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    15 December 2004, Volume 24 Issue 4
    A new species of Asterocapsa (Cyanophyta)from Jilin Province, China
    LIN Yi-Meng, XIAO Hong-Xing
    2004, 24(4):  385-386. 
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    A new species in the genus Asterocapsa of Cyanophyta from Jilin Province is described.
    A new species of genus Cycas from China
    FU Guo-Ai
    2004, 24(4):  387-388. 
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    A new species of the genus Cycas Linn.(Cycadaceae)Cycas lingshuigensis G.A.Fu from Hainan Island is described.
    A new species of Lysimachia in Primulaceae
    SHAO Jian-Wen, ZHANG Xiao-Ping, GUO Xin-Hu
    2004, 24(4):  389-391. 
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    A new species of Primulaceae, Lysimachia qimenensis X.H.Guo, X.P.Zhang et J.W.Shao, is described and illustrated.The karyotypes of this new species and its related species are reported and compared.
    A new species of Lagerstroemia (Lythaceae)from Anhui Province
    ZHOU Shou-Biao, GUO Xin-Hu, QIN Wei-Hua
    2004, 24(4):  392-393. 
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    Lagerstroemia anhuiensis X.H.Guo et S.B.Zhou is described as a new species from Anhui Province.
    Two new recorded species of Orinus from Qinghai Province
    CAI Lian-Bing
    2004, 24(4):  394-395. 
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    The author reports two new recorded species of Orinus from Qinghai Province for the first time, namely, O.thoroldii (Stapf ex Hemsl.)Bor and O.anomala Keng ex Keng f.et L.Liou.And on the basis of the morphological observation of herbarium specimens deposited in the Herbarium of Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (HNWP), the incomplete knowledge in geographical distribution of these two species in the past are analysed, a key to 4 species of Orinus also given.
    Some newly recorded plants from Hunan Province of China(Ⅵ)
    HUANG Wen-Xin, LIU Ke-Ming, CAI Xiu-Zhen, TIAN Jian-Ping, HU Guang-Wan
    2004, 24(4):  396-399. 
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    Some taxa, including 2 genera, Dendrolobium(Wight et Arn.)Benth., Phyllodium Desv.and 20 species, Artabotrys hexapetalus (Linn.f.)Bhandari, Cardamine calcicola W.W.Smith., Cardamine griffithii Hook.f.et Thons., Cardamine leucantha (Tausch)O.E.Schulz, Hydrangea sargentiana Rehd., Dalbergia stenophylla Prain, Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.)Schindl., Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv., Vicia chinensis Franch., Impatiens chlorosepala Hand.-Mazz., Rhododendron rupivalleculatum Tam., Sinosideroxylon wightianum (Hook.et Arn.)Aubr., Osmanthus cooperi Hemsl., Comanthosphace japonica (Miq.)S.Moore, Mananthes austrosinensis (H.S.Lo)C.Y.Wu et C.C.Hu, Amorphophallus kiusianus (Makino)Makino, Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl., Bulbophyllum drymoglossum Maxim.ex Okubo, Cypripedium franchetii E.H.Wilson, Goodyyera viridiflora (Bl.)Bl.and 1 variety, Millettia dielsiana Harms var.heterocarpa (Chun ex T.Chen)Z.Wei are reported as new records in the Hunan Province.
    Gymnomitrion laceratum (Steph.)Horik.(Hepaticae)discovered from China
    WU Yu-Huan, LUO Hao, GAO Chien
    2004, 24(4):  400-401. 
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    Gymnomitrion laceratum (Steph.)Horik.(Gymnomitriaceae, Hepaticae), discovered from Xizang, is reported here as new to China.This species is best characterized by the presence of vestigial and distinguishable underleaves.
    A new synonym of Buxus rugulosa Hatusima
    LIN Qi
    2004, 24(4):  402-403. 
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    Based on the study of specimens, Buxus sinica (Rehder & Wilson)Cheng ex M.Cheng var. parvifolia M.Cheng is regarded as a new synonym of B.rugulosa Hatusima.
    Validation of Kobresia inflata P.C.Li (Cyperaceae) and affinity of the species
    ZHANG Shu-Ren
    2004, 24(4):  404-405. 
