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    Bulletin of Botanical Research 2014 Vol.34
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    Two New Species of Yushania Keng f.(Poaceae) from Western Slope of Gaoligongshan,Yunnan,China
    YANG Lin;YI Tong-Pei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 1-5.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.001
    Abstract921)      PDF(pc) (843KB)(345)       Save
    This paper issued two new species of Yushania Keng f. from Western Slope of Gaoligongshan, Yunnan. Y.gigantea Yi et L. Yang is similar to Y.xizangensis Yi, but collar of this species is wide, 7~12 mm in diam., internode to 2.5 cm long; bigger culms, 6~7 m tall, internodes complanate or short longitudinal ditch on base a side of ramification, leaves (5) 6 (7) per ultimate, sheath (2.5) 3.2~4.8 cm long;,petiobles glabrous,blade biger, (3.5)10~18(20) cm×(0.45)8~1.3(1.8) cm. Y.pianmaensis Yi et L. Yang differs from Y.gigantea Yi et L. Yang by its shorter and smaller culms, 2.5~4 m high, 1~1.8(2.5) cm in diam.; more branches in per nodes, 12~30 per node, more slender, 1~1.5(2) mm diam. , culm sheaths glabrous, smaller blade, 1.5~3.5 cm long, 1~2.5 mm wide; A fewer leaves, (3)4~5 per ultimate branch, smaller blade, 12.5×0.8 cm.
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    Spatial Patterns and Successions of Vegetation in Shanxi
    QIU Li-Chuan;WANG Shang-Yi
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 6-13.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.002
    Abstract750)      PDF(pc) (1420KB)(418)       Save
    Shanxi is located China’s inner province and has a temperate continental monsoon climate. It is shaped like parallelogram, covers an area of 1.56×10.5 km 2. It has temperate vegetation, including broadleaf deciduous forest in central and southern Shanxi and steppe in northern Shanxi. Based on the vegetation map of Shanxi in 1984 and 2005, the map of formations was edited in ArcGIS software. Then range and area of each formation, forest, shrub, herbaceous vegetation and cultivated vegetation in Shanxi were got. Spatial distribution and its succession, spatial pattern and its change in vegetation were studied by the methods of overlay analysis and landscape pattern analysis. Forest was relatively concentrated in the southwest and significantly increased in the northwest corner. It was most dispersed distribution in the vegetation of Shanxi. Its area and proportion in vegetation were the lowest. Pinus tabulaeformis forest was dominant in forest. The reconstruction of forest depended mainly on P.tabulaeformis forest, Populus simonii forest and Quercus liaotungensis forest. Shrub in 1984 was the largest area, occupied the highest proportion in vegetation and more than 50%. It covered in contiguous area which was the biggest in vegetation. However, it decreased rapidly in central and southern Shanxi. Shrub was most seriously damaged in the vegetation of Shanxi. Hippophae rhamnoides, Ostryopsis davidiana shrub and Cotinus spp., Forsythia suspensa shrub were the biggest influence on shrub. Herbaceous vegetation decreased mainly in northern Shanxi and increased in central and southern Shanxi. It was more dispersed than before. Bothriochloa ischaemum grassland was dominant and Artemisia spp., grass steppe and Thymus mongolicus, grass steppe changed most obviously in herbaceous vegetation of Shanxi. Cultivated vegetation increased obviously. Its proportion in vegetation increased rapidly and became dominant in vegetation of Shanxi. Forest and cultivated vegetation increased 24.3% and 71.5% respectively, but shrub and herbaceous vegetation decreased 70.3% and 15.6% respectively. Succession was mainly caused by human being.
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    Prediction of Origin and Dispersal of the Chinese Genus Bupleurum using RASP Software
    WANG Qi-Zhi;YU Yan;HE Xing-Jin;WANG Chang-Bao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 14-24.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.003
    Abstract1074)      PDF(pc) (1738KB)(439)       Save
    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of 26 Chinese species of Bupleurum were firstly conducted using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cpDNA rps16 based on the RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies) software, including the Statistical Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA) and Binary Bayesian MCMC methods (BBM). Seseli squarrulosum and S.mairei were used as out-groups. Our findings indicate that the proportion of ancestor distributions are most probably from the South China based on ITS and rps16 sequences in special spots, and Southern China is mostly likely the Chinese origin for Bupleurum. The likelihood of dispersal is highest at 20 and 2.5 megayear before present (Ma Bp), and lowest at 15 Ma Bp in the Time-Event curve. Our study further suggests that the scatter distributions are in North China, and species in northern China were separated from the southern conspecific during the 20 Ma Bp (Lu-shan glacial substage). Species from southern China dispersed outwards via various routes. The genus Bupleurum had a low rate of dispersal at 15 Ma Bp when the southern regions provided refuge for species during the cooling period. Both southern and northern species diversified and dispersed again at 2.5 Ma Bp (Dali glacial substage) due to the uplift of Qing-Zang Plateau.
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    Comparative Study on Morphological Characteristics and Ecological Adaptability of Vessel Elements of Ten Ribes L. Varieties
    LI Guo-Xiu;ZHENG Bao-Jiang*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 25-31.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.004
    Abstract641)      PDF(pc) (1309KB)(335)       Save
    The morphological structure of vessel elements of ten Ribes L. varieties were observed and studied by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are as follows: (1) The perforations for vessel elements of the ten Ribes L. varieties are scalariform perforation plate, and the number of perforation plate bars is different while the angles of end wall are in the little change. (2) There are alternate pitting and both alternate pitting and opposite pitting, and the shape of pits are different. (3) In the inner wall of some vessel elements, there are spiral thickenings and nets embossment. The researches show that Ribes L. varieties under different habitats have strong correlation between morphological structure and its ecological adaptability. The results show that the vessel elements of hygrophilous species are shorter and wider in diameter, while the vessel element of the xerophytes species are longer and smaller in diameter and ones of mesial species are in the middle size in both length and diameter. The relationship between the morphological characteristics of vessel elements and their ecological adaptability was analyzed in this paper.
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    Molecular Evidence for Bidirectional Hybrid Origin and Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis as the Mainly Maternal Plant of the Diploid Hybrid H.goniocarpa(Elaeagnaceae)
    JIANG Yan-Fei;YAN Rong;SU Xue;CHEN Wen;SUN Kun*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 32-36.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.005
    Abstract897)      PDF(pc) (788KB)(366)       Save
    Hippophae goniocarpa is a natural hybrid species through homoploid hybridization between H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa distributed sympatrically. Maternally inherited cpDNA trnS-G sequence was used to detect the genetic relationship among 93 individuals of H.goniocarpa and its parent species which distributed sympatrically in Gongbeiwan and river land of Babao of Qilian, Qinghai. The results showed that H.goniocarpa and its parent species in the Gongbeiwan and river land of Babao had 12 and 7 haplotypes, respectively. H.goniocarpa shared common haplotypes with both H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa in the two places. Twenty-eight out of 36 individuals of H.goniocarpa shared common haplotypes with H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis(H2, H4, H5), only two individuals shared common haplotypes with H.neurocarpa at Gongbeiwan. Seven out of 10 individuals of H.goniocarpa shared common haplotypes with H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis(H4), 3 out of 10 individuals of H.goniocarpa shared common haplotypes with H.neurocarpa(H7) at river land of Babao. Phylogenetic tree of H.goniocarpa and its parent species from two regions was constructed by Maximum Parsimony (MP), and the results showed that most individuals of H.goniocarpa were clustered together with H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis. In addition, 6 individuals of H.goniocarpa with 4 typical haplotypes (H3, H7, H8 and H9) were also clustered with H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis. The bidirectional hybrid origin of H.goniocarpa is further proved here and H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is found to be the main maternal source.
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    Genome-wide Identification and Characterization of NLP Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa
    WU Xiang-Yu;XU Zhi-Ru;QU Chun-Pu;LI Wei;SUN Qi;LIU Guan-Jun*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 37-43.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.006
    Abstract1359)      PDF(pc) (1416KB)(435)       Save
    NLP gene family is a special transcription factor, the initiation of nodule development is dependent on the function of this gene family, in other species plant it has the function of regulating plant nitrate absorption and assimilation. Genome-wide analysis in Populus trichocarpa had identified 14 NLP gene family members. These members have the characteristics of low hydrophilic, the conservative gene structure and contain RWP-RK and PB1 two conservative domain. The localization of all members of NLP genes in P.trichocarpa was predicted in the nucleus. Evolution analysis showed that NLP gene family members experience strict filter. Chromosome localization analysis showed that the members of P.trichocarpa NLP genes were located on 9 chromosomes, the expanding of NLPs in P.trichocarpa was caused by Salicaceae duplication events. Microarray data analysis showed that NLPs had a high transcript accumulation in leaf, root and male catkins, some genes were expressed in xylem, seed and female catkins, but no gene was detected in the mature leaf.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of a DEAD-box RNA helicases Gene, SlDEAH1 in Solanum lycopersicum
    ZHANG Jian-Ling;CHEN Guo-Ping;ZHU Ming-Ku;TU Yun;HU Gong-Ling;HU Zong-Li*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 44-52.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.007
    Abstract768)      PDF(pc) (1669KB)(367)       Save
    DEAD-box RNA helicases, which function as the RNA chaperones, are involved in RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA degradation and gene expression. In addition, they also play important roles in plant development and stress tolerance. A DEAD-box homologous protein was selected from the NCBI database by means of program of homologous alignment according to the published DEAD-box protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize and named SlDEAH1, then the specific primers, which being used to amplify the cDNA sequences of SlDEAH1 from wild type tomato AC ++, were designed according to the DNA corresponding sequences. Bioinformatics analysis, expression pattern, stress and hormone treatments were used to study the DEAD-box gene SlDEAH1. The results showed that the open reading frame of SlDEAH1 was 2 073 bp, encoding 690 amino acid residues. In the protein of SlDEAH1, 9 conserved motifs were found to be essential for the helicase activities such as ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis and RNA binding. RT-PCR expression pattern analysis showed that SlDEAH1 may play important roles in sepal and leaf development and fruit ripening. High temperature, low temperature, dehydration, wounding and salt stress induced the expression of SlDEAH1 in different degrees in leaves, but its expression in roots was obviously inhibited by salt stress. Furthermore, the expression of SlDEAH1 was also induced in different degrees by ABA, ACC, IAA, GA 3, MeJA and ZT, and the inductive effect of ABA was the most obvious. These results lay a foundation for further study on the physiological function of SlDEAH1 in the development and stress response of Solanum lycopersicum.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of DtpsMADS1 Gene from Doritaenopsis hybrid
    YUAN Xiu-Yun;TIAN Yun-Fang;JIANG Su-Hua;WANG Mo-Fei;MA Jie;CUI Bo*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 53-61.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.008
    Abstract786)      PDF(pc) (1526KB)(436)       Save
    Plant MADS- box genes encode a family of highly conserved transcription factors which involved in many different developmental processes, including floral formation and flowering. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of floral development in the monocotyledonous species Doritaenopsis hybrid, we isolated cDNA of a MADS- box gene from this plant by the method of 3′ and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends using degenerate primers designed according to the MADS- box protein family conserved region from inflorescence rachis at flowering stage. The full length cDNA of this gene is 960 bp, with a 37 bp 5′ UTR, an ORF of 753 bp and 185 bp 3′ UTR encoding 245 putative amino acids. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated a high degree of predicted protein sequence identity with those from other species. The gene belongs to the class of AP1/ FUL-like group of MADS- box genes and was termed as DtpsMADS1(accession No.JQ065097). Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that DtpsMADS1 had obvious expression specificity in different organs; DtpsMADS1 had higher levels of expression in root and leaf at pre-flowering stage and post-flowering stage, meanwhile had lower levels of expression at seedling stage and full-blossom stage; The expression of DtpsMADS1 in inflorescence rachis showed the same tendency as root and leaf; However, only trace expression level was detected in flower organs. The results suggested that DtpsMADS1 could be involved in regulating the flowering process, not in floral morphogenesis.
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    Cloning and Loss Expression Analysis of 5′ Flanking Sequence of UDP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Sugarcane
    YE Bing-Ying;WANG Ting;HE Wen-Jin;QIU Si;CHEN You-Qiang;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 62-67.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.009
    Abstract707)      PDF(pc) (1133KB)(329)       Save
    The different lengths of 5′ flanking sequence of UGPase were cloned by Adaptor-ligation PCR. These different lengths of 5′ flanking sequences of UGPase gene were fused with the coding sequence of GUS ( β-glucuronidase) gene to construct fusion genes. All the fusion genes were injected into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum for transient GUS expression. The results showed that the 5′ flanking sequence of UGPase gene did not have any promoter activity.
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    Cloning, Bioinformatics and Expression Analysis of SlDP1 Gene in Tomato
    DU Li-Xin;HU Zong-Li;ZHANG Jian-Ling;CHEN Guo-Ping*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 68-74.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.010
    Abstract694)      PDF(pc) (1503KB)(385)       Save
    DP gene belonging to DP/E2F transcription family, encodes a dimeric chaperonin of E2F protein, which is essential for regulating cell cycle, DNA replication, growth, differentiation and apoptosis. According to sequence registered in SNG database, a DP gene was cloned using RT-PCR, and named as SlDP1 gene. SlDP1 protein is located in nucleus, contains conserved DNA-binding domain, dimerization domain, C-terminal domain and multiple phosphorylation sites. SlDP1 protein has 51.50% loop, 34.02% α-helixes and 11.87% β-strands. Exogenous hormone analysis manifested that SlDP1 gene was induced by ethylene precursor ACC. Results of abiotic environment response indicated that SlDP1 gene was not induced in leaves under wound and salt stress, but was apparently induced in salt-stress root. The expression pattern analysis revealed that expression of SlDP1 gene was stronger in flower, sepal and mature fruits. Taken together, our data establish a good foundation for studying the biological functions of SlDP1 gene in tomato life cycle.
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    Cloning and Gene Expression of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Gene( AsHMGS) from Aquilaria sinensis(Lour.) Gilg
    LIU Juan;XU Yan-Hong;YANG Yong;LIANG Liang;GAO Zhi-Hui;YANG Yun;ZHANG Zheng;SUI Chun;WEI Jian-He;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 75-84.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.011
    Abstract765)      PDF(pc) (2064KB)(342)       Save
    Homologous HMGS gene cDNA was isolated from the stem of Aquilaria sinensis(Lour.) Gilg through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, and named as AsHMGS. The nucleotide sequence of AsHMGS gene was 1 831 bp and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 398 bp encoding 465 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51.4 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 6.25. Representative motifs of AsHMGS and active site were deduced in the amino acids sequence of AsHMGS. The results of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the protein sequence of AsHMGS had high similarity to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata, and Brassica juncea, followed by Camellia sinensis, Camptotheca acuminate, and Panax ginseng. The results of real-time PCR showed that the transcription of AsHMGS could be induced by methyl jasmonate.
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    Comparative Study on the Bisexual Flower and Unisexual Male Flower of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
    LÜXue-Qin;ZHANG Min;WANG Di;WANG Li*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 85-94.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.012
    Abstract901)      PDF(pc) (2377KB)(320)       Save
    Semi-thin sectioning and electron microscopy were used to observe and analyze the development processes in the bisexual flower and unisexual male flower of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. The results show that: (1)At the early microspore development stage, there is no obvious difference between these two different kinds of flowers. At the uninuclear phase of microspore development when the cell walls thicken, lip cells do not form in the bisexual flower, but develop in the unisexual male flower. At the mature microspore stage, the lip cells form completely and the anther forms a double heart-shape in the unisexual male flower. However, the anther has not broken completely and can not disperse pollen. (2)In the bisexual flower, the ovary has two rooms, the cells are closely packed, the stigmas are cylindrical with papillate cells, and there is a hollow canal inside the style. However, in the unisexual male flower, the development of stigmas cease without the formation of a hollow canal inside the style, the ovarian rooms shrink, and the embryo sac degenerates. (3)The tapetum cells of the unisexual male flower contain many protein bodies, amyloplasts, vacuoles, and Ubisch bodies, and the tapetum cells completely disappear at the later microspore development stage. However, these organelles become less abundant in tapetum cells of the bisexual flower, and the tapetum cells do not completely disappear. (4)The pollen cell wall thickens without germination apertures in the bisexual flower, whereas in the unisexual male flower there are three germination apertures on the pollen grains, and many vacuoles, protein bodies, and liposomes accumulate in the pollen grains.
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    Variation of Stem Growth and Morphology Traits of Exotic Pine Hybrids and their Correlations
    LUAN Qi-Fu;LI Yan-Jie;JIANG Jing-Min*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 95-102.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.013
    Abstract788)      PDF(pc) (1318KB)(368)       Save
    The hybrids studied include Pinus elliottii Engelman var. elliottii(PEE)× P.caribaea var. hondurensis(PCH), PEE× P.caribaea var. caribaea(PCC), PEE× P.caribaea var. Bahamensis(PCB), P.taeda L.(PTA)×PCH, PTA×PCC and PTA×PCB and they were tested by randomized complete block design with 5 replicates, single tree row plot in field located in the hilly area of mid-north subtropical zone. The tree stem height (H), Diameter at breast height (DBH), stem straightness (SF), branch size (BZ), branch layer number (BLN) and branch angle (BA) of the pine crosses at the age of five years were measured. At the same time, needle length (NL) and needle sheath length (FSL) of the hybrids and their parents were measured. The results of variances analysis showed that the stem growth and morphology traits of six pine hybrids have abundant diversity among different pine taxon, families and individuals. The coefficient of variance for stem volume and straightness was 30%-50%, and 2%-30% for other growth and morphology traits. Some of the variances had potential uses in selection of pine varieties with high yield and tolerance to the bad weather. For example, the needle length of the crosses of PEE and caribaea pine was shorter than their parents, and PEE×PCH had better stem form with good straightness and small branch angles. The crosses of PTA×PCH had several good growth and morphology traits such as fast growth, thin branches, small branch angle and good stem form. The correlation showed that the traits of stem growth, needle length, branch angle and stem straightness can be improved easily because they had positive correlation. Totally the research revealed that the exotic pine hybrids such as PEE×PCH had varieties with good stem growth and more tolerance to heavy snow and sleet storms, which was very important for the tree breeding under the climatic change circumstances all over the earth.
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    Extraction of Magnolol and Honokiol in Magnoliae Cortex by Response Surface Method
    FENG Xue-Hua;ZHANG Guo-Sheng;TAO A-Li;CAO Dian-Jie
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 103-107.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.014
    Abstract823)      PDF(pc) (995KB)(325)       Save
    Response surface method was used optimize the extraction techniques of magnolol and honokiol from Magnoliae. Solvent/solid ratio, ethanol concentration and extraction time served as independent variables while the total extraction yield of magnolol and honokiol served as the dependent variable. Based on multiple linear regression and binomial expression, central composite design and response surface method were employed to optimize the extracting process, and predicative analysis was conducted. The optimized extraction conditions showed that solvent/solid ratio 60 mL·g -1, ethanol concentration 72% and extraction time 78 min gave the total extraction yield 2.29%. The optimum process was simple in methodology and reliable in extraction yield.
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    Comprehensive Germination Quality Evaluation of Bupleurum chinense Seeds of Different Maturities from Qingchuan County with the Topsis Approach
    YAO Ru-Yu;WANG Fei;ZOU Yuan-Feng;WANG Lu;YANG Xing-Wang;CHEN Xing-Fu*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 108-113.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.015
    Abstract708)      PDF(pc) (1255KB)(332)       Save
    Topsis approach, a multiindexes evaluation method, can be used for comprehensive comparison of objects. This approach was used to investigate Bupleurum chinense seeds’ germination quality of different maturities from Qingchuan County. The anatomic structure of the seeds were observed with paraffin method, and their appearance was analyzed, and then the content of soluble sugar and soluble protein, thousand kernel weight (TKW), as well as the seeds’ germination indexes were determined. Seeds of different maturities differed in appearance, TKW, bibulous performance, germination characteristics, nutrients content and anatomical structure. After being post-harvested for 4 weeks, the embryo of seeds of different maturities can be developed into a similar level; with the increasing of the seeds’ maturity, seeds’ dry weight increased, seedling quality enhanced. Being analyzed with Topsis approach, the green seeds, which possessed a good germination characteristic, were recognized to be the superior group, followed by the yellow, the brown and the black. Black seeds’ TKW and embryo rate were greater than the others, but their germination rate was low, these may attribute to the highest contents of coumarins, which both inhabited the embryo growing and germination. Green seeds’ comprehensive quality is better than the others; followed by the yellow, and then the brown and the black. In terms of agricultural technique, it is better to harvest the seeds in time, hereby obtaining a low proportion of overripen seeds, which are inferior.
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    Relationships Between Stand Spatial Structure Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Broad-leaved Korean Pine( Pinus koraiensis) Forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve,Northeast China
    DONG Ling-Bo;LIU Zhao-Gang*;LI Feng-Ri;JIANG Lei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 114-120.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.016
    Abstract693)      PDF(pc) (1411KB)(324)       Save
    The relationships between stand spatial structure and influencing factors of broadleaved Korean pine forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of northeast China, was studied with the method of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The data were collected form the forest resource inventory of the study area in 2009, which contain 60 plots. However, only 28 plots of typical broad-leaved Korean pine were selected in this paper, including five stand spatial structure parameters and eighteen influencing factors. The results showed that the broad-leaved Korean pine forest of the study area had a reasonable stand spatial structure overall, e.g., the horizontal distribution pattern of stands was mainly random distribution, the states of tree growth were at the doctrine of mean as a whole, and the mixed degree of species were also high. The relationships between stand spatial structure and influencing factors could be reflected by the CCA. The first CCA axis accounted for the stand age, slope, hardwood ratio and aspect, and the second CCA axis showed variation due to aspect, soil organic matter and mean diameter at breast height. On the whole, the combination of these six factors largely determined the stand spatial structure characteristics. Furthermore, the influencing factors were quantitatively assessed. The stand spatial structure of broadleaved Korean pine forest explained by stand, terrain and soil factors reached 59.20%. Within that, pure terrain factors accounted for up to 30.68% of the variation, stand factors for 19.01%, and soil factors for 8.21%. Other undermined factors accounted for an additional 40.80% of the variation.
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    Response of Soil Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition in Typical Mixed Broadleaved-Korean Pine Forest
    LIU Jian-Cai;CHEN Jin-Ling;JIN Guang-Ze*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 121-130.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.017
    Abstract695)      PDF(pc) (1655KB)(332)       Save
    In order to determine the effects of increased nitrogen deposition on soil organic carbon and nutrients in mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing’an Mountains, China, a simulated nitrogen deposition field experiment was conducted from June 2008 to August 2010. Four nitrogen treatments (control, low, medium and high nitrogen) used CO(NH 2) 2 solution of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg·hm -2·a -1. We collected 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm soil samples and measured soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), alkali-hydrolyzable N(HN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) in June and October, 2009 and 2010. For two years experiments, we found that SOC and TN contents decreased with the increase of soil depth. Low and medium nitrogen treatments significantly increased SOC, HN and AK contents ( P<0.05). While, medium, high nitrogen treatments significantly reduced AP content ( P<0.05), and there was no significant changes of the TN before and after simulated nitrogen deposition field experiment ( P>0.05). Regression analysis showed that significant positive associations were found between the SOC and TN, HN, AP, AK ( P<0.001). The study suggests that continuous nitrogen deposition may increase the soil organic carbon pool and soil fertility in the mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest ecosystem.
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    Rapid Propagation Technique System of Blueberry
    GONG Xue-Yuan;DU Ya-Tian*;ZHANG Xiang-Yu;LIU Jiao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 131-135.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.018
    Abstract728)      PDF(pc) (1030KB)(318)       Save
    Budding stems of Vaccinium corymbosum hybrid were used as the test materials to systematically investigate tissue culture. Proliferation and induction of cluster buds, effects on cluster buds induction and proliferation of the subculture time, test-tube rooting, ex vitro rooting, transplantation survival rate with these two different rootings in V.corymbosum hybrid were researched with tissue culture. The optimal proliferated and induced medium for V.corymbosum hybrid was WPM medium with 2.0 mg·L -1 ZT, and proliferation rate can reached 3.5; the proliferation rate can reached 24.00 with six times of subculture culture. The optimal medium for test-tube rooting was WPM medium with 0.5 mg·L -1 ZT, 0.1 mg·L -1 IBA with rooting rates of 80.73%±3.17%, and the rooting culture time is 100 d. The best methods for ex vitro rooting was taking explants diping in solution with 25 mg·L -1 IBA for 10s, and the nutrient solution is 1/6 WPM with the perlite as support materials with rooting rates of 80.00%±5.00%, and the rooting culture time is 40 d. The survival rate of ex vitro rooting is two times to test-tube rooting. The rapid propagation technique system have established and laid the technical foundation on industrialized seedling.
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    Analysis on the Aroma Components of Different Floral Organs of Aromatic Camellia ‘Kramer’s supreme’ Based on HS-SPME/GC-MS
    FAN Zheng-Qi;LI Ji-Yuan*;LI Xin-Lei;YIN Heng-Fu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 136-142.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.019
    Abstract670)      PDF(pc) (1105KB)(332)       Save
    The volatile oils from different organs of Camellia ‘Kramer’s supreme’ flowers were extracted by HS-SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. Eighty-nine, eighty and twenty-one kinds of compounds were detected from the integral flower, petals and stamens, respectively. The aroma components were consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, benzene compounds, alkanes, alcohols, straight chain olefins, aldehydes, ketones. The relative content of linalool is the highest in the compounds list, followed by cis-linaloloxide, methyl salicylate, tetradecane, etc. A significant difference exited between petals and stamens. The relative contents of linalool in petals and stamens were 15.12% and 63.97%. Alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons were rare in stamens. The absolute amount of aroma components from all petals was three times over to that from all stamens in a same full flower, but the results were converse when comparing the weight of two sample. It indicated that petals and stamens had the same contribution to the fragrance of ‘Kramer’s supreme’.
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    Sorbus aueuparia‘macrocarpa’——A New Species in Sorbus L.
    WANG Jun;CHEN Shi-Yong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (1): 143-144.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.01.020
    Abstract753)      PDF(pc) (369KB)(340)       Save
    Sorbus aueuparia ‘macrocarpa’ is a new species screened from Sorbus aueuparia introduced from Russia. The fruit is big, the maximum diameter reaches 1.1 cm, the stipules are persistent, the back of leaves are hairless. It grows fast with strong resistances to diseases and insects.
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    Delphinium furcatocornutum,A New Species of Ranunculceae from Sichuan
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 145-147.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.001
    Abstract717)      PDF(pc) (405KB)(380)       Save
    A species of the genus Delphinium(Ranunculaceae), Delphinium furcatocornutum, is described as new from Sichuan Province. In having sepals with furcate horn-like projections, this species is related to D.campylocentrum Maxim., in which the sepals also bear furcate horn-like projections, and from the latter differs in its 3-parted, abaxially glabrous leaf blades, 3-5 flowers arranged in corymbs, white-puberulous pedicels, slightly downward curved sepal spurs, and not 2-lobulate petals.
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    Leaf Comparative Anatomy of Styrax(Styracaceae) in Hunan
    LIANG Wen-Bin;ZHAO Li-Juan;LI Jia-Xiang*;XIAO Jian
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 148-158.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.002
    Abstract793)      PDF(pc) (2381KB)(333)       Save
    The leaf epidermal micromorphology and anatomical structures of ten species in the genus Styrax from Hunan province in China were examined and statistically analyzed under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results were as follows: (1)The epidermis was composed of a single layer of cells which are polygonal or irregular in shape and their anticlinal walls are straight, arched, or sinuous; (2)The size and density of stomata apparatus between species are significantly different; (3)The inner margin of the outer stomatal rim of stomata apparatus is nearly sinuolate or sinuous, and the cuticular ornamentation around stomata apparatus is characteristically distinguished by the bird’s nest-like cuticular ornamentation of S.tonkinensis and the bowl-shaped cuticular ornamentation of S.suberifolius; (4)The T-shaped thickening at either polar region of stomatal guard cells is found in S.hemsleyanus, S.dasyanthus and S.faberi; (5)The upper epidermis of S.suberifolius and S.macrocarpus was composed of large cells; (6)The mesophyll was differentiated into palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma, and the thickness of palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma and the ratio of palisade to spongy thickness are distinctly different among species. The palisade parenchyma of S.tonkinensis is differentiated into two layers; (7)The main vein vascular tissues constitute a closed ring structure in S.macrocarpus and S.odoratissimus but an open semicircular structure in other species. The leaf epidermal micromorphology and anatomical structures can be used as an important basis for the identification and classification between species of Styrax, which is of some taxonomic significance.
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    Ultrastructural Observations on the Formation of Spore Ornamentation in Asplenium sarelii
    DAI Xi-Ling;CAO Jian-Guo;LI Xin-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 159-163.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.003
    Abstract626)      PDF(pc) (1100KB)(334)       Save
    The formation and development of the spores and their ornamentations of the fern Asplenium sarelii(Aspleniaceae) were studied by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results were as follows: ①The development of the sporangium of A.sarelii belongs to Leptosporangiate-type. ②The exospore is smooth, with a thickness of about 0.8-1.1 μm in the distal surface and 1.4-1.8 μm in the proximal surface. ③The perispore, with a thickness of about 4-5 μm, can be distinguished into an outer perispore and an inner perispore. The inner perispore is closely associated with the outer surface of the exospore. The inner perispore has cylinder, tuberculate, and verrucate projections on the out surface. The outer perispore uplifts and forms the lophate ornamentations. Simultaneously, cavities are formed inside the outer perispore and the fins are formed outside the perispore. ④The formation processes of the exospore and perispore of Asplenium-type spores are similar with that of Dryopteris-type spores. ⑤The maturity degree of the spore during development is a key factor for studying the spore palynology. Only the matured spore possesses stable spore ornamentation.
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    Development of Gametophyte and Oogenesis of the Fern Lygodium japonicum
    GUO Yan-Dong;CAO Jian-Guo*;Li Xin-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 164-169.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.004
    Abstract616)      PDF(pc) (1290KB)(342)       Save
    Gametophyte development and oogenesis of the fern Lygodium japonicum were studied using microscopy. The spores are tetrahedral and trilete. The spore germination pattern is the Anemia-type. The gametophyte development showed various forms. When the filaments length reached 3-5 cells, they can produce plate by longitudinal division of the apical cell, and finally formed the heart-shaped prothallus, which can produce antheridia(an) and archegonium(ar). However, the gametophyte can also produce 10 cell-lengthed filaments. These filaments usually produce irregular prothallus, which can produce antheridia and do not produce archegonia. The development of the prothallus is the Adiantum-type. Sex organs are the Leptosporangiate-type. Sections observations showed that the archegonium develops from a superficial initial cell under the growth point. Two divisions of the initial cell result in a tier of three cells, i.e. the upper cell, primary cell and basal cell. The primary cell finally develops into a neck canal cell, a ventral canal cell and an egg by two unequal divisions. These three cells were closely associated with each other. Then the neck canal cell and the ventral canal degenerated gradually. A separation cavity was formed around the matured egg. Light microscope observation showed that no typical egg envelope was formed in the surface of the egg and no fertilization pore was observed in the matured egg.
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    Inflorescence and Floral Organ Development in Carpinus cordata
    ZHU Jun-Yi;ZHANG Li-Fan;SHEN Peng;REN Bao-Qing;LIANG Yu;CHEN Zhi-Duan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 170-176.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.005
    Abstract866)      PDF(pc) (1424KB)(328)       Save
    Morphogenesis of inflorescence and flowers in Carpinus cordata was observed under scanning electron microscope for the first time, which would provide micro-morphological evidence for the phylogeny and evolution in Betulaceae. The female inflorescence in C.cordata was composed of cymules arranged spirally; one primary bract and a group of cymule primordial meristem were differentiated from one cymule primordium, and two floral primordia and two secondary bracts were differentiated from the cymule primordial meristem; two carpel primordia were differentiated to form one bicarpellary pistil. The abaxial portion of secondary bracts developed faster than the adaxial one, which arranged in an unequal joint configuration. One layer circular perianth occurred in the base of pistil. The male inflorescences were catkin-like, composed of cymules arranged spirally. One primary bract and a group of cymule primordial meristem were differentiated from one cymule primordium, and three floral primordia were differentiated from the cymule primordial meristem, which differentiated into three small flowers without perianth, with two flowers laterally each having two stamens, and the small flower between them hasving four stamens. The total number of stamens of one cymule was eight, rarely ten. Three flowers are in a dichasial cyme, and the flower merosity is two.
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    Megasporogenesis and Development of Megagametophyte of Flueggea suffruticosa(Pall.) Baill.
    WEI Yuan;SHEN Guang-Shuang;ZHANG Nan;CONG Ming-Yang;SHI Fu-Chen*;LI Hou-Hun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 177-181.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.006
    Abstract708)      PDF(pc) (1270KB)(404)       Save
    Megasporogenesis and development of megagametophyte of the pistillate flower in Flueggea suffruticosa were observed by using the method of paraffin sections. The results showed that the pistillate flower of F.suffruticosa had epigynous ovary which was axile placenta; each ovary had 3 locules and bearing 2 anatropous bi-integument ovules in each locules. The ovules were crassinucellate and had nucellar beak and obturator. The development of embryo sac was of the Polygonum type. The mature embryo sac was consisted of two synergids and an egg cell near the micropyle, a central cell with two nucleus in the center, three antipodal cells by the side of chalaza. These results could provide basic data for the research of reproductive biology and pollination biology in Euphorbiaceae, meanwhile, for the research of plant taxonomy in Euphorbiaceae.
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    Pollen Germination and Storage of Magnolia sinostellata
    LU Lu;YU Ze-Zhi;LIU Xue-Yan;TONG Zai-Kang;SHEN Ya-Mei*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 182-187.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.007
    Abstract760)      PDF(pc) (1190KB)(354)       Save
    The pollens of Magnolia sinostellata were employed as experimental material to study the effects of different concentrations of sucrose, boron, calcium on pollen vitality of M.sinostellata through single factorial experiment and the orthogonal design. Moreover, the effects of storage condition and storage time on pollen germination were studied. The results showed that: the optimum medium was sucrose 30 g·L -1+H 3BO 3 200 mg·L -1+ CaCl 2 200 mg·L -1, in which the rate of germination was 74.56%. Low temperature contributes to the maintaining of the vitality of M.sinostellata. Storage under -80℃ condition, the vitality of pollen dropped in a slow rate. As the increase of storage time at low temperature, the vitality of pollen dried by silicone was higher than the moist pollen.
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    Effects of Canopy Position on Leaf Structures in Golden-Leaf Privet( Ligustrum× vicaryi)
    YUAN Ming;DONG Li-Hua;JIA Xue-Jing;YUAN Shu;DU Lei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 188-193.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.008
    Abstract770)      PDF(pc) (1247KB)(375)       Save
    Ligustrum× vicaryi is widely used as a landscaping shrub for horticultural ornamentation. It possesses leaves with two contrasting colors in the upper and lower positions. The upper leaves are golden while the lower leaves tend to be green during the whole growth season due to their positions. Light intensity may play a key role in generating these two types of leaves. In this paper, leaf anatomy in the upper golden leaves and lower green leaves was investigated. The results showed that light intensity did not affect the upper epidermis significantly; but under low light, the lower epidermis cells were smaller, and the stomatal density decreased. Mesophyll tissues in the lower leaves were thinner than those in the upper leaves, and the size of mesophyll cells increased and arranged loosely under low light. Thylakoids arranged more closely and the number of chloroplasts per leaf volume decreased under low light than those under high light. Low position promoted the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and made leaves dark green. The effects of canopy position on leaf anatomy in the golden-leaf shrubs were similar to other plants, but the content of photosynthetic pigments varied more largely than other plants. Taken together, golden-leaf privet could be an ideal plant to study leaf morphology, structures, development, physiology and biochemistry responses to canopy position.
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    Analysis on Composition of Pollen Exine and Pollen Morphology in Five Species of Gymnosperm
    ZHANG Min;LUO Kai-Ge;LI Hong;ZHANG Lei;WANG Li*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 194-199.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.009
    Abstract1268)      PDF(pc) (1209KB)(424)       Save
    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the composition of pollen exine in five species of gymnosperm, including Ginkgo biloba L., Abies firma Sieb et Zucc., Cedrus deodara(Roxb.) G.Don, Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook, and Cryptomeria japonica(L.f.) D.DON. The results showed that the infrared spectra of these pollen exines are mainly composed of the absorption bands of protein, lipids and polysaccharides, however, there were different components of pollen exine in these 5 species of gymnosperm. For example, there was much protein in pollen exine of G.biloba; rich lipids in pollen exine of Sonko; and polysaccharides in pollen exine of Taxodiaceae. In addition, there are significant differences in the spectra of different genus. Using scanning electron microscope, we observed that the pollens of C.deodara and A.firma are big in size, with two sacs. In contrast, the pollens of the other three species are small in size, without sacs. The surface of pollen exine in C.japonica and C.lanceolata showes orbicules, but that of C.deodara(Roxb.) G.Don and A.firma Sieb et Zucc shows the ornamentation of microgranulates with rough surfaceand smooth surface showing apertures.
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    Floristic Analysis on Spermatophyte Genera in Wudalianchