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    20 September 2010, Volume 30 Issue 5
    Gametophyte Development of Athyrium niponicum
    ZHANG Kai-Mei;FANG Yan-Ming*;WAN Jin
    2010, 30(5):  513-516.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.001
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    The spores of the Athyrium niponicum were cultured in the mixed soil. The spore germination and gametophyte development were observed and photographed under microscope. The result indicates that the spores are dark-brown, monolete, and bean-shaped in equatorial view and elliptical in polar view. The spores germinate about one week after being sowed, the germination is of the Centripetal-type while the gametophyte development is of the Adiantum-type. The prothallial plates begin to form when the filaments are 7-11 cells long. The young prothalli develop in two weeks after being sowed and the mature prothalli are cordate. Unicellular hairs occur on the surface of the prothalli. The antheridia appear about 20 days after being sowed. They are like pellets and formed by three cells. The archegonia form one week later than that of the antheridia. The archegonial neck is 3-5 cells high at maturity. Young embryos growing from the prothalli can be observed about 2 weeks after fecundated.
    Phylogenetic Position of the Genus Pohlia Hedw.:Evidence from the Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS Region
    WANG Chen-Ying;ZHAO Jian-Cheng
    2010, 30(5):  517-526.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.002
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    Pohlia Hedw. has been placed in three different families, the Bryaceae, the Mniaceae, and the Mielichhoferiaceae. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships of the genus were examined based on DNA sequences of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analysis in MP, ML and BI trees all revealed that the genus of Pohlia should not be included in Mniaceae, the species of Pohlia are the closer relative of the species of Mielichhoferiaceae,the formerly classification of sections in the genus may need to be reconsidered.
    Micromorphology of Leaf Epidermis of Stellaria L. in North China
    CHEN Xu-Bo;LIU Quan-Ru*;LI Yan
    2010, 30(5):  527-536.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.003
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    The leaf epidermis of 16 species and 2 variations belonging to Stellaria L. and other 4 species belonging to other 4 genera from North China were observed usder light microscopy. The results show that the stomata apparatus are found on abaxial epidermis in all species, most of species also have stomata apparatus on adaxial epidermis. The types including anisocytic, anomocytic and anomotetracytic stomata apparatus; The shape of cell is mostly irregular, with straight, arched, sinuate or sinuolate anticlinal walls; Stomata index of adaxial epidermis is 5.23-31.65, which is 10.02-29.44 on abaxial epidermis. The type of hair on leaf epidermis includes stellate, glandular pubescent, hair or lanate. The study indicates that the difference of micromorphology of leaf epidermis between species is obscure, it can provide some proves for species classification and the discussion of relationship between genera. However, it has some limitation in section classification.
    Population Structure and Distribution Pattern of Pinus massoniana on Laoshan Island of Qiandao Lake Region
    XIONG Neng;JIN Ze-Xin*;CHEN Zuo
    2010, 30(5):  537-542.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.004
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    To study the dynamics of Pinus massoniana population of the secondary forest, a sample plot (240 m×240 m) was set on Laoshan island of Qiandao Lake Region. All trees were tagged and measured to analyze the population structure and spatial distribution patterns. The individuals at 1st and 2nd age size were few, accounted for 0.06% and 1.01% of total, respectively. The juvenile individuals were severely lacking. The individuals at 5th age size were the dominant, and accounted for 28.28% of total. The spindle type population structure and convex curve survivorship suggested the population was stable with a declining trend. But the population would not be withdrawn from the community in a short time because there were a large number of medium size class individuals. The negative mortality of the small size classes indicated the seedlings were severely deficient and the population tended to decline in a long time. The spatial distribution pattern of total individuals or individuals at different size classes of P.massoniana presented clumping distribution. Aggregation index of the population was declining from saplings, medium size trees to mature trees. Totally, the population would diffuse in trend.