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    In order to validate the name Kobresia inflata P.C.Li, the herbarium is indicated in which the holotype of the name is conserved.Though the species often possesses spicate inflorescence and unisexual spikelets, and has been placed in Sect.Hemicarex, it has no close affinity with any taxon of the section.The species is closely related to K.loliacea Wang et Tang ex P.C.Li and K.gammiei C.B.Clarke.Therefore, K.inflata should belong to Subgen.Compositae.
    Developmental and anatomical studies on the floral nectaries in Ferula sinkiangensts K.M.Shen
    WANG Hong, ZHANG Fu-Chun
    2004, 24(4):  406-409. 
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    The ephemeral plant is one of important characteristicn ectariferous plant in Xinjiang.Ferula sinkiangensts has a floral nectary located on the disc at the base of the ovary.The nectary is differentiated from the superficial layer cells of the above part of ovary.But the receptacle is short, and its base is Taper shape. the nectary located on the superficial part except the receptacle, so it is supposed that the nectary is a transitional type from the ovary nectary to the receptacle nectary.There are many vascular bundle under the nectariferous tissue.The pre-nectarmay be get to the nectariferous tissue through plastid that altogether body or plastid that not altogether body.After its forming, the nectar will be carried to the special cells which are under the air vent, and then it excreted from the stoma, During the development of the nectary, both the starch grains and the vacules have appeared obvious dynamic changes.The result of PAS reaction shows that the cell test was positive as the starch grains obviously accumulated.
    SEM observation on the pollens of three species in Isodon
    SHAO Lin-Xiang, Guo Shui-Liang, CHEN Bin-Na, ZHOU Ling-Yu
    2004, 24(4):  410-412. 
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    In order to clarify the differences among pollens of Isodon amethystoides, I.Macrocalyx and I.nervosa, the pollens of 8 different populations from these three species were observed by scanning electron microscope.The main results are as follows:Although similar on the whole, the pollens from different populations are of difference on their aperture, the size, and the ornamentation of exine, the number of the holes and the reticulations etc.There are many differences among the pollens of the plants of these three species (Isodon)on the morphology, the size, the aperture.The differences on surface of pollens provide a new evidence for specific identification of the genus.
    The scanning electron microscope observation of the fern sporange and the fern leaf epidermis in Heilongjiang Province
    XING Yi, DANG An-Zhi, LIU Bao-Dong
    2004, 24(4):  413-416. 
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    By means of scanning electron microscope observation of the fern sporange and the fern leaf epidermis from different familial and habitats inHeilongjiang Province.It is found that, under the scanning electron microscope, more morphological characters and more detailed and steady features can be observed, This can be considered as a modernmethod for fern phylogenetic classification.The method can be applied to classify more efficiently those generic that is hard to be identified.It is also found that the morphological structure of the ferns is in harmony with its living environment.
    The epidermal characters and stomatal development of Ginkgo biloba
    CHEN Li-Qun, LI Cheng-Sen
    2004, 24(4):  417-422. 
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    By using LM and SEM, the epidermis of macerated and unmacerated leaves, and the epidermis of young and mature leaves were investigated in Ginkgo biloba.The basic epidermal characters:amphistomatic, but most of stomata are in the lower epidermis.The number and distribution of the stomata in the upper epidermis are different individually.The stomatal apparatus is haplocheilic and monocytic:the sunk guard cells are usually surrounded by 5~6 subsidiary cells with thicken and papillate periclinal walls.Double stomata present occasionally.The upper epidermis is thicker than the lower.The morphology of the epidermis cells between vein zone are obviously distinguishable from those in vein zone.Epicuticular wax:The leaf wax forms wax crystalloids on the leaf surfaces in form of small round tubules as seen in the SEM with higher magnification.The majority projects of hollow tubules are away from the epidermis.And the branched wax tubules also had been found.Stomatal development:the development of stomata is typical perigenous that guard cell and subsidiary cell come from different mother cell, not meso-perigenous.
    The experimental method of observing the spatial structure of leaf trace and leaf crack
    ZHU Jun-Yi, BAI Long, LI Wen-Qiang, HUA Shu-Hai, MA Qing-Chun, CHENG Xiao-Zhou
    2004, 24(4):  423-424. 
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    The article proposes the experimental method of observing the spatial structure of plants leaf trace and leaf crack.There is important to observing the changs of vascular tissue of joint.
    Diurnal variation of transpiration rate of Taxus media cv.Hichksii and factor analysis
    ZHOU Wen-Jie, LU Zhan-Gen, WEI Shu-Zhen
    2004, 24(4):  425-427. 
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    Diurnal variation of transpiration rate (Tr)and stomatal resistance (Rs)of Taxus media cv.Hicksii and some ecological factors were determined by using LI-1600 stable porometer and the relationship between transpiration rate(Tr)and influencing factors was discussed by the methods of multiple regression analysis and grey relation grades analysis, The results indicated that the major influencing factors were air temperature(Ta)and leaf temperature(Tl), the next were photon flux density(PFD), air relative humidity(Rh)and stomatal resistance (Rs).The conclusions of multiple regression analysis and grey relation grades analysis were unanimous.According to the analysis of the relationship between Tr and Rs, there was non-linear relationship.The equation was following:Tr=12.789-13.419 lg Rs(R2=0.971 7).
    Comparative anatomical studies of bark and phloem of stout branch and leptos branch in Magnolia biloba
    HU Jiang-Qin, WANG Li-Lin, BU Xu-Ping
    2004, 24(4):  428-430. 
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    The bark structure of Magnolia biloba, from external to internal parts, includes periderm, cortex, fibre bundies of primary phloem and secondary phloem.Its sieve tube members have P-protein, compound or simple sieve plates, but no starch grains.The pores of these sieve plates are opening, so connecting strand can usually be seen.Companion cells arrange in a row or single cell as long as the sieve tube member.There are about six layer cells in cork of periderm, more oil cells, starch grain cells and sclereid in cortex in stout branches, where as three layer cells, less oil cells, starch grain cells and sclereid in cortex in leptos branches.The width of sieve tube members in stout branches is equal to that in leptos branches, but more length of sieve tube members and more Pprotein than that in leptos branches.
    Investigation on meiosis of the rare and endangered plant——Calycanthus chinensis
    WANG Heng-Chang, MENG Ai-Ping, LI Jian-Qiang, YE Qi-Gang
    2004, 24(4):  431-433. 
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    The meiotic process of microspore mother cell of Calycanthus chinensis is investigated for the first time, and the fertility of pollen grain is observed.Although in anaphase Ⅰ, telophase Ⅰ and anaphase Ⅱthere are some abnormal chromosome behaviors occurred, the whole process is basically normal.The fertility of most pollen grains is normal also.Human disturbance may be the main factor causing the rare and endangered position and narrow distribution situation of C.chinensis.
    Comparative study on structure of leaf epidermis form and ecology adaptation of climbing honeysuckle plants in the northern China
    LIANG Song-Jie, ZHANG Jin-Zheng, ZHANG Qi-Xiang, SHI Lei, XING Quan
    2004, 24(4):  434-438. 
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    Epidermal characters of leaves, which include characteristics of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells, of 8 species of climbing honeysuckle plants which are introduced successfully from abroad and domestic have been observed by the light microscope and scanning electronmicroscope.According to their cultivated characters in Beijing these years, we can find that there is a strongly relationship between the morphological and anatomical structures and their ecological adaptability.The leaves of the species which spread broadly and adapt different environment easily, have the epidermal characters such as the greater density of stomata, the reduction in epidermis cell size as well as trichomes covering or leathery face.Lonicera japonica, L.japonica var.chinensis, L. acuminata var.acuminata have strongly adaptability among 8 species.This research is helpful for the application of climbing honeysuckle plants in the northern China.
    Genotoxicity of cyclophsphamide on root tip cells of broad bean (Vicia faba)
    YI Hui-Lan, QIN Hai-Feng, LI Hong-Hai
    2004, 24(4):  439-442. 
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    The genotoxic effects of cyclophsphamide (CP)in broad bean (Vicia faba)root tips were investigated. The results indicated that CP caused the mitotic index decrease, while the frequencies of abnormal cells, such as chromosomal aberrations (CA)including chromosomal segments, bridges and laggards, micronucleus (MN), nuclear buds and pycnosis, increased significantly in CP exposed roots.The number of cells with MN and pycnosis increased with the concentration of the treatments and the length of exposure periods.But the mitotic index had a negative response to the treated concentration and duration time.Our results indicated that the exposure to CP at lower concentrations for long duration can cause the same cytogenetic damage as at high concentrations for short exposure, so we should pay more attention to the occupational exposures.
    Effects of Cerous on the Cu-resistance of Spirodela polyrhiza
    MA Guang-Yue, SHI Guo-Xin, WANG Xue
    2004, 24(4):  443-446. 
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    Cerous relieved the increase of membrance penetrability (MP), the decrease of soluble protein content and chlorophyll a/b value, the accumulation of O2· andMDA in Spirodela polyrhiza L.leaves under stress of Cu2+.Compared with those of single Cu2+ treatment, 20 mg/L Ce improved the activities of superoxide dismutase( SOD), catlase(CAT)and peroxidase(POD), the content of Car and AsA to a certain extent.The results implied that Ce could enhance the abilities of reactive oxygen species(ROS)scavenging system in the plant, therefore increase the resistance and tolerance to Cu stress.
    The diurnal variation of photosynthesis in leaves of Rhododendron fortunei
    JIN Ze-Xin, KE Shi-Sheng
    2004, 24(4):  447-452. 
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    Diurnal variations of photosynthesis and response to light in the leaves of Rhododendron fortunei were studied under natural conditions.The results indicated that in the typical summer sunny days, the curve of diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn)in the sunnyleaves was dual-peaked with obvious midday depression of the photosynthetic efficiency.The diurnal variation of internal CO2 concentration (Ci)was just opposite to Pn.The increase of Ci at midday indicated that the midday depression of the photosynthetic efficiency was mainly influenced by the non-stomatal limited elements.The respiration rate (R)was the highest at midday with single-peaked curves of diurnal variation.There was small variation of Pn in the shadeleaves at the most time in a day.The response to light at different time in a day showed that the saturated light intensity and apparent quantum yield (AQY)were higher in the morning and decreased in the afternoon while the light compensation points increased.No matter in the morning or in the afternoon, the variations of these photosynthetic parameters in the shadeleaves were slight.These results indicated that the main reason of the midday depression of the photosynthetic efficiency in the sunnyleaves of Rhododendron fortunei was the photoinhibition caused by strong light.The analysis of stepwise multi-regression and path coefficient showed that the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)and ambient temperature (Ta)were the main direct factors which affected the diurnal variation of Pn.
    An analysis on the epidermal forms and chemical composition of Betula davurica leaves
    ZHANG Da-Wei, SHI Fu-Chen
    2004, 24(4):  453-455. 
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    This paper compares and analyzes the adaptations to living environment and the chemical compositions of Betula davurica Pall leaves collected in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning areas, by using scanning electronic microscopes.The result shows that the shapes, amounts and cuticle of the epidermal forms of leaves from different areas have different adaptive features.The composition of microelements in these leaves are also different.
    Generation of activated oxygen and change of cell defense enzyme activity in leaves of maize seedling under the stress of low temperature
    WU Jian-Hui, YANG Ling, SUN Guo-Rong
    2004, 24(4):  456-459. 
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    Changes of activated oxygen O2·, activity of enzymes involving cell defense in leaves of maize seedling after effects of low temperature and light were studied.The results showed that the generation rate of activated oxygen O2· increased;the activities of SOD and CAT decreased and POD increased under different low temperature stress;many notable distinguishes in facts such as generation of activated oxygen O2· and changes of the activities of SOD, CAT, POD had been found between light and dark after the same low temperature stress.
    Determination of isofraxidin in the extract by supercritical CO2 from Acanthopanax senticosus by HPLC
    LI Qing-Yong, ZU Yuan-Gang, FU Yu-Jie, ZHENG Chun-Ying, ZHAO Chun-Jian
    2004, 24(4):  460-461. 
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    Established HPLC determination method of isofraxidin from Acanthopanax senticosus by supercritical CO2, Method:ODS column was used;The detection wave length was at 345 nm;Mobile phase was acetonitrile/ultrapure water(v/v)= 2/8;The recovery of the added sample was 100.8% and RSD was 2.0%.This method is simple and the result is reliable.
    Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of salidroside and P-tyrosol in Rhodiola sachalinensis
    WANG Hua-Tian, ZU Yuan-Gang, MAO Zi-Jun
    2004, 24(4):  462-465. 
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    The process conditions for the extraction of salidroside and p-tyrosol from Rhodiola sachalinensis A Bor.was studied by using the comparison of supercritical CO2 extraction method and ethanol extraction method at normal temperature.The conclusion was as following:the salidroside in Rhodiola sachalinensis raw materials could not be extracted effectively by supercritical CO2 extraction method, which could only extract 1.2%of the salidroside but could extract 80%of the p-tyrosol in Rhodiola sachalinensis raw materials and the relative content of p-tyrosol in extracting solution could reach 45.68%;the salidroside and p-tyrosol could be extracted effectively at the same time by ethanol extraction method at normal temperature, however, the relative content of both materials in extracting solution was low and it would be difficult for further separation and purification.Our results indicated that effective separation will be realized and industrialization process of active components in Rhodiola sachalinensis will be pushed forward if supercritical CO2 extractionmethod and ethanol extraction method at normal temperature are combined effectively.
    Amending of importance value and its application on classification of Leymus chinensis communities
    HE Xing-Dong, GAO Yu-Bao, LIU Hui-Fen
    2004, 24(4):  466-472. 
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    Importance value (IV)was amended, and concepts of theoretical mean importance value (TMIV), simple importance value (SIV)and sample plot index (SPI)were given in the present study.Here, they are defined as follow:TMIV is the mean importance value that is calculated theoretically as species number changes in the sample plot.SIV is that the TMIV multiples the ratio of biomass of a plant to average biomass of all plants in same plot or multiples the ratio of volume (coverage multiplying height)of a plant to average volume of all plants in same plot.SPI is that the SIV multiples the ratio of biomass of a plant to average biomass of same plant in all plots or multiples the ratio of volume of a plant to average volume of same plant in all plots.Relatively, to use the SIV can save workload in field compared with the IV, while the SPI can reflect the occupied dominance of a plant not only compared with other plants within a sample plot but also compared with same plant among all sample plots, which makes the IVs of different sample plots have reasonable comparability.Three indices (IV, SIV and SPI) were used in classifying the communities of Leymus chinensis by cluster analysis, and the results indicated that the SIV can be acted as an index and the SPI as a more suitable index in the quantitative classification of plant communities compared with the IV.
    Application of RAPD markers to identification of Vitis amurensis germplasm
    WANG Jun, GE Yu-Xiang, HE Pu-Chao
    2004, 24(4):  473-476. 
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    High quality genomic DNA was obtained by the method of modified CTAB.Seven germplasms Vitis amurensis were identified by RAPD, four primers screened from 30 primers could amplify clearly and stably 30 bands, average was 7.5 bands.There in 21 of 30 bands were examined for random amplified polymorphic DNA amplification patterns.They occupied 70%.Every primer could amplify different bands, the range of the number of bands was from 6 to 9.The result indicated that polymorphic band amplified by the 4 primerswas effective in identification 7 germplasms of Vitis amurensis.
    RAPD analysis of 15 mosses species from Northeast China and its taxonomic implication
    HOU Yi-Long, CAO Tong
    2004, 24(4):  477-481. 
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    The random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)was used to analyse the phylogenetic relationship among fifteen mosses species from Northeast China in which Hylocomium Splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Rhytidium rugosum, Rhytidiadelphus squarosus, Neckera pennata, Thamnobryum alopecurum and Climacium dendroides distribute extensively in northern semiglobe, and Okamuraea brachydictyon, Gollania varians and Polytrichum sphaerothcium are representative species endemic to East Asia.The results showed that the RAPD results support the classification of these mosses based on morphology.All the 15mosses species were clustered in Polytrichinales, Isobryales and Hypnobryales.Okamuraea and Gollania have a closer phylogenetic relationship with Hyitidiaceae.Pleurozium has a closer phylogenetic relationship with Entodon, so it is suitable for Pleurozium to be placed in Hylocomiaceae.
    Establishment of RAPD reaction system on the moss
    SHA Wei, LI Jing, CAO Tong, SU Xiao-Ming
    2004, 24(4):  482-485. 
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    To obtain the optimum random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)reaction system, one test was designed to screen the suitable concentration of 4 factors (Taq, dNTP, primer, TemplateDNA)at 4 levels in the reaction system.According to the results we obtain the optimum concentration of the four factors of moss.On the basis of this we attain 30 polymorphic primers showing genetic differences among moss were screened from 100 random primers.
    Growth characteristic analyse of shading levels on four Hosta Cultivars
    SHI Ai-Ping, ZHANG Jin-Zheng, ZHANG Qi-Xiang, SHI Lei
    2004, 24(4):  486-490. 
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    Four Hosta cultivars (respectively Hosta ‘Golden Edger’, H.‘Antioch’, H.sieboldiana ‘Elegans’ and H.plantagenea ‘Aphrodite’)in three shading levels(respectively 50%, 30% and 5%full sun) were studied, results showed that growth characters of four Hosta cultivars at different light intensities were significantly affected.Accompanied with shading levels increasing, the plants'increments of biomass decreased, H.‘Golden Edger’ and H.plantagenea ‘Aphrodite’ were more sensitive than the others, the suitable light intensities for the former two were above 50%full sun, the latter two were 30%~50%full sun;The total leaf areas and heights of the plants were insignificantly influenced by light intensities;Specific leaf weight of four Hosta cultivars decreased.Over 50% shadings, all four Hosta cultivars had fewer buds and inflorescences. The proportion of different organs biomass distribution were also affected by shadings, over 50% shadings decreased root biomass proportion, but increased leaf proportion;With shadings increased, dry weights of all four Hosta culticars dropped quickerly than fresh weights.
    Bacteriostatic agent selection in plant genetic transformation
    XU Shu-Hong, XU Xiang-Ling
    2004, 24(4):  491-494. 
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    As plant genetic transformation is being carried on by Agrobacterium-mediated, a proper bacteriostatic agent must be selected to eliminate bacteria in order to make transformed explant grow in normal way after co-culturing Agrobacterium and explant.We have studied sensitivities of Agrobacterium rhizogene pRi15834 、 pRiA4b 、pRi1724、pRiA13 to three kinds of cephalosporin by bioactivity and dilution tests.Ceftriaxone sodium has the best bactericidal effect of them, the proper concentration is 100~300 mg/L.
    The study on wood quality of Pinus koraiensis from different provenances
    WANG Hui-Mei, XIA De-An, WANG Wen-Jie
    2004, 24(4):  495-498. 
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    Totally 26 provenance stands of 17-year-old Pinus koraiensis were selected for investigating genetic variation in different provenances and the trend of radial variation of wood quality in the direction of cone to tree bark.The results showed that:there was significant difference in wood quality between different provenances;All the wood property investigated showed radial variation trend.Tracheid length, tracheid diameter, growth ring density and late wood percentage increased with higher growth ring year.But growth ring width showed reverse radial variation.This research would provide basis for early selection and prediction of Pinus koraiensis wood quality.
    A study on the flora of spermatophyte in Xiaowutai Mountains
    LIU Quan-Ru, ZHANG Chao, KANG Mu-Yi
    2004, 24(4):  499-506. 
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    Xiaowutai Mountains, located in the northwest of Hebei Province, is situated between 39°50'~40°07'N latitude and 114°47'~115°30'E longitude.There are 1 148 species of seed plants, belongs to 467 genera and 97 families in Xiaowutai Mountains.The areal-types of the genera are abundant.Analysis of the floristic elements shows that the temperate distribution elements, having 280 genera and accounting for 69.31% in total genera (excluding cosmopolitan), hold a dominant position.Moreover the floristic geographic compositions of seed plants of Xiaowutai Mountains and some mountains, China were studied by using the analysis of similarity coefficient of genus respectively, and the results indicated that there is higher homogeneity and close relationship between the floristic elements of Xiaowutai Mountains and Dongling Mountains, Wuling Mountains, and some similarity with Guandi Mountains and Taiyue Mountains, However, there is less similarity between that of Xiaowutai Mountains and Changbai Mountains, Tai Mountains, Funiu Mountains, Shennongjia Mountains.
    Analysis of content of anthocyanidin Malva sylvestris L.var.mauritiana Miller in different climate condition
    WANG Zhen-Yu, YANG Qian
    2004, 24(4):  507-508. 
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    This paper analyzed the quantities of anthcyanidin in Malva sylvestris L.var.mauritiana Miller of different living environment.The result indicated that the quantity of anthocyanidin in Harbin is much higher than that in Dandong, and there are a great deal of anthocyanidin under condition of long sunshine and a large measure temperature difference.
    The algae of springs in Ji'nan and the water quality evaluate
    XIN Yi-Qun, SHI Qiang, XIE Shu-Lian, CAI Yun-Fei
    2004, 24(4):  509-512. 
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    In this paper the algae of 4 groups of springs in Ji'nan were reported.By the classified system of the Chinese freshwater algae, 80 species and varieties of algae have been founded, composed of 6 divisions. Among them, Bacillariophyta includes the most.According to the algae the water quality have been evaluated.The results show that the springs in Ji'nan were clean, but it is needed to protect and manage spring water, but it is needed to protect and manage when the spring water flowed.