1 of Arabidopsis thaliana to creation new BRI1 mutants. We analyzed the sequence of BRI1 inthe obtained transgenic plants, the results showed that as one new BRI1 mutant due to the insertion of new bases, the normal BRI1 protein is terminated prematurely. This mutant have the similar phenotype as bri1-710, and both mutants show impaired response to BL treatment compared with wild-type. Those results suggested that the N-terminal of BRI1 may play a role in the BR signaling pathway. Therefore, this study could provide a reliable reference for further studies on the BRI1 function of A. thaliana and other homologous species.

    Effects of α-naphthalene Acetic Acid on Cutting Propagation Efficiency of Amomum villosum
    Guo-Zhen HE, Ke-Ying QIU, Ming-Xiao LI, Zhuo-Hang HE, Bing-Ding LÜ, Li-Xia ZHANG, Li-Yun TANG
    2021, 41(3):  372-379.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.007
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    To obtain a high-efficiency method of vegetative propagation for Amomum villosum, we studied the effects of different concentrations of α-naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) added on three kinds of cuttings of tip of rhizome(TR), rhizome and erect stem basal(ESB). The results showed the budding rate and rooting rate of cuttings of TR, rhizome and ESB which were not treated by NAA were at a low level respectively. The budding rates of the three cuttings were 10.0%, 3.3% and 23.3% respectively, and the rooting rates were 23.3%, 10.0% and 3.3%, respectively. Compared with controls, living rates, budding rates and rooting rates of three kinds of cuttings were increased dramatically. In sequence of TR, rhizome and ESB, living rates of three kinds of cuttings were increased by 17.7%, 23.4% and 26.7% respectively, budding rates were increased by 3.3%, 50.3% and 53.3% respectively, and rooting rates were increased by 43.3%, 26.7% and 53.4% respectively. The growth indexes of roots regenerated from three kinds of cuttings which were treated by 200 mg·L-1 NAA were improved obviously. Comparing with controls, the number, length and diameter of roots regenerated from TR were increased by 56.7%, 82.6% and 29.2% respectively, the length of roots regenerated from rhizome was increased by 203.5%, and the length and diameter of buds regenerated from ESB were increased by 25.2% and 35.2% respectively. There were two ways that buds regenerated from the cuttings of TR treated by NAA. One was the original bud of tip recovered growing, but the other was the new bud regenerated from cutting nodes. NAA affected the cuttings of tip of rhizome, rhizome and erect stem basal in survival rate. Survival rates of three cuttings treated by 200 mg·L-1 NAA increased dramatically comparing with control. Besides division propagation, a new high-efficiency method for vegetative propagation of A.villosum was set up.

    Resource Utilization Characteristics of Dominant Species in Cinnamomum migao Community
    Ji-Ming LIU, Huan LIU, Li-Xia LI
    2021, 41(3):  380-386.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.008
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    To illuminate the niche of Cinnamomum migao community, to understand the utilization characteristics of the community for protecting and managing C.migao, the resource utilization characteristics of the main species in the community were analyzed, with the survey data of C.migao natural forest community in Guizhou Province. C.migao, Maesa japonica and Smilax china, with the largest niche breadths, dominated the community with strong competitiveness and resource utilization ability; the greater the niche breadth was, the greater the niche overlap was. Yet under the same or similar environmental conditions, the species pairs with smaller niche breadth value could also have relatively high niche overlap. The low niche overlap index of main species in C.migao community indicated that the similarity of resource utilization among species was low, the niche of species was clearly differentiated without fierce competition, the community structure was relatively stable, and the species could coexist well.

    Effects of Changes in Seed Cell Tissue Structure and Endogenous Hormones on Dormancy of Wild Rosa rugosa Fruit during Development
    Si-Han WANG, Tao YANG, Jin-Zhu ZHANG, Jie DONG, Zhi-Ling KOU, Dai-Di CHE
    2021, 41(3):  387-394.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.009
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    In order to explore the development and change of seed development and dormancy of wild Rosa rugosa during fruit formation, the wild R.rugosa Thunb. from Hunchun, Jilin Province was used as the experimental material. The green fruit period(1-35 d), color change period(35-60 d), and red fruit period(60-75 d) were classified respectively, and the morphology, histocytology, and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to analyze the fruit. Seed morphology, seed embryo and endodermal development at various developmental stages were studied, and the relationship between changes in endogenous hormone content of seeds and fruit development and seed dormancy was analyzed. The fruit and seeds developed the fastest during the green fruit period(1-35 d), the seed embryos developed completely in 24 d after anthesis, and the seeds did not exist in morphological dormancy. Within 24 d after flowering, the inner peel began to deposit lignin and gradually lignified, and the seeds began to dormant. The seed hormone content changed closely related to fruit development, and to color conversion and to lignification of endocarp. Endogenous GA3 and ABA content of seeds reached their peak during the green fruit period(1-35 d), and endogenous IAA content during the fruit color conversion period(35-60 d) reached the maximum, and the high concentration of ABA content was the main reason for the seeds to enter physiological dormancy before they left the fruit.

    Seasonal Dynamics of N,P,and K Stoichiometry in Twigs and Needles of Pinus dabeshanensis,An Endangered Gymnosperm Species
    Jing-Ming YAN, Shi-Hang ZHANG, Man WANG, Wei HANG, Shen QIAN, Dong QIU, Ye TAO
    2021, 41(3):  395-407.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.010
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    In order to understand the nutrient status and seasonal variations in the twigs and needles of Pinus dabeshanensis,a rare and endangered plant in China,the dynamics of N,P and K contents and their stoichiometric ratios in twigs and needles,and the differences between organs were explored, the field sampling and N,P,K analyses in laboratory were carried out in 12 consecutive months. The results showed that organ and month represented significant influences on the stoichiometric characteristics of P.dabeshanensis,and the organ showed the greatest influence. The seasonal changes of stoichiometric characteristics in twigs were irregular; the N∶K showed the greatest variation(the variation coefficients for twig and needle were 26.75% and 28.00%,respectively) and the rest stoichiometric indices belonged to weak variation (variation coefficients <25%). The average contents of N,P and K in needles(10.40,1.43 and 5.15 mg·g-1,respectively) showed significantly higher than that in twigs(6.56,1.26 and 4.80 mg·g-1,respectively),and the mean N∶P in needles(7.27) was also significantly higher than that in twigs(5.18). However,both of the two N∶P ratios were far lower than 14,showed a serious N-limitation. The N∶P,N∶K and P∶K ratios were dominated by N,K,and K,respectively,in both needles and twigs(i.e.,the highest correlation coefficients were observed between them). Significant allometric scaling relationships were detected among N,P,and K in both needles and twigs(except for N-K in twigs); the partitioning rate of needle N was higher than that of twigs,while the partitioning rate of P was lower than that of twigs. The precipitation and temperature showed different influences on stoichiometric characteristics in twigs and needles. The precipitation presented significantly obvious temporal-scale effect. The short temporal-scale precipitation mostly affected needles,while the long temporal-scale precipitation mostly affected twigs. At all temporal-scales,temperature was negatively correlated with P content in needles,but positively correlated with K content in twigs. As a whole,there were significant differences in the stoichiometric characteristics between needles and twigs of P.dabeshanensis,and they exhibited obvious seasonal variation,and were affected by precipitation and temperature to some extent.

    Molecular Phylogeny of Subtribe Swertiinae
    Qian CAO, Long-Hua XU, Jiu-Li WANG, Fa-Qi ZHANG, Shi-Long CHEN
    2021, 41(3):  408-418.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.011
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    It was difficult to classify the Subtribe Swertiinae in both taxonomical and phylogenetic in Gentianaceae. To understand the relationship and phylogeny of intergenetic and intra-genetic of Subtribe Swertiinae, 86 species and variants were performed with maximum likelihood(ML) and Bayesian inference methods(BI) based on the sequences of chloroplast DNA matK and rbcL regions. The key evolution period points of Subtribe Swertiinae were estimated through Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences using MCMC. The phylogenetic relationships of Subtribe Swertiinae inferred from molecular evidence were examined against the taxonomic circumscriptions in Ho Ting-nong system(2015). The result revealed that: ①Subtribe Gentianinae and Swertiinae were monophyletic and sister groups. ②Swertia,GentianellaComastoma and Lomatogonium were paraphyletic in relation to each other. ③Speciation of 49(85.96%) species occurred in succession after 4 Ma, and 39(68.42%) species occurred in succession after 2.5 Ma. ④With respect of intra-genetic relationships of Swertia, the taxonomic treatment between subgen. Swertia and subgen. Ophelia were supported by the phylogenies results, while the taxonomic treatment of sect. Ophelia and sect. Platynema were partially supported. ⑤The intergenetic phylogeny of Sinoswertia,Swertia, Gentianella, Comastoma and Lomatogonium need further study, the systematic position of sect. Frasera was still uncertain.

    Screening and Expression Analysis of Different Genes for Oleoresin Production in the Specific Period of Pinus elliottii×P.caribaea by RNA-Seq Technology
    Chen-Chen ZHOU, Yi-Liang LI, Zhe WANG, Fen-Cheng ZHAO, Sui-Ying ZHONG, Chang-Ming LIN, Zhi-Qiang TAN, Fu-Ming LI, Hui-Shan WU, Wen-Bing GUO, Fang-Yan LIAO, Jian-Ge WANG
    2021, 41(3):  419-428.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.012
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    The experiment was conducted to explore the differential expression of genes which regulate oleoresin synthesis and transport in Pinus elliottii×P. caribaea. At the peak of oleoresin production, P. elliottii×P. caribaea with similar growth but significant differences in oleoresin production of plants were selected, and secondary xylem tissues were collected for high-throughput sequencing platform. The results showed that 594 108 382 clean reads were generated by sequencing. 190 514 unigenes were obtained by de novo splicing, and 304 unigenes were related to the synthesis of terpenoids. The 414 unigenes were obtained, differential expression analysis, including 183 unigenes up-regulated and 231 unigenes down regulated. The genes encoding CYPs, ABC transport proteins, PLR, Strictosidine synthase activity increased in high oleoresin-yielding, while the genes encoding prenyltransferase activity increased in low oleoresin-yielding. This study enriched the transcript information of P. elliottii× P. caribaea, and provided reference value for further study of the molecular mechanism of the difference in P. elliottii×P. caribaea and Pines plant resin production.

    Genetic Diversity Assessment of Rhododendron sinofalconeri with Genotyping by Sequencing(GBS)
    Xu ZHANG, Xiu-Jiao ZHANG, Yong-Peng MA, Zheng-Hong LI, You-Ming WAN, Hong MA
    2021, 41(3):  429-435.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.013
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    Rhododendron sinofalconeri has high ornamental value with its pure yellow flower and bell-shaped corollas clustered on the top of the branches. In recent years, due to the anthropogenic impact of road construction, illegal excavation and other human activities, its habitat was severely fragmented and its population was shrunk. Therefore, it was urgent to research on conservation biology of R.sinofalconeri. Single-nucleotide-polymorphism(SNP) site mining and genetic diversity analysis were performed on two surviving populations of Laojunshan(LJS) and Daheishan(DHS) using genotyping-by-sequencing(GBS) technology. As a consequence, analysis of the 103 133 high-quality SNPs revealed that the two populations had lower genetic diversity at the species level(Ne=1.308 6, Ho=0.187 8, and He=0.185 6), and higher genetic differentiation(Fst=0.176 5) at population level. The value of gene flow(Nm) between populations was 1.167 4. By cluster analysis, principal component analysis and population genetic structure analysis, 36 individuals were clustered into two different genetic groups. This study revealed the current situation of relatively low genetic diversity of R.sinofalconeri for the first time, which was helpful to further understand the endangered and scientific formulation of conservation measures.

    Simultaneous Determination of Baschnaloside and Rossicaside B in Boschniakia rossica by HPLC
    Min CHEN, Meng-Fei TIAN, Chang-Yin FENG, Xian-Ming MENG, Meng LUO, Fan-Song MU
    2021, 41(3):  436-440.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.014
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    In order to establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of baschnaloside and rossicaside B in Boschniakia rossica dry whole, a chromatographic column: Klimail 100-5 C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm); mobile phase: acetonitrile as mobile phase A, 0.5% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase B, gradient elution conditions: 0?12 min, 15% A; 12?30 min, 15%?20% A; 30?40 min, 20%?25% A; 40?45 min, 25%?30% A; 45?60 min, 30%?100% A; flow rate: 1.0 mL·min-1; detection wavelength: 260 nm. Column temperature: 30℃. Injection volume: 20 μL. The linear range of naringin of baschnaloside was 4.688?150 μg·g-1R2=0.999 5); the linear range of rossicaside B was 3.438?110 μg·g-1R2=0.999 1); the average recoveries were 97.86% and 96.55%, and RSDs were 1.01 and 1.23(n=9), respectively. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of two components, baschnaloside and rossicaside B in B.rossica. The methodological verification results show that the method is simple, fast, and reproducible, and can be used to determine the contents of baschnaloside and rossicaside B in B.rossica.

    Intraspecific and Interspecific Allelopathy of Invasive Plants Plantago virgica and Daucus carota
    Yue ZHANG, Quan-Ling ZHANG, Zhi HONG, KAN Zi-Han, Zhao-Yue CHU, Ye TAO
    2021, 41(3):  441-448.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.015
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    At present, the species number and distribution range of invasive plants are gradually expanding, and the probability that multiple invasive plants invade the same habitat is increasing. In order to explore the intra- and inter-specific allelopathy of these invasive plants and the effect of allelopathy on their competitive ability, Plantago virgica and Daucus carota were chosen as examples of invasive plants. Using the biological method in laboratory, the effects of different concentrations(CK, 0.005, 0.01 and 0.05 g·mL-1) of water extracts from different organs(root, stem or rachis, and leaf) of the two plants on seed germination and seedling growth of self and the other were analyzed. The concentration of the extract had the greatest influence on the seed germination and seedling growth of the two invasive plants, and there were significant interactions among the concentration, organs and species. In general, each concentration of water extracts from different organs of the two plants showed inhibition on seed germination of the two plants. The medium and low concentrations of extracts promoted the seedling growth of the same species to an extent. High concentrations of extracts, especially extract from leaves of D.carota, significantly inhibited the seed germination and the seedling growth of the two plants. The allelopathic synthesis effect index indicated that the higher the concentration of the extract, the stronger inhibition effect. The allelopathic effect of the over-ground part was stronger than the underground part and D.carota showed the strongest interspecific allelopathy to P.virgica. Consequently, it is important that the invasive plants compete with each other for the intraspecific and interspecific allelopathy in the invaded area.

    Response of Photosynthesis and Leaf Morphological Characteristics to Drought Stress in Glycyrrhiza uralensis
    Dong ZHANG, Yan LIU, Han ZHANG, Zi-Jian ZHANG, Yang WANG, Mei-Cen LIU
    2021, 41(3):  449-457.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.016
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    The changes of photosynthesis, stomatal changes and glandular morphologic of leaves in Glycyrrhiza uralensis were measured with pot-culture drought stress in greenhouse, and the drought resistance of them were evaluated by membership function and drought resistance coefficient. The response of leaf photosynthesis, stomatal micromorphology and glandular morphology to drought stress was studied by pot controlled water natural drought method. The results showed that leaf net photosynthetic rate(Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs) and transpiration rate(Tr) have been rising since the degree of drought resistance after the trend of lower, and the intercellular CO2Ci) concentration increased rapidly in the severe drought stress. Moreover, leaf total stomata density and stomata opening than with the intensification of the degree of drought stress, the trend of first increases and then decreases, and stomatal opening width is gradually decreasing trend. Importantly, since the degree of drought stress, leaf epidermis and lower epidermis gland density overall showed a trend of increase in the total number of gland color as the degree of drought stress increased gradually deepened, shape appears irregular fold and retraction. The glandular characteristics on the leaf surface of G. uralensis are involved in the regulation of drought resistance, so as to avoid the damage of drought stress to G.uralensis. Under severe drought stress, stress accelerated the programmed death of stomatal cells(PCD), and G.uralensis seedlings lost their ability to resist drought.

    Hygroscopic Movement of Polytrichum commune Hedw.var.commune Peristome in Karst Plateau,Guizhou Province,China
    Zhe-Qi ZHANG, Zhi-Hui WANG, Zhao-Hui ZHANG
    2021, 41(3):  458-465.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.017
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    The investigation of the peristome of vapour-wind dispersal type mosses were found sensitive to humidity. The structure of peristome changed at different humidity, which played an important role in the release of spores. The Polytrichum commune Hedw.var.commune of Karst plateau, Guizhou Province was selected as the research object, and the difference of the structure of peristome and the release rule of spore under the change of humidity were observed. In order to reveal the influence and function of the hygroscopic movement on the spore release. The results showed that: ①When the humidity was increased, the sizes of peristome structure and epiphragm were increased significantly, then recovered when the humidity dried again. The space between peristome increased significantly from 8.33 to 11.53 μm, and the area of epiphragm was increased by 20%. ②In the experiment of continuous wind blowing, the quantity of spores released during the initial period of the hygroscopic movement was increased significantly, then decreased with the recovery of the peristome structure, and kept at a very low quantity at last. As the humidity was increased, the percentage of cluster spores in the released spores was increased, and increased with the decrease of the released spores, and reached significant difference when the peristome structure recovered. ③The wind experiments were carried out at the dry stage, the initial stage of the hygroscopic movement and the peristome structure in the recovery stage respectively, the quantity of spores released at the initial stage of the hygroscopic movement was significantly higher than that at the dry and re-recovery stages of the peristome structure, however, when the structure of peristome was restored, the released quantity of spores was still higher than that of dry spores due to the increase of the percentage of cluster spores. Thus, the structure of P.commune Hedw.var.commune peristome changed during the hygroscopic movement, and when the structure of peristome was restored, the ability of releasing spores was still higher than that of drying, with positive significance to the spread and reproduction of this species.

    Genetic Diversity of Plant Tetraenamongolica by ISSR Markers
    Yi-Zhong DUAN, Hai-Tao WANG, Ge-Ge ZHANG, Wei-Na YAN
    2021, 41(3):  466-473.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.018
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    Tetraena mongolica is an endangered plant belonging to a single genus, known as the ‘plant giant panda’. It has been included in the first batch of national rare and endangered plant red papers. It is a special shrub endemic to the west of Ordos Plateau and its distributed area is small. Six different geographical populations of T.mongolica were used as test materials. Six of the 30 UBC primers were screened for the most suitable primers, and the ISSR amplification reaction system and amplification procedure were reasonably optimized. The 370 bands were amplified from the primers, and 71% of T.mongolica was polymorphic bands. The results of the analysis can be shown as follows: ①The Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.316 8 and Shannon’s polymorphism information index was 0.458 6. The genetic diversity levels of T.mongolica different provenances were little different; ②The percentage of groups polymorphism allele in the population ranged from 70.00%-83.33%, the Nei’s genetic diversity index was 0.286 5-0.350 8, and the Shannon’s polymorphism information index was 0.423 6-0.504 9. The Gst of genetic differentiation coefficient between the six populations was 0.125 3, the results explain that there is a certain degree of genetic differentiation among populations; ③The gene flow of the six populations was 3.491 5>1, indicating that there was a certain gene flow among the six populations, which could prevent the genetic differentiation caused by genetic drift; ④Cluster analysis was used to classify the tetrahedrons of six different geographic populations into three groups. The populations of Qianligou, Yikebulage, and Balagong clustered into the first category, and then they were clustered with the Dengkou-taositu rabbits into the second category. There are two major categories, and the population of Natural Reserve of T.mongolica and the population Gandle Mountain constituted the third largest category. This shows that distance factors are the main factors that affect genetic differentiation among T.mongolica populations, but different habits conditions also have an impact on the genetic differentiation of T.mongolica populations.

    Review
    Progress on the Metabolic Basis and Regulation Mechanism of Fruit Flavor
    Hua-Feng CHEN, Yu-Qing TANG, Ya-Jie PAN, Xiao-Rui GUO
    2021, 41(3):  474-480.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.03.019
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    Fruit flavor substances have the characteristics of organ specificity, development specificity, and environmental specificity, and their metabolic mechanism is the material basis of fruit regulation. Ethylene is an important signal molecule in the process of plant growth and development, and has a unique regulatory effect on the synthesis and metabolism of fruit flavor substances. With the maturity and development of multi-organization technology, the use of ethylene to regulate key enzyme activities and gene families and characteristic effect compound genes in the process of flavor substance metabolism to achieve fruit quality improvement has become one of the main methods of fruit flavor regulation. Based on the research of fruit flavors at home and abroad in recent years, this article summarizes the metabolic basis of fruit flavors, regulatory mechanisms, the response of flavors to ethylene, and the research progress of bioinformatics in fruit flavors, and proposes future regulatory directions Three prospects are presented, hoping to provide a certain theoretical reference for the improvement of fruit flavor and nutrition and the purpose of fruit regulation.