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    Bulletin of Botanical Research 2015 Vol.35
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    Clematis diebuensis, a new specis of Ranunculaceae from Gansu
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 1-3.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.001
    Abstract635)      PDF(pc) (570KB)(490)       Save
    A species of the genus Clematis sect. Atragene(Ranunculaceae), C.diebuensis, is described as new from Gansu Province. The morphological differences between it and its ally and a smilar species are given.
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    Lectotypifications of Twelve Names in Seed Plant
    LIN Yun1;WU Hui-Bing1;LIU Wen-Qun1;YANG Zhi-Rong2*;SUN Qian2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 4-10.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.002
    Abstract743)      PDF(pc) (1192KB)(379)       Save
    In type specimens deposited at China National Herbarium(PE), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of twelve names, Pinus leucosperma Maxim.(Pinaceae), Juniperus przewalskii Kom.(Cupressaceae), Juniperus zaidamensis Kom.f. squarrosa Kom.(Cupressaceae), Libocedrus formosana Florin(Cupressaceae), Salix pseudowallichiana Goerz ex Rehder & Kobuski(Salicaceae), Salix rockii Goerz ex Rehder & Kobuski(Salicaceae), Salix taoensis Goerz ex Rehder & Kobuski(Salicaceae), Carpinus tschonoskii Maxim.(Betulaceae), Corylus tibetica Batal.(Betulaceae), Lithocarpus cleistocarpus(Seem.) Rehd. & Wils. var. omeiensis W.P.Fang(Fagaceae), Lithocarpus dunnii Metc.(Fagaceae) and Quercus chingii Metc.(Fagaceae), of taxa in seed plant were found to be syntypes under Article 9.5 of International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). According to Article 8.1, 9.11 and 9.12, and Recommendation 9A.3, lectotypes for twelve names are here designated.
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    Relationship between Anatomical Structures of Populus euphratica and Ecoenvironment
    WANG Gui-Qin;ZHENG Yu-Hua;HU Ding-Chao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 11-15.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.003
    Abstract682)      PDF(pc) (1340KB)(1700)       Save
    We used light microscope, scanning electron microscope and histochemical localization techniques to study the relations between secondary vascular tissue and the ecological adaptation of Populus euphratica. P.euphratica has many structural characteristics and tuber member characteristics, which are adapt to ecological environment. The ratio of secondary phloem with developed phloem fiber to secondary xylem is 1/7 in width, and much cells with rich protein distributed in parenchyma. Less vessels in large diameter, with thick wall and multiple-pore distributed in the wood arranged radially, as a result, the tubal complex, mainly multiple-pore, supplemented by tracheid or bundle tracheid, was formed in secondary xylem of P.euphratica’ stem, while the xylem ray remained or evolved into fibrous tracheid. There are mainly pitted vessels in stem, occasionally trapeziform-pitted type, and both type vessels are very short with truncatus and leveled-perforation. The characteristics descripted above can explain the evolution and adaptation of secondary vascular tissue and tuber members of P.euphratica in a specific habitat.
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    Stand Spatial Structure at Different Successional Stages of Secondary Forest in Qiandao Lake Region
    WU Chu-Ping;ZHANG Jun;SHEN Ai-Hua;ZHU Jin-Ru;YUAN Wei-Gao;JIANG Bo
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 16-21.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.004
    Abstract600)      PDF(pc) (1184KB)(259)       Save
    We set three plots of 40 m×40 m to study the stand spatial structure pattern at different successional stages of secondary forest with different densities of masson pine in Qiandao Lake, and took censusing of every individual and coordinate positioning. We compared and analyzed the main tree species and stand holistic spatial structure for three plots by using three structure parameters (mingling, neighborhood comparison, and uniform angle indexneighboring tree distribution pattern). The masson pine was the dominant species and presented an aggregating distribution at the No.1 plots, the rest tree species were basically scattered and the growth were seriously suppressed. Masson pine and blue Japanese oak were the dominant species and all presented an aggregating distribution at the No.2 plots, the other tree species were scattered and the growth were suppressed. Castanopsis sclerophylla significantly presented an aggregating distribution at the No.3 plots, the mingling of the whole stand was higher, the size differences of C.sclerophylla forest were small, the growth of forest was in the mean state, and the tall trees with absolute advantage lacked. The whole stand of three plots presented an aggregating distribution. The results suggested that the No.1 and No.2 plots were all in the initial stage of succession, and alternative cutting management was needed to accelerate the succession of stands. The No.3 plots had a succession with dominant C.sclerophylla evergreen broad-leaved forest, and it still would take time to be mature climax community.
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    Regeneration System for Axillary Bud of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.
    ZHANG Jian-Ying;QI Yong-Hui*;Lü Yue-Dong;LIU Jian-Ming;XING Ya-Juan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 22-26.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.005
    Abstract702)      PDF(pc) (1015KB)(296)       Save
    Browning takes place generally in tissue culture of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. and influences the growth and proliferation of cultures. We established the regeneration system for axillary bud of J.mandshurica Maxim. and studied the factors influencing the browning of cultures by changing culture environment and adding anti-browning agents into the culture medium. The inducing rate of 1-2 year axillary bud as explant was 75.8%, significantly higher than those of 10 and 30 year axillary buds. Browning rate was 56.7%, which was significantly lower than the others. DKW+BA 2.0 mg·L -1+IBA 0.1 mg·L -1 culture medium reduced browning and promoted plant growth, and the browning rate was lowered by about 10%. Na 2S 2O 3 and AC effectively alleviated the browning, while the alleviated effect of PVP and VC on browning was not significant. Fiveday dark treatment after inoculation delayed browning time, and the browning rate reduced by about 10%. Adding 6 g·L -1 agar in culture medium resulted in browning rate of 56.7%. After subculture on DKW+BA 2.0 mg·L -1+IBA 0.01 mg·L -1 culture medium, the proliferation coefficient of seedlings was 14.4, and the seedling height was 2.33 cm. There was no significant difference between subculture cycles of 21 and 28 days, and a subculture cycle of 21-28 days was suitable for proliferation culture.