    Characteristics of Plant Species in Herb Community in Huanglong Valley,Sichuan
    HUANG Bao-Qiang;LUO Yi-Bo*;AN De-Jun;KOU Yong
    2010, 30(5):  543-548.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.005
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    There are 124 understory species in the 662 sampled plots, belonging to 37 families and 91 genera, of which 54 are endemic to China, in the herb community in Huanglong valley, southwestern China.In total, thirty-three orchid species of 21 genera were recorded, of which 12 species are endemic to China and one is new It is interesting that so many terrestrial orchids appear in a small area (ca. 1 km2). Furthermore, some of the orchid species are dominant in the herb community. Most of the species, including orchid, have low frequency and uneven distribution patterns. The results indicated that the orchid species in Huanglong valley may disperse with regard to resource usage. Orchid species distributed mainly in two different habitats, i.e. travertine areas and the remained forest. The microenvironmental conditions and the orchid species compositions were found to be quite different between these two habitats. Travertine areas had a higher number of orchid species as well as higher numbers of orchid species per plot as compared to forest. In the travertine areas, 30 orchid species were found; the most common ones being Cypripedium bardolphianum, C.flavum, C.tibeticum, G.diantha, Phaius chusua and Ph. delavayi. However, in the forested habitat, 21 orchid species were found; the most common ones being T.szechuanica and Goodyera repens. Light availability seems critical to the performance and distribution of orchid species. Stream flow through the travertine area during the orchids growing season appears to be an important factor in shaping and maintaining stable microenvironments which favorable to the growth and reproduction of orchids. The results suggest that some orchid species in the travertine area would be threatened if the travertine stream flows were changed or disrupted.
    Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Leaves of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa to Soil Moisture
    LIANG Jing;WEI Xue-Zhi*
    2010, 30(5):  549-555.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.006
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    Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa, which is widely distributed, strong adaptive and very drought-tolerant, is an excellent testing material to study plant responses to drought. In order to show the physiological mechanisms of adaptability of Z.jujuba var.spinosa to drought, we examined the effects of different soil moistures on the contents of leaf water, chlorophyll, MDA, soluble sugar and other physiological and biochemical indices through the coating technology for the control of soil moisture content near its root system.Results showed that: With the decrease of soil moisture, relative water content(RWC) and absolute water content of Z.jujuba var.spinosa leaves gradually decreased, but remained at a high level, which were significantly different from those of the control, respectively(p<0.05); Natural water saturation deficit(NWSD)of Z.jujuba var.spinosa leaves declined and maintained at a low level, which was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05); With the decrease of soil moisture, water potential and osmotic potential in leaves of Z.jujuba var.spinosa of the treatment group decreased, which were significantly different from those of the control, respectively(p<0.05), with water absorption capacity increased; With drought stress increasing, the content of chlorophyⅡin leaves of Z.jujuba var.spinosa of the treatment group gradually declined, which was higher than the control(p<0.05); With the extension of processing time, compared with the control group, the conductivity was even greater, MDA also increased,the plasma membrane was injured in the treatment group. The contents of soluble sugar and proline in the leaves of Z.jujuba var.spinosa increased in varying degrees,with an average increase of 1.29 and 1.5 times respectively. Under different soil moisture conditions, the leaves of Z.jujuba var.spinosa have a positive physiological response mode, strong adaptability, and strong drought resistant resistance.
    Effects of Soil Particle Size on Catharanthus roseus Seedlings Under Heavy Drought Conditions
    CHEN Hua-Feng;ZHAO Xiao-Ju;GUO Xiao-Rui
    2010, 30(5):  556-561.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.007
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    By comparison of soil particle size and soil water content between turfy soil and yellow clay, the effects of soil water retention with yellow clay were analyzed. The results showed that leaf relative water content, the ratio of shoot and root, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, efficiency of water application and soluble sugar were observed to change with the intensification of soil clay under heavy drought conditions. The value of efficiency of water application arrived at 6.975 2 μmol·mmol-1, which was 2-fold pure turfy soil. At the same time, the contents of sucrose and trehalose increased to 2.614 5 mg·g-1 and 0.566 9 mg·g-1. Soil water content also significantly increased to higher than 30%. The results indicated that Catharanthus roseus could obtain more available water from soil of higher ratio of yellow clay and the pure yellow clay is suitable for C.roseus to survive under the stress of heavy drought conditions.
    Medium Optimization for Callus Proliferation of Bambusa multiplex
    YUAN Jin-Ling;YUE Jin-Jun;WU Xiao-Li;ZHANG Duo;GUO Guang-Ping;GU Xiao-Ping*
    2010, 30(5):  562-567.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.008
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    An effective regeneration system is the pre-requisite for genetic transformation of bamboos. Medium components for callus proliferation of Bambusa multiplex were studied, 5 basal medium, 6 organic additives, 7 sugars, and 5 macronutrients were compared. The results showed that Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium was effective, callus increased 2.8 times at 20 days, white to yellowish, compact; 1.0 g·L-1 proline was suitable the organic additive, callus increased 3.64 times, yellowish, compact and even; 30 g·L-1 maltose was the optimal carbon source, callus increased 2.96 times, white to yellowish, even. Among five macronutrients, NH4NO3 has significant influence on callus proliferation (α=0.05) and its optimal concentration was 825 mg·L-1, callus could increase over 5 times at 29 days, with some rooting; KNO3 475 mg·L-1+NH4NO3 825 mg·L-1+MgSO4·7H2O 185 mg·L-1+KH2PO4 340 mg·L-1+CaCl2·7H2O 440 mg·L-1 is a suitable combination for callus proliferation.
    Phylogenetic Analysis of Trichosanthes Based on the nrDNA ITS Region
    ZHOU Tao;HUANG Lu-Qi*;CUI Guang-Hong;JIANG Wei-Ke;WANG Ming
    2010, 30(5):  568-575.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.009
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    Trichosanthes is one of the larger genu in Cucurbitaceae, and most of them have medicinal values. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships of 16 species were inferred using nrDNA ITS sequences. The main implications of the phylogenetic trees analyses include: There was an evidence regarding sect. Truncata, which had traditional classification dispute, was not recognized as separate entity, but nested within sect. Involucraria, formed a subsect group. According to phylogenetic analyses the level of nucleotides of ITS sequence, and combining with morphological characteristics of T.guizhouensis, we suggested it should be incorporated into T.rosthorni. sect. Trichosanthes. belong to an independent species but also be in sect. Foliobracteola. In addition, T.dafangensis, an endemic species of Guizhou province, our result showed that it was a sister clade in sect. Trichosanthes, and was in a transition position to sect. Foliobracteola group, combining with its morphology analyses, it should be as a member of sect Trichosanthes.
    Establishment and Optimization of ISSR-PCR System for Hybrid Rapeseed
    PENG Bing-Yu;HU Yan-Ping;GONG Ai-Qi;WANG Huan-Qiang;WANG Li;BAO Tian-Zhong;LI Rui-Xin;LI Yi*
    2010, 30(5):  576-581.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.010
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    An orthogonal design was used to optimize the ISSR-PCR system for hybrid rapeseed at three levels of four factors (Mg2+, dNTP, primer and Taq DNA polymerase). Then, based on the optimal ISSRPCR amplification system, the concentration of DNA template and annealing temperature were selected. As a result, the optimal PCR (20 μL) mixture contained 1.50 mmol·L-1 Mg2+, 0.125 mmol·L-1 dNTP, 2.00 μmol·L-1 primer, 0.50 U Taq DNA polymerase, 2.5 μL 10×buffer and 40ng template DNA. The suitable annealing temperature of primer UBC891 was 54.2℃. With the optimal system of ISSR-PCR reaction, clear and steady bands were obtained in different individuals of Qingza No.3 and its male parent. The establishment of ISSR-PCR system could favor the studies on the purity and genuineness of hybrid rapeseed varieties by using molecular marker techniques.
    Influence of Cultivation Time on the Rhizosphere Microbial Diversity of Syzygium grijsii and Its PCR-DGGE Analysis
    LIU Wei;ZHANG Jia-Chao;DENG Guang-Hua*
    2010, 30(5):  582-587.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.011
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    A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was used to determine the rhizosphere microorganism diversity of Syzygium grijsii after different cultivation times. Total community DNA was extracted and purified from soils by an improved Protease K-CTAB method, and then amplified using eubacterial 16S rDNAs primers. The PCR products were analyzed by DGGE to obtain bacterial community patterns. The electrophoresis lanes obtained by PCR-DGGE were legible and distinguishable. The results showed that rhizosphere microorganism diversity could be significantly affected by cultivation time. Soil microorganism diversity increased with cultivation time, with the peak diversity index of 2.741 after 4 years or so, then the diversity index decreased to a lower value of 1.378 after 8 years. Composition of rhizosphere microorganism community had a great difference in different cultivation times. Characteristic of rhizosphere microorganism could be used as a guiding factor for changing flowerpot. For S.grijsii, 4-6 years might be a suitable time to change flowerpot, as rhizosphere microorganism of S.grijsii in this time would have the highest diversity, and would be easy to establish.
    Optimization of ISSR-PCR Reaction System and Primers Screening in Schisandra sphenanthera
    LUO Cheng;XIONG Yu-Ting;GU Wei;*;WANG Zhe-Zhi;
    2010, 30(5):  588-593.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.012
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    The main influential factors of ISSR-PCR reaction system in Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. were systematically studied, optimization of ISSR-PCR system was established, and 12 effective ISSR primers were selected. Single-factor experimental results showed that the suitable concentration of composition of ISSR-PCR systen was 1.50~3.50 mmol·L-1 of Mg2+, 0.10~0.35 mmol·L-1 of dNTPs, 0.25~0.60 μmol·L-1 of primer and 0.50~1.50 U of Taq DNA polymerase, respectively. The optimal ISSR-PCR reaction system was defined by orthogonal experiment with four-factor of three-level, i.e. 20 μL reaction system contained 2.50 mmol·L-1 of Mg2+, 0.20 mmol·L-1 of dNTPs, 0.25 μmol·L-1 of primer, 1.50 U of Taq DNA polymerase, 60 ng of DNA template, 2.50 μL of 10×PCR Buffer. The present study could be used in the research for evaluation of germplasm resources and analysis of genetic diversity in S.sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils..
    Comparative Study on Morphological Characteristics of “Huang-ying-hua”,Invasive Alien Weed Solidago canadensis L. and Its Relatives with the Same Genus
    MA Ling;DONG Ying-Xue;QIANG Sheng*
    2010, 30(5):  594-599.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.013
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    “Huang-ying-hua” is a widely-used cut flower in florist currently, but it is similar to the invasive weed Solidago canadensis in morphological characteristics, so it has caused public concerns. Comparative studies on morphological characteristics of eight batches of “Huang-ying-hua” with 35 invasive populations of S.canadensis in our country, two populations of Solidago L. sampled from Canada and Solidago decurrens were conducted. The cluster analysis showed that seven batches of “Huang-ying-hua” samples were clustered together except the fifth batch, which was clustered with S.canadensis in one group, “Huang-ying-hua”, S.canadensis, and the populations sampled in Canada were clustered into one group while S.decurrens was grouped into sole one. This showed “Huang-ying-hua” is similar to S.canadensis, not S.decurrens. The further comparative studies on morphological of S.gigantea and S.altissima showed that “Huang-ying-hua” and S.altissima were together and clustered with invasive populations, and the populations sampled from Canada were more similar to S.gigantea. S.canadensis, S.altissima and S.gigantea all belonged to S.canadensis complex. The length/width ratio of leaves, the length between triplinerved and leaf base, the number of epidermal hair on vein and the ratio of disc florets to ray florets were the important morphological characteristics of “Huang-ying-hua” and other species in genus of Solidago L..
    Seed Dormancy-breaking and Germination Requirements of Two Atraphaxis Species
    LI Xiao-Mei;ZHAO Xiao-Ying*;WANG Zhi-Yong;DONG Zheng-Wu
    2010, 30(5):  600-603.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.014
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    Atraphaxis spinosa and A.virgata are native shrubs in Urumqi. The two species are important for the desert ecosystem. Seeds of the species were dormant at maturity. Dormancy break occurred during cold stratification at 5℃ for 8 weeks and 6 weeks, also at the habitat in winter. Seeds stratified at 5℃ and habitat and incubated at 12/12 h daily temperature regimes of 15/6, 20/10, 25/15 and 30/20℃ geminated faster and to a significantly higher percentage at each temperature regime than those not stratified. Seeds of A.spinosa were more deeper dormant than A.virgata. Their seeds were shallow non-deep physiological dormancy.
    Seed Germination Characteristics of 14 species in the Hilly-gullied Loess Plateau of Northern Shannxi
    ZHANG Xiao-Yan;JIAO Ju-Ying;*;WANG Ning;JIA Yan-Feng;HAN Lu-Yan
    2010, 30(5):  604-611.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.015
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    A laboratory study was made on the germination characteristics of 14 species in the hilly-gullied region of Loess Plateau, North of shannxi, China. Results indicated that the germination rate of Periploca sepium, Artemisia gmelinii and Artemisia giraldii was over 80%, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Syringa oblata, Heteropappus altaicus, Stipa grandis, Hippophae rhamnoides and Artemisia scoparia was 60%~80%, Stipa bungeana was 37.3%, while Cleistogenes caespitosa, Robinia psendoacacia, Sophora viciifolia, Ostryopsis davidiana was less than 20%. The shortest days of these species began to germinate was 2 d,the longest was 8 d, almost all the species with the day reaching 50% of the final germination amount was 7 d; most of the species reached 90% of the final germination amount within 15 days. The germination period of 4 species including R.psendoacacia, S.viciifolia, O.davidiana and H.rhamnoides was the shortest (6 d), but the germination period of A.scoparia was 32 d. The role and status of these species in the vegetation succession was decided by their seed germination characterristics and ecological adaption in the hilly-gullied Loess Plateau of Northern Shannxi.
    Cu,Pb accumulation of invasive plant Iva xanthifolia
    ZU Yuan-Gang;ZHANG Xiao-Nan;REN Zhi-Guang;ZHAO Xiu-Hua
    2010, 30(5):  612-616.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.016
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    The hydroponic experiments were conducted to study the Cu and pb accumulation characteristics of invasive plant Iva xanthifolia. The hydroponics results showed that, I.xanthifolia had high tolerance and a relatively strong enrichment effect on element Cu, Pb in the concentration of 1 to 16 mg·L-1 Cu, 0.5 to 14 mg·L-1 Pb, respectively. Moreover the heavy metals accumulation of above-ground parts (shoots) and the underground parts (roots) reached up to 607.59 mg·kg-1(137.20 mg·kg-1), 404.38 mg·kg-1(34.53 mg·kg-1) respectively. The enhancement factor and translocation factor were all greater than 1. Their average values were 11.39(4.43), 4.18(11.71) respectively.The enrichment order of all heavy metals is stem>leaf >root. Their metals concentrations in shoot were higher than that in roots. Compared with the control, the overground biomass of I.xanthifolia did not decreased significantly. These showed that I.xanthifolia had hyperaccumulative characteristics of heavy metals and could be applied to bioremediation Cu-contaminated soils, Pb-contaminated soils.
    Variation in Intergenerational Contents of Alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus by Space Mutation
    YU Jing-Hua;JIA Xue-Ying;ZHANG Xue-Ke;TANG Zhong-Hua;YUAN Shu-Sheng;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2010, 30(5):  617-622.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.017
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    Using Catharanthus roseus seeds space-mutated by recoverable satellite “Shijian-8” as material, we studied the content variation of three indole alkaloids (vindoline,catharanthine,vinblastine) in the leaves of C.roseus from the mutated progeny SP1 and selected progeny SP2 and SP3. The result indicated that comparing with the C.roseus cultivated in earth, C.roseus SP1 generation through space mutation had stronger variation ability in morphology and reproduction, and bigger amplitude of the content of alkaloids in the leaves, also the coefficient of variation was 2.06 times of the control group in earth. After three-round selection aiming at the content of vinblastine, the content of vinblastine was above 300 μg·g-1 DW in the leaves of four strains from SP3 generation we gathered, which was more than three times of the control group, and the coefficient of variation in this strain was lower than 15%. The above result showed that spatial environment could change the heredity and variation of the seeds of C.roseus, and after the selection of multi-generation, the variety containing high content of active substance could be cultivated.
    Extraction Process and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Testa of Quercus mongolica Fischer
    ZHANG Yu;LIU Ting-Ting;LIU Yang;YANG Lei;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2010, 30(5):  623-628.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.018
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    In this study, ultrasound assisted extraction was used to extract polyphenols from testa of Quercus mongolica Fischer. Response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken central composite design was applied for modeling and optimizing of three variables that influence the extraction, namely ethanol concentration, extraction time and ratio of liquid to solid. The yields and the contents of polyphenols were selected as responses to optimize the extraction process. The optimum conditions for the extraction of polyphenols were as follows: ethanol concentration 60.56%, ratio of liquid to solid 30.72∶1 mL·g-1, ultrasound time 42.39 min. Under the optimum conditions, the yield and the purity of polyphenols were 0.38% and 18.8%, respectively and EC50 of DPPH free-radical scavenging ability of these polyphenols is 176 μg·mL-1, which is higher than BHA and BHT.
    New Varieties of Weigela
    MA Li-Hua;YU Yong-Ying;TAN Zhen-Ping;GU Shu-Fen
    2010, 30(5):  629-631.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.019
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    Two new varieties of the genus Weigela—Weigela florida ‘Royal’ and Weigela florida ‘Ruby’ are described. The two varieties are approximate. However, Weigela florida ‘Royal’ is taller, 1.5-2.0 m height, it is distinguished by its flower color—sharp crystal jade red and dark green leaf color; W.florida‘Ruby’ is shorter, only 1.0-1.6 m height, it is distinguished by its flower color—Dan purple and golden yellow leaf color. Bothe two new varieties show the characteristics of ornamental specificity, strong resistance, and early and long flowering period.
    A New Variety of Sabina from Northeast China——Sabina chinensis(L.)Ant. var. sargentii ‘Electus’
    LIANG Li-Zhong;NIE Si-Ming;LIANG Sheng-Hua;LIANG Sheng-Hai
    2010, 30(5):  632-633.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.020
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    A new variety of Sabina from Northeast China is described, that is Sabina chinensis(L.)Ant. var. sargentii ‘Electus’. It is a shrub or small tree with two-type leaves. The scale leaves decussately grow on the top of small branches; the needles whorled grow and cling to branches, appear thorn shape and the characteristic of branching, the branches show assurgent angle.
    Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Medicine Extracts on Pathogen of Astragalus Root Rot
    MA Wei;WANG Bao-Qiu;MA Ling*;XIE Jia-Quan;KONG Xiang-Jun
    2010, 30(5):  634-636.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.021
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    This objectives of the present study are to break the limitations in preventing and controlling Astragalus root rot fungus by chemical agents(especially pesticides) and to develop green measures in preventing and controlling diseases of Chinese herbal medicines. Using Fructus cnidii, Rhizoma anemarrhenae extracts drug-containing medium, and sterile water as control, after inoculating with Astragalus root rot fungus, the inhibitory effects of these two kinds of traditional Chinese medicine on Astragalus root rot fungus-Fusarium oxysporum were studied in vivo. The results showed that kinds of traditional Chinese medicine extracts exhibited different impacts in inhibiting Astragalus root rot fungi. Analysis of variance results indicated that from the point of view of both the types and concentrations of extracts of two Chinese medicines,F.cnidii showed better performance in preventing and controlling Astragalus root rot fungi, Cnidium combat the effect of Astragalus root rot fungus is more obvious, with significant level, the highest inhibition rate 96.13%.
    Preparation and Characterization of Nanoemulsion from Volatile of Rhizoma Zingiberis
    ZU Yuan-Gang;SU Lu;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;WANG Hua;ZHANG Lin
    2010, 30(5):  637-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.05.022
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    To improve the water-solubility of Volatile oil and the stability in the preparation process, Volatile oil containing drug was prepared in nanoemulsion form and characterized, the components of Volatile oil were analyzed and the HLB values were determined, the emulsion ratio was determined by prescription screening, and the nanoemulsion Volatile oil type, size distribution, surface potential and stability were characterized. The experiment measured ginger volatile oil accounted for 2.1%, was lignt yellow or yellow liquid with Tween -80 and -80 as the Span surfactants, HLB value was 8, the optimum volume ratio of emulsion was oil, emulsion agent, water=6∶1∶13,Laser particle size analyzer measured an average diameter of 41.4 nm, the surface potential was -10.31±1.51 mv, centrifugal stability constant was 21.83%. Volatile oil obtained by this method showed nanoemulsion stability, good dispersion in water, stability, which can effectively reduce the loss of volatile oil.