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    Effect of NaCl Tolerance on Photosynthetic Physiology and Growth of Seedlings of Three Poplar Clones
    WANG Xiu-Wei1;JIA Gui-Mei2;MAO Zi-Jun2*;SUN Tao2;YUAN Xian-Lei2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 27-33.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.006
    Abstract799)      PDF(pc) (1535KB)(390)       Save
    We studied the response of photosynthetic physiological characteristics of three poplar clone seedlings to NaCl stress with three kinds of poplar( Populus L.) clones of poplar( Populus L.) clone seedlings including ‘A5’( Populus pseudo- simonii× P.nigra)×( P.simonii× P.nigra), ‘J7’( P.deltoidis× P.catyana CL.‘J7’) and ‘1344’( P.deltoids× P.cathayana CL.‘1344’) in Heilongjiang Province. Three NaCl stress treatments were established at the contents of 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% (percentage of NaCl in total dry soil mass). The salt injury symptoms first appeared in ‘1344’ under NaCl stress, followed by ‘J7’ and ‘A5’. Furthermore, under the same NaCl content, the maximum damage due to NaCl stress also occurred first in ‘1344’, followed by ‘J7’ and ‘A5’. The mean tree diameter at breast height and total tree height differed signi?cantly under three NaCl stress treatments. Moreover, the difference between three NaCl stress treatments gradually become bigger, which was 10%-35% lower than the control treatment during the late period of this experiment. With the increase of NaCl, the chlorophyll content decreased, with the decrease in ‘J7’ being much more obvious than in ‘A5’ and ‘1344’. With the increase of NaCl, the content of carotenoid in ‘A5’ increased, and ‘J7’ and ‘1344’ decreased. Chlorophyll b content under 0.3% NaCl stress in ‘A5’ and ‘1344’ was higher than that in the control, while the ‘A5’ chlorophyll b content under the 0.5% and 0.7% NaCl stress levels were in contrast not significantly different, but ‘1344’ under 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl stress levels was significantly higher than that in the control and the 0.7% NaCl stress level. ‘J7’ showed no significant difference when compared with the 0.3% NaCl stress, but was higher than the 0.5% and 0.7% levels. The photosynthesis of the clone seedlings reduced due to the NaCl stress. The G s and C i of the leaves decreased with the increase of the salt, while the L s mainly decreased. One possible explanation for the phenomenon in this study may be that the photosynthetic physiology was greatly influenced by stomatal limitation and non-stomatal limitation. The WUE of three poplar seedlings under NaCl was maintained at a higher level, which may suggest that these poplar seedlings have a strong resistance to NaCl stress. Therefore, ‘A5’ had the strongest salt-tolerant ability among these three clones.
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    Influences of Hormone Treatment and Temperature Stratification on Morphological After-ripening of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch Seeds
    GU Di-Zhou1;ZHUO Pan-Quan2;ZHANG Li-Fan1;WANG Qiu-Shuang1;ZHANG Xue-Shi1;ZHOU You1;ZHU Jun-Yi1
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 34-38.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.007
    Abstract766)      PDF(pc) (1084KB)(273)       Save
    We studied the main factors with different levels for morphological after-ripening of Magnolia sieboldii seeds through repeated experiments with multi factorial. When the seeds of M.sieboldii were treated by soaking in the mixed solutions with 1.30-1.40 mg·L -1 6-BA and 2.00-2.20 mg·L -1 2,4-D for three days, mixing the seeds and sand (1∶4), with temperature change in 100-114 d, 18±2℃ and 8h in day, 7±2℃ and 16 h in night, the incidence rate of the heart-shape embryo was 97.8%, the incidence rate of the embryo with cotyledons was 95.6%, and the germination rate of seed was 98.0%. The morphological after-ripening of seed of M.sieboldii is suitable for industrial seedlings of M.sieboldii.
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    Germplasm Selection of the Progeny Genetic Variation and Superior Pulpwood of Betula platyphylla
    NING Kun1;LIU Xiao-Ping2;LIN Yong-Hong2;ZHAO Xi-Yang1;LIU Gui-Feng1;YANG Yang1;SONG Xin1;LI Hui-Yu1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 39-46.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.008
    Abstract755)      PDF(pc) (1339KB)(293)       Save
    We studied 49 six-year Betula platyphylla progeny testing forest families to determine their growth and wood traits in Maoershan Experimental Forest, and selected the superior families of B.platyphylla by using continuous selection and index selection of growth and wood traits. There were very significant variations in height, diameter at breast height (DBH), volume per plant and preservation rate within the families. By the multiple comparison of four growth traits, we selected five superior families and three inferior superior families. By variance analysis for the wood traits of eight superior families, there were significant differences in wood basic density, content of ligin and holocellulose except fiber length. We constructed index equations using selection index and selected I 2 as the idealist multi-trait index equation, and determined the families for pulpwood production of 655, 604 and 630.
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    Cloning and SNP Analysis of DREB2 Gene in Fourteen Leymus Species
    GAO Gang;DENG Jia-Bin;GOU Xue-Mei;WANG Qian;ZHANG Yan;YANG Rui-Wu*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 47-51.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.009
    Abstract712)      PDF(pc) (1141KB)(373)       Save
    DREB2 transcription factor plays an important role in response to abiotic stresses of drought and salinity. We obtained the DREB2 sequences from 14 Leymus species. By sequence analysis, the DREB2 gene and amino acid are conserved among 14 Leymus species. The similarity of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence are 98.05% and 97.78%, respecctively. There are 3 bp deletion CTT in L.mollis. Among these sequences, there are 79 SNP identified. The polymorphism frequence is 1SNP/10.6 bp. Fourteen Leymus species can be well separated by the phylogenetic trees of DREB2 gene.
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    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of bHLH Gene from Taxus chinensis var. mairei
    ZHOU Hua1;ZHU Qi1;YANG Yan-Fang2*;LIU Hong-Wei2;YU Fa-Xin1;QIU De-You2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 52-59.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.010
    Abstract884)      PDF(pc) (1963KB)(403)       Save
    We cloned a new bHLH transcription factor named TcMYC by RT-PCR technology from Taxus chinensis var. mairei, with GenBank accession number KC878013. By the Blast analysis, it belongs to MYC subgroup. By the bioinformatic analysis, the sequences length of TcMYC is 1 959 bp encoding one opening reading frame with 650 amino acid residues with hydrophilic property. The molecular weight of TcMYC is 71.4 kD, and the theoretical pI is 4.87. The predicated protein TcMYC is localized to cell nucleus, as well as contained one helix-loop-helix structure. By Blast and multiple sequences alignment analysis, TcMYC shares 98%, 45% and 44% identity with Taxus cuspidata, Vitis vinifera and Nicotiana tabacum, respectively. The constructed tree shows that the MYC transcription factors of the plants belonging to the same family clustered together, and as Taxus is a gymnosperms plant, TcMYC and TaMYC are not clustered with other angiosperms plants. The expression of TcMYC is a little declined in Methyl jasmonate induced Taxus cell culture. TcMYC may regulate Taxol biosynthesis in negative.
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    Constructing and Analyzing SSH Library for the Early Response Genes in Wheat Brock after Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici Stress
    QIAO Shi-Yao;LIU Xiao-Ying;WANG Yan-Hong;XIAO Ying;SUN Shi-Nan;WANG Zhen-Ying*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 60-67.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.011
    Abstract566)      PDF(pc) (1750KB)(256)       Save
    We constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library for the early response genes in wheat Brock under Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici(Bgt) stress by using the cDNA from Bgt-inoculated Brock leaf as the tester and the cDNA from Bgt-uninoculated Brock leaf as the driver. Fifty positive clones were picked randomly and sequenced, 38 redundant sequences were acquired. By sequence comparison against the GenBank database, 28 sequences was homolog of known genes. The transcriptional levels were assayed by fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the ABC transporter, serine/threonine protein kinase, Lr1 gene-related protein, Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and Chlorophyll a/b binding protein were involved in the early response to Bgt stress in wheat cultivar Brock. Our work was useful for the powdery mildew resistance mechanism in wheat.
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    SSR of Genetic Distance and Clustering Analysis on Different Populus Section Clones
    LI Shu-Chun1;XIA Hui2;YAN Dong2;MENG Bing-Nan3;YAO Li-Xin3;LIU Ting-Ting4;CUI Yong-Hong5;CHENG Yu-Fei6;ZHAO Xi-Yang2,5*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 68-76.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.012
    Abstract917)      PDF(pc) (1351KB)(370)       Save
    Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) was employed to study the genetic analysis and genetic distance (GD) among 48 clones in Populus L. Sixteen polymorphism markers produced 81 alleles (size ranged from 100-600 bp) totally. GD ranged from 0.061 7-0.530 9 among 48 poplar clones with the average of 0.250 4. GD ranged from 0.148 2-0.274 1 between inter-section and from 0.330 2-0.401 2 between different sections. By cluster analysis, 48 clones were clustered into 5 groups at 0.70, of which the clones divided into 5 section (sect.Leuce; sect.Aigeiros; sect.Tacamahaca; sect.Leucoides and sect.Turanga) clearly. Genetic distance of different section of Populus by molecular method can provide theoretical basis for cross breeding and molecular breeding in poplar.
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    Cloning and Transient Expression Analysis of Promoter of PnsICE1 from Populus simonii× P.nigra
    WANG Yan-Min1;BAI Hui1;YU Wen-Xi2;XING Ya-Juan1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 77-83.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.013
    Abstract717)      PDF(pc) (1568KB)(339)       Save
    ICE1 encodes a MYC-like bHLH transcriptional activator, which could specially bind to active domain of CBF3 promoter and induce transcriptal expression of cold-responsive genes downstream of CBF3, play important roles in stress response. A 1 247 bp sequence of PnsICE1 promoter was cloned from DNA of Populus simonii× P.nigra by PCR amplification method. By sequence analysis, it consisted of a typical core promoter region of eukaryotic, beside the basic elements: TATA-box and CAAT-box, and there were some hormone responsive elements and multiple stress-induced elements of ABRE, DOFCOREZM, MYBCORE, MYCCONSENSUSATHSE and W-box. PnsICE1 promoter may associated with adversity stress and play important roles in response to various stresses in P.simonii× P.nigra. To verify the biology function, recombinant vector was designated as pBI121-ICEPro through replacing CaMV35S promoter in pBI121 by cloned PnsICE1 promoter fragment. In the vector, gus reporter gene was driven by PnsICE1 promoter. GUS histochemical assay in Arabidopsis thaliana after transient infection showed that gus expressed in both flower and root.
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    Composition and Characteristics of Seed Rain in Baishanzu Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest
    ZHOU Li-Meng1;ZHOU Rong-Fei2;WU Meng-Si1;YE Zhen-Lin2;DING Bing-Yang1;LUO Zheng-Rong3*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 84-91.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.014
    Abstract643)      PDF(pc) (1708KB)(348)       Save
    We established 50 seed rain traps in a 5 hm 2 forest plot in Baishanzu National Natural Reserve to study the composition and temporal dynamics of seed rain in community of Baishanzu broad-leaved evergreen forest. We collected seeds and fruits twice a month during 2009-2012, then identified and divided into four types, including mature fruit, immature fruit, young fruit and seed, and counted by types. During the four-year research period, we collected 13 627 fruits and 10 132 seeds, including 5 632 mature fruits accounting for 41.33%, belonging to 47 species, 30 genuses and 16 families. Six dominant species' mature fruits took a comparatively low rate in total fruit number of that species, showing the feature of r-stratagem in Grime's theory. There was no significant correlation ( P>0.05) between the important value of the dominant species in the plot and their seed density, indicating the different conditions between seed rain and life history pattern afterwards. The asynchrony in seed rain dispersal peak time can relieve interspecific competition and increase species co-existence. The seed rain density of dominant species, except Schima superba and Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, showed obvious interannual variability.
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    Effects of three Arbuscular Mycorrhizas on Different Provenances of Amur Cork Seedings
    ZHOU Zhi-Qiang1;HU Yan-Ni1;PENG Ying-Li1;SUN Ming-Long1;ZHANG Yu-Hong1;LIU Tong2*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 92-100.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.015
    Abstract588)      PDF(pc) (1598KB)(300)       Save
    As the most widely distributed Mycorrhizal type, arbuscular mycorrhizal plays a very important role in plant growth and environmental improvement. Many studies confirmed that the arbuscular mycorrhizal can affect the process of plant secondary metabolism, and change the secondary metabolites. We screened three kinds of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungis, and chose three different sources of amur cork seedings as the research object in the inoculation experiment. By combining the different species and different kinds of sources, we explored the impact of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and alkaloid content of amur cork and its difference among different provenances. The growth and the alkaloid content of amur cork with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungis are better than those of the control group. The mycorrhizal fungi can effectively promote the growth of amur cork and the accumulation of alkaloid content. Overall, it is the Glomus mosseae that affects the content of berberine and jatrorrhizine mostly, and for palmatine it is Glomus intraradices. From the experimental results, there is difference among provenances in the impact on alkaloid with arbuscular mycorrhizal, and the difference may be related to the provenance.
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    Effect of Fire Disturbance on Nutrient Content and Soil Microbial Biomass of Two Forest Types
    HU Hai-Qing;LI Ying;ZHANG Ran;WU Wei;SUN Long*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 101-109.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.016
    Abstract675)      PDF(pc) (1575KB)(355)       Save
    In the burned area of Betula platyphylla and Larix gmelinii forests shortly after the fire in Yichun, we used the chloroform fumigation extraction method to examine the content of soil microbial biomass carbon(C mic) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen(N mic) from the two forest types in different months(June, August, October and December). We explored the relationship between C mic and N mic, and the influencing factors including soil water content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen after the fire. The overall mean C mic of the burned plots was lower than that in the unburned plots, and the overall mean N mic was increased after the fire in B.platyphylla. Compared with the unburned plots, C mic had no significant effect in different months shortly after the fire, the mean C mic in June, August, October and December in the burned plots(unburned plots) was 1 389.6(1247.2), 886.7(759.0), 1 098.9(1 052.6) and 1 421.4(1 749.7) mg·kg -1, respectively, yet the N mic was significant higher than that in the unburned plots in June, August and October with the mean N mic of 214.5(143.4), 101.9(67.5), 119.6(89.4) and 150.2(183.3) mg·kg -1, respectively. The soil microbial biomass was positively correlated to the soil water content, and N mic was influenced by soil pH significantly. Compared with the unburned plots, the overall mean C mic and N mic of the burned plots were lower than those in L.gmelini. The soil microbial biomass had no significant effect throughout different months of L.gmelinii. The mean C mic in June, August, October and December in the burned plots(unburned plots) was 689.7(695.9), 612.3(910.4), 361.6(474.7) and 1288.5(1353.8) mg·kg -1, respectively, and the mean N mic was 105.7(124.4), 91.4(111.4), 44.0(76.9) and 118.9(134.5) mg·kg -1, respectively. C mic and N mic were significantly positively correlated with soil water content, but negatively with soil pH. The overall mean soil pH ,soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen of the burned plots were higher than the unburned plots, yet oil water content was decreased in Betula platyphylla. The overall mean soil pH ,soil organic carbon and soil total nitrogen of the burned plots were lower than that in the unburned plots, however, soil water content was increased after the fire in L.gmelinii.
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    Effect of Thinning on Respiration Rate and Soil Carbon Density of Young-age Poplar-birch Stands in Western Changbai Mountains
    LIANG Jing1,2;WANG Qing-Cheng1*;XU Li-Juan1;WU Wen-Juan1
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 110-116.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.017
    Abstract770)      PDF(pc) (1481KB)(336)       Save
    We used young-age Poplar-birch stands to set three thinning treatments level to collect litter decomposition rate, carbon storage of soil Layer A and Layer B and soil respiration rate, analyzed the effect of differ thinning treatments of soil carbon storage, and discussed the theory of impact of soil carbon accumulation. Thinning was helpful to the accumulation and decomposition of forest litter, leaf litter decomposition weightlessness rate average size of T 2>T 0>T 1, but at the end of litter decomposition T 1 intensity carbon to release a quantity was the largest, 34.73% of the total weight before decomposition, higher than T 0 and T 2. Different thinning intensity was not significant effect on soil carbon content in each layer, but has a tendency to increase forest soil carbon, T 1 thinning intensity of soil total carbon storage is largest and it’s Layer A of soil total carbon ratio reached 80.95%, higher than T 0 and T 2. The regression of the soil respiration rate and soil temperature relationship was not significant, but thinning changed the soil temperature with the increase of thinning intensity, and soil respiration rate had a tendency to reduce. Different thinning of sensitivity of soil respiration rate of soil temperature was different, Q10 value for T 1<T 2<T 0. Thinning accelerated the decomposition of forest litter accumulation and had a tendency to reduce the soil respiration rate, so the appropriate intensity of tending thinning achieved the aim to increase the forest carbon fixed amount.
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    Effect of Ca 2+ on Mediating the MeJA-induced Synthesis of Triterpenoid in Suspension Cells of Betula platyphylla Suk.
    MA Hong-Si1;PAN Ya-Jie1;WAN Yan1;YIN Jing1*;ZHAN Ya-Guan1,2;ZHAO Wei1;ZHANG Meng-Yan1;LIANG Tian1
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 117-126.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.018
    Abstract803)      PDF(pc) (2117KB)(269)       Save
    We investigated the role of Ca 2+ in the MeJA-induced biosynthesis of triterpenoid by treating suspending cells of Betula platyphylla with CaCl 2, MeJA and combining with inhibitors of Ca 2+. MeJA could promote the synthesis of total triterpenes and oleanolic acid in the cells significantly, which, respectively reached the peak of 46.90 and 1.31 mg·g -1 after 48 hours’ treatment. The induction effect of MeJA decreased after treating by MeJA+EGTA and MeJA+LaCl 3·7H 2O. The accumulation amount of oleanolic acid were still higher than that of the control. By analyzing the activity of defense enzyme, the activities of CAT, PAL, APX were enhanced after treated by CaCl 2 and MeJA+CaCl 2, while the SOD was inhibited by Ca 2+. After adding two inhibitors of Ca 2+, all enzymes were effected significantly. The expression of key enzyme genes in the triterpene pathway such as FPS, SS, SE, BPW, BPY BPX2 was significantly upregulated after two hours’ MeJA treatment. The expression of BPW was reduced after two hours’ treating with MeJA+LaCl 3·7H 2O. The expression of BPY, BPX2, SS and SE regulated by MeJA+LaCl 3·7H 2O were higher than those treated by MeJA. Meanwhile the expression of BPW, BPX2, SS, SE and FPS were down-regulated at two hours after MeJA+EGTA treatment compared with MeJA treatment. Therefore, Ca 2+ played a role in triterpenoid biosynthesis induced by MeJA, but two Ca 2+ inhibitors had different effect and mechanism in triterpenoid biosynthesis.
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    Optimizing Polysaccharide Extraction from Peony Tree Pod Using Response Surface Method and Assessing Its Antioxidative Activity
    WANG Hong-Zheng1,2;LI Yuan-Yuan1,2;LIU Wei1,2;WANG Hua1,2,3;ZU Yuan-Gang1,2*;ZHAO Xiu-Hua1,2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 127-132.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.019
    Abstract689)      PDF(pc) (1273KB)(408)       Save
    We optimized the polysaccharide extraction from the peony pod and studied its antioxidant activity. By single factor design, we identified extraction parameters of particle size of material, extraction temperature, extraction time, liquid-solid ratio and final concentration of ethanol in precipitation step. A 3-factor, 3-level central composite design involving three independent variables followed by response surface analysis was performed for the further optimization of the extraction parameters. The optimal extraction conditions were 60-80 mesh of particle size, extraction temperature of 100℃, extraction time of 40 min, liquid-solid ratio of 20 mL·g -1, and precipitated ethanol with the final concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the predicted and experimental extraction yields of pod polysaccharides were 8.76% and 8.77%, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pod polysaccharide was determined by DPPH and reducing activity. The pod polysaccharide has the antioxidant capacity.
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    Seed Development, Lipid Accumulation and Its Relationship with Carbohydrates and Protein in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
    ZHAO Na;ZHANG Yuan;WANG Jing;LIU Xin;ZHAO Cui-Ge;GUO Hui-Hong*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 133-140.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.020
    Abstract588)      PDF(pc) (1950KB)(411)       Save
    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, belonging to the family Sapindaceae, is one of the most valuable oil trees widely distributed in northern China. We studied the lipid accumulation and its relationship with carbohydrates and protein in developing X.sorbifolia seeds. Seed development can be divided into stage Ⅰ from flowering to 33 days after anthesis(d), stage Ⅱ(34-47 d), stage Ⅲ(48-68 d) and stage Ⅳ(69 d to maturity) based on morphological traits combined with weight measurements. Oil bodies were first observed in the green embryo at around 33 d. Rapid lipid accumulation commenced at around 40 d and continued to 68 d. The long period of rapid lipid accumulation contributes to a high lipid level in the mature embryo (60% of dry mass). Differences in the accumulation patterns of lipid, carbohydrates and protein indicate that the lipid synthesis is achieved largely by soluble sugar directly from the photosynthesis of source leaves rather than transiently accumulated starch, and the lipid and protein accumulation are independent processes in the developing embryo. We detected six fatty acids in the developing embryo. Among them, oleic and linoleic acid dominated the lipid composition, but they exhibited contrasting accumulation patterns.
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    Removal Ability of Three Submersed Macrophytes on Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Water
    PAN Bao-Yuan1,2;YANG Guo-Ting1;MU Li-Qiang1*;MA Yun2;LI Jing2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 141-145.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.021
    Abstract781)      PDF(pc) (914KB)(411)       Save
    We studied the effects of three submersed macrophytes of Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Myriophyllum verticillatum L. on eutrophication water under different nutrition conditions. Three submersed macrophytes eliminated total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) effectively in water. The eliminate capacity for TN from high to low was H.verticillata, C.demersum L. and M.verticillatum L., and for TP the order was H.verticillata, M.verticillatum L. and C.demersum L.. Therefore, the submersed macrophytes is a significant method to reconstruct the eutrophic water ecosystem, and H.verticillata is a good purifying plant in eutrophic water.
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    A Micro-propagation Technique of Corylus heterophylla× C.avellana
    ZHANG Ling
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 146-149.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.022
    Abstract545)      PDF(pc) (925KB)(250)       Save
    In cold resistance appraisal of fine varieties hybrid hazelnut leaves, stems, axillary bud cotyledons, we studied various treatments on cold resistance hybrid hazelnut micro-propagation system with different culture medium, hormones and contents. By using ten tissue cultures of a fine varieties hardiness of F1 hybrid varieties, we selected the effect of three superior varieties 84 226, 84 310, 84 253. By using three culture medium of DKW, MS and WPM, WPM was more suitable for cold resistance hazelnut callus induction medium, and MS was the most suitable medium culture propagation. The basic training callus induction based formulations was cultured in WPM+6-BA 2.0 mg·L -1+NAA 1.5 mg·L -1, and axillary bud propagation was in MS in good condition with the hormone of 6-BA 1.5 mg·L -1+NAA 0.1 mg·L -1. Our study can be used in cold resistance of hybrid hazelnut low coefficient, and can provide a theoretical basis for further industrial production plantlets.
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    Zn Stress Changchun Spend Different Parts of Zn Accumulation by Exogenous Ethephon Regulation
    JIN Ling;GAO Mei-Jiao;DUAN Xi-Hua;GUO Xiao-Rui*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 150-153.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.023
    Abstract609)      PDF(pc) (804KB)(317)       Save
    Catharanthus roseus root enrichment ability of Zn is stronger on exogenous zinc stress, so Zn damage to the root is larger. C.roseus root response to enrichment ability of zinc stress on the absorption of Zn with the concentration of Zn increased exhibit advanced in low concentration but controled in high concentration, Zn content of stem, leaves increased gradually with increasing Zn concentration, shows strong enrichment ability of C.roseus for Zn, and there is some potential hyperaccumulator. While the Zn transport ability is strong from mature tissue to young tissues. In the zinc stress based on adding exogenous ethylene, reducing the organization position of plant enrichment ability of Zn, reducing the zinc stress of C.roseus. To promote the Zn transport rate of mature tissue to young tissue, but inhibited Zn transport in C.roseus other tissue.
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    Polysaccharide Extraction from Peony Seed Pods by Water Bath
    LU Qi;GAO Yue;XIANG Feng-Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*;ZHANG Ying
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 154-157.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.024
    Abstract675)      PDF(pc) (942KB)(289)       Save
    We investigated polysaccharide extraction yield from peony seed pods by single-factor experiments with water extraction method under extraction temperature of 40-100℃, extraction time of 15-240 min and solidliquid ratio of 1∶5-1∶40 g·mL -1. Under the optimum extraction process of orthogonal test, extraction temperature of 100℃, extraction time of 60 min and solidliquid ratio of 1∶15 g·mL -1, the polysaccharide extraction yield reached to 8.34%. Water extraction method has the advantages of the simple process, no environmental pollution and no solvent recovery problem. Our results can provide the experimental evidences for peony seed pod utilization.
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    The Improved Stained Methods of Paraffin Sections Production
    WANG Xiu-Wen
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (1): 158-160.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.01.025
    Abstract956)      PDF(pc) (714KB)(726)       Save
    Paraffin section is one of the most direct and effective way to observe plant and animal tissues. We sliced rice leaf of 9 311 and stained with 1% Safranin-ethanol solution and Aniline blue-ethanol solution. The organization of our improvement is more complete than traditional paraffin, stained effect is more clearly than traditional method, and sliced rice leaf in this method can significantly shorten the rehydration and dehydration time in the late production and improved work efficiency.
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    Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis of Pseudostellaria(Caryophyllaceae) in China
    LI Chao;GE Wei-Na;LI Ming
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 161-164.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.001
    Abstract646)      PDF(pc) (858KB)(398)       Save
    We observed the leaf epidermis characteristics of six species from the genus Pseudostellaria in China under the light microscopy, measured and calculated the size and density of epidermal cell and stomata apparatus. The shapes of leaf epidermal cells are irregular, anticlines walls are repand or sinuate. The size of adaxial epidermis cell is about 61.7×95.8 μm-115.3×179.3 μm, the density is about 76-158 mm -2, the size of abaxial epidermis cell is about 46.4×72.4 μm-91.9×150.4 μm, and the density is about 104-287 mm -2. Most of species have stomata apparatus only on abaxial epidermis, the type of stomata apparatus is anomocytic, the density is about 30-143 mm -2, and the size is about 21.5×28.6 μm-30.4×47.2 μm. The stomata index is about 19.5-31.6. Stomata is oblong and thickened at the ending parts. Pseudostellaria is related to Stellaria, and is a derived taxon.
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    Observation Process of Free Nuclei Division and Cellularization in Ginkgo biloba L. Endosperm
    LU Zhao-Geng;LUO Kai-Ge;LI Wei-Xing;PAN Ye;ZHANG Min;WANG Li*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 165-171.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.002
    Abstract668)      PDF(pc) (2037KB)(314)       Save
    Using slicing and total dissection techniques, we observed the process of division and proliferation of free nuclei, and endosperm cellularization in Ginkgo biloba L. We analyzed the proliferate development of endosperm cells by the means of disassembling endosperm with the cellulose enzymes. The results showed that the division and proliferation of free nuclei occurred 5-30 days after pollination and cellularization occurred about 30-65 days after pollination.The female gametophyte mitosis resulted in many free nuclei, which was spherical shape with the average diameter of 2-4 μm. At the initial stages, the free nuclei distributed in the central cytoplasm. However, with the volume of central vacuoles increasing, cytoplasm and nuclei were pushed to around. Then, one layer of opening cells that had no cell wall at the side near central vacuole formed in the periphery after the formation of about 4 000-5 000 nuclei. Cells around grew centripetal and dissociative, till cavum was filled with endosperm cells and the cellularization was finished. The proliferate development of the endosperm cells took on “S”-shape curve, which was slowly at the early stage after pollination, then it changed faster during 40-55 days after pollination, and the number of endosperm cells reached the maximum at 65 days after pollination. Afterwards, the number of endosperm cells did not significantly changed. Therefore, the division and proliferation of free nuclei have unique traits, and the number of endosperm cells play a significantly role in the development of seeds in G.biloba.
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    Micromorphological Observations on Leaf Epidermis and Pollen of Prinsepia Royle in China
    YANG Rui-Lin1;WEI Xue-Zhi2*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 172-178.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.003
    Abstract821)      PDF(pc) (1887KB)(320)       Save
    We examined the micromorphology of leaf epidermis and pollen characteristics of four species of Prinsepia Royle in China by using scanning electron microscopy. Among them, it was the first time to report these above information of P.sinensis and P.utilis in Taiwan. The pollen grains were subglobose, radial symmetry, and tricolporate, the exine sculpturing was stripe with equatorial aperture, and the range of value of P/E was from 0.91 to 0.97. The size range varied within (19.62-27.30)μm×(21.53-29.59) μm. There were two types of pollen grains which were blunt- triangle and trifid round in polar view, two groups of aperture were goniotreme and peritreme, pollen had exine with perforations and exine with no pores. Two groups of pollen grains were mucus drip on the pollen exine without mucus drip. There were more differences in the density and spacing of vallate as well as the characters of colpi. Four species were divided into two types, epidermal hair or not. There were large differences between three species including the characters of cuticle, stoma density, waxy and stoma form. We provided the references about palynology and the micromorphology of leaf epidermis for classification study of native Prinsepia Royle, and theoretic basis for introduction and cultivation.
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    Tissue Culture System of Axillary Proliferation of Acacia crassicarpa
    HU Feng1,2;SHI Qiong1;HUANG Lie-Jian1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 179-184.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.004
    Abstract789)      PDF(pc) (1236KB)(312)       Save
    We studied the tissue culture system of Acacia crassicarpa by using the stemsegment with buds collected from 16-years plant as explants. The buds could be induced successfully on 2% of MS+sucrose with 67.33% of the survival rate and 80.56% of shooting rate after sterilized with 75% of alcoho1 and 0.1% of mercuric chloride for 30 s and 12 min, respectively. Low concentration of activated carbon effectively alleviated the verification, the best medium for multiplication was Modified-MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L -1+NAA 0.25 mg·L -1+Ac 0.1 g·L -1+sucrose 3% and the multiplication number was 3.72 after 35 days. The best medium for rooting was Modified-MS+IBA 0.5 mg·L -1+2% of sucrose, and the rooting rate was 98.83%. The survival rate reached 90.00% after transplanting seedlings to the nutrition cup with yellow soil.
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    In Vitro Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Quercus shumardii
    Lü Xiu-Li1,2;SHEN Lie-Ying1;SHI Ji-Sen2;ZHANG Chun-Ying1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 185-190.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.005
    Abstract727)      PDF(pc) (1492KB)(308)       Save
    With semi-lignified shoots sprouted from the girdling of 13 years old Quercus shumardii as explants, we established the regeneration system of Q.shumardii by in vitro culture. When the WPM was supplemented with 1.0 mg·L -1 BA , 0.1 mg·L -1 NAA and 5 mg·L -1 Biotin, 5 mg·L -1 acetylcholine, 5 mg·L -1 vitamine B2, and cultured for 40 d, the multiplication coefficient was 2.15. The rooting rate of single bud was 10% when cultured in 1/2 WPM supplemented with 2.0 mg·L -1 NAA, 5 mg·L -1 Biotin, 5 mg·L -1 acetylcholine, 5 mg·L -1 vitamine B2. The rooting rate was about 80% when roots were induced out-tube. Our work established technical system for tissue culture and plantlet regeneration of Q.shumardii with a solid foundation for the extension of its good quality seedlings.
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    Elaiosome Development in Chelidonium majus L. Seeds
    YANG Sen1;LI Jian-Xia1;XIA Xiao-Fei2;ZHAO Liang-Cheng1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 191-199.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.006
    Abstract728)      PDF(pc) (2171KB)(386)       Save
    We investigated the initiation, development and reserves of elaiosome in Chelidonium majus L.(Papaveraceae) seeds by parafin sectioning, SEM and histochemical tests. The elaiosome develops very early and its initial cells originate from the outmost layer cell of raphe at the stage of two to four nucleus embryo sac, so it belongs to the epidermal origin. The divisions of basal cells of elaiosome mainly take place before fertilization, and the growth and expansion of top cells mainly occur after fertilizing, leading to the remarkable enlargement of the elaiosome size. The initiation of the elaiosome has no relation with the ovule fertilization, but a normal growth of the fertilized ovule is needed for the later proper development of the elaiosome. The only reserve of the elaiosome in mature seeds is fat and the fat accumulation mainly occurs at the stage of near seed maturation. The elaiosome of Ch.majus should be referred to as strophiole in term of its origin position and its main function is to attract ants to disperse the seeds.
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    Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Defense Strategies in Overwintering Plants of Tsuga chinensis and Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana
    ZHANG Qiang1,2;GUO Chuan-You1;ZHANG Xing-Wang1;BAI Kun-Dong2*;JIANG De-Bing3
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 200-207.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.007
    Abstract596)      PDF(pc) (1857KB)(295)       Save
    We selected two dominant tree species including Tsuga chinensis and Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana grown in the evergreen needle-leaved and broadleaved mixed forest at high-altitude on Mao’er Mountain, and studied their seasonal changes in photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate( A max), chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidative system. T.chinensis and C.stewardiana down-regulated the values of chlorophyll(Chl) content, predawn maximum photochemistry efficiency of PSⅡ( F v/ F m-predawn), A max and stomatal conductance( G s) to the minimum during winter stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD), catalase(CAT) and the contents of ascorbic acid(AsA), glutathione(GSH) and carotenoids(Car) of C.stewardiana were the highest in winter, which showed good synergy in resisting adverse external environments and scavenging reactive oxygen species(ROS), while only AsA, GSH and Car in T.chinensis maintained good synergy in resisting winter stress. The seasonal changes of MDA contents in T.chinensis and C.stewardiana were correlated with the seasonal variations of environment as well as the seasonal variations of antioxidative enzyme activities and antioxidants accumulation. Therefore, T.chinensis and C.stewardiana had different antioxidant-defense strategies, but the same photosynthetic adaptation strategy was down regulation for winter acclimation.
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    Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Tobacco Containing PsATX and PsSOD Genes of Polygonum sibiricum Laxm.
    MA Jing1;QU Chun-Pu2;XU Zhi-Ru1,2*;YANG Chuan-Ping2;LIU Guan-Jun2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 208-217.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.008
    Abstract702)      PDF(pc) (2307KB)(246)       Save
    We analyzed the salt tolerance of tobacco plants which expressed both PsATX and PsSOD genes of Polygonum sibiricum Laxm., constructed univalent expression vector pROKⅡ- PsATX, pROKⅡ- PsSOD and dual-gene expression vector pROKⅡ- PsATX- PsSOD respectively, and then transferred them into tobacco mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic tobacco were identified by PCR method. We measured the content of malondialdehyde(MDA), reactive oxygen, proline(Pro), and the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the transgenic tobacco under salt stress condition to identify the salt tolerance of these plants. The transgenic tobacco containing PsATX, PsSOD and PsATX+ PsSOD genes respectively were obtained successfully. The integration of the foreign PsATX and PsSOD genes were confirmed by molecular identification. Under the treatment of 100 mmol·L -1 NaCl solution, the content of MDA, reactive oxygen and proline in the co-transformed plants was lower than that of wild type and univalent transgenic plants, but the SOD activity were higher than them. By the salt test, the transgenic tobacco contained PsATX+ PsSOD genes were more tolerant to salt stress than the transgenic tobacco contained PsATX or PsSOD genes.
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    Endogenous Hormone Contents of Cut Freesia Flowers during Vase Holding
    LIU Ya-Jie;CHANG Ping;TANG Dong-Qin*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 218-224.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.009
    Abstract467)      PDF(pc) (1552KB)(267)       Save
    We used the cut flowers of Freesia hybrida ‘Shangnong jinhuanghou’ to study the endogenous hormone content changes of petals in the process of flowering and aging during vase holding in distilled water. We determined the contents of auxin(IAA), gibberellic acid(GA), zeatin nucleoside(ZR) and abscisic acid(ABA) by enzyme-linked immunoassay, while measured ethylene releasing rate by gas chromatography, and observed the content changes of five endogenous hormones in petals during vase holding. The contents of endogenous ZR decreased constantly, and the lowest content decreased by 83.8% on the 10th day compared to that at beginning. The change trend of endogenous GA is similar to ZR content, the lowest content of GA was present on the 10th day, correspond to 3.8% by compared with that at beginning. However, the content of endogenous ABA, accumulating after a descend, dropped to the lowest level on the fourth day, equivalent to 52.4% of the content at beginning. Endogenous IAA content, showing a trend of decline after rising first, emerged a peak on the second day, and down to a minimum level on the 10th day, equivalent to 12.2% of the highest. At the same vase period, contents of the endogenous IAA, ZR and ABA had no significant difference in the different positions of inflorescence, but endogenous GA content in the upper floret of inflorescence is significantly higher than the base and mid in the first four days during vase holding. Change of ethylene releasing rate increased followed a constant decrease up to the end of vase holding. However, the ethylene releasing peak of mid position floret appeared on the second day, while the upper floret on the fourth day. The metabolic unbalance of endogenous hormone levels might be one of the causal factors of freesia flower senescence.
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    The Ecophysiological Response of Calligonum caput-medusae to Different Water Condition in Extremely Arid Region
    HUANG Cai-Bian1,2;ZENG Fan-Jiang1,2;LEI Jia-Qiang1,2
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 225-232.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.010
    Abstract538)      PDF(pc) (1765KB)(742)       Save
    The pot experiment was conducted to study the changes of plant growth and physiological characteristics of 1- and 3-year-old Calligonum caput-medusae under different irrigation treatments (30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 85% field water capacity(FC)), and find out the suitable water condition for the plant growth. The plant height, canopy, base diameter, assimilating branch diameter, and the biomass of whole plant declined significantly with the decreasing of irrigation amount for both 1- and 3-year-old plants. At both growth stages, stem was the main organ for dry matter accumulation. The dry matter allocation proportion of stem was positively affected by the increasing irrigation amount, but that was negatively for root. However, C.caput- medusae of 3-year-old could not produce fruit at the lowest irrigation level, and the fruit yield was significantly lower at 85% FC than that by other treatments. The assimilating branches had high chlorophyll and MDA contents under lower irrigation treatment. The damage of plasmamembrane was serious under drought condition. However, there was a large number of proline accumulated in the assimilating branches to adapt to water stress. The damage of plasmamembrane was reduced with the increasing of irrigation, and the proline and soluble sugar accumulations were complemented each other. The chlorophyll content decreased significantly under the highest irrigation treatment for both 1- and 3-year-old C.caput- medusae. Based on all of the above determined indexes, the comprehensive adaptability was in the following order: 60% FC>85% FC>50% FC>40% FC>30% FC. Therefore,the medium irrigation level (60% FC) is appropriate for establishing C.caput- medusae seedlings in this area.
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    Effects of KCl on Active Oxygen Metabolism and Osmotica Accumulation in Avena nude L. Seedlings under NaCl Stress
    LIU Jian-Xin;WANG Jin-Cheng;WANG Rui-Juan;JIA Hai-Yan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 233-239.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.011
    Abstract574)      PDF(pc) (1433KB)(272)       Save
    We studied the effects of KCl on the plant growth, active oxygen metabolism and osmotica accumulation in Avena nude seedlings (‘Dingyou No.6’) under 120 mmol·L -1 NaCl stress with sand cultivation in a greenhouse. Compared with 1 mmol·L -1 KCl, 10 and 20 mmol·L -1 KCl on A. nude seedlings, respectively, could significantly increase its weights of fresh and dry, relative water content, as well as its leaf activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, but decrease its the contents of O · 2, H 2O 2, malondialdehyde and glutathione and membrane relative permeability under the NaCl stress. Moreover, the effect of 20 mmol·L -1 KCl was higher than that of 10 mmol·L -1, but there were no significant effects on the catalase activity and ascorbic acid content, however, the damage of salt stress was significantly increased when KCl concentration was up to 3.0 mmol·L -1. The contents of soluble protein, soluble sugar and proline in A.nude leaves were significantly higher than that of others, when KCl concentration was 10 and 20 mmol·L -1, but its free amino acids contents were significantly lower than that of 1 mmol·L -1 KCl, and little variation in content of organic acids. The K +/Na + ratio in leaves of A.nude seedlings under NaCl stress increased significantly, and the plasma membrane H +-ATPase activities demonstrated a hump-shaped curve with the increase of KCl. Therefore, the ratio 6∶1 of Na +/K + could alleviate the negative impact of salt stress on A.nude seedlings through improving the ability of scavenging reactive oxygen species and osmotica accumulation.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Transcription Factor SlYABBY5 in Solanum lycopersicum
    WANG Su-Su1;CHEN Guo-Ping1;ZHANG Yan-Jie1;YIN Wen-Cheng1;ZHU Ming-Ku1; ZHANG Jian-Ling1;TANG Qu-Lin2;HU Zong-Li1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 240-249.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.012
    Abstract896)      PDF(pc) (1803KB)(435)       Save
    YABBY family is a small plant-specific gene family, with a typically N-terminal C2C2-type zinc finger domain and the C-terminal helix-loop-helix YABBY domain. By homologous sequence analysis, a YABBY transcription factor was cloned from tomato ( Solanum lycopersicon), and named SlYABBY5(GenBank accession number: AK246138). By bioinformatics analysis, the length of SlYABBY5 ORF is 549 bp, encoding 182 amino acid residues with relative molecular weight of 20.58 kD and an isoelectric point of 8.78. By real-time PCR analysis, SlYABBY5 gene might be involved in the development of tomato fruits and leaves. Expression of SlYABBY5 down-regulated under the treatments of IAA, ABA, GA 3, ASA and low temperature stress, while up-regulated under salt stress and leaves wounding. Our results suggest that SlYABBY5 might participate in the growth and development of tomato and abiotic stress responses, and provide the basis for unrevealing the function of SlYABBY5 gene in tomato growth and development as well as stress signaling pathway.
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    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of HRD Transcription Factors Gene from Two Kinds of Ephemeral Plants
    CHEN Qin1,2;QU Yan-Ying1,2;LIU Jing-Jing1,2;ZHU Yan-Fei1,2;YAO Zheng-Pei1,2;CHEN Quan-Jia1,2*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 250-258.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.013
    Abstract746)      PDF(pc) (1887KB)(328)       Save
    We isolated two transcription factor genes, named as CpHRD and SaHRD, from two kinds of ephemeral Conringia planisiliqua L. and Sisybrium altissimum L. by RT-PCR, respectively. By bioinformatics, both of CpHRD and SaHRD are possessing an intact complete open reading frame of 564 bp and sharing 88%, 87%, 87% and 86% of sequence identity with Eutrema salsugineum, Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella rubella and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The deduced polypeptide sequence of CpHRD and SaHRD are 187 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 20 kD with secondary protein structure of the polypeptide chains contain including 2 β-sheets, 5 α-helixs and random coils, belonging to hydrophilicity and stable of transmembrane protein. By phylogenetic tree analysis, CpHRD and SaHRD mainly exist in the nucleuscontains, and have a typical AP2/EREBP domain function structure, which may be involved in plant stresses response process of ABA, drought and low temperature. Our results can provide useful information about the molecular mechanism of HRD genetic mechanism of drought resistance, and will contribute a valuable resource for development and utilization of germplasm resources of ephemeral plant.
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    OsLOL2 Gene Clone of Rice and the Salt Resistance Analysis of Overexpression Arabidopsis thaliana
    GUAN Qing-Jie1,2;WANG Zhen-Juan1;ZHENG Heng1;LIU Guang-Tao3;LIU Shen-Kui3
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2015, 35 (2): 259-269.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.014
    Abstract656)      PDF(pc) (2506KB)(279)       Save
    A known LSD1-Like type zinc finger protein transcription factor OsLOL2 gene(LOC_Os12g41700) was cloned from the rice Longjing 11( Oryza sativa L. longjing11). By bioinformatics analysis, the length of the ORF of OsLOL2 gene is 519 bp, which encoded 172 amino acid residues, with 2 LSD1-Like zinc finger domain. The transformation of epidermal cells of onion by Gene gun shows OsLOL2 locates in the nucleus. By real-time quantitative PCR, the transcriptional level of OsLOL2 gene increased significantly in Longjing 11 roots and leaves induced under 30 mmol·L -1 NaHCO 3, 80 mmol·L -1 NaCl, and 10 mmol·L -1 H 2O 2 stress condition. Overexpression of OsLOL2 gene in yeast showed resistance to saline growth. Under stress condition, by the germination rate analysis, the germination rate of transgenic Arabidopsis was higher than that of wild type under NaCl and H 2O 2 stress. The germination rate and resistance on germination late showed the growing of overexpression strain was better than WT on 1/2 MS plate which contained 100 mmol·L -1 NaCl, 3 mmol·L -1 NaHCO 3 and 2 mmol·L -1 H 2O 2. OsLOL2 gene could improve resistance for plant salt alkaline, which was related to the ROS way of oxidative stress by salt-alkali stress. Our study can provide a theoretical basis for studying OsLOL2 gene involved in stress signal way and lay the foundation for creating of new rice with stress resistance.
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    Characterization of the Glycosyltransferase Gene UGT78H2 from Blackberry and Docking with Flavonoid Molecules
    CHEN Qing1;JIANG Lei-Yu1;WANG Yan1;ZHANG Yun-Ting1;WANG Xiao-Rong2;TANG Hao-Ru1*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.02.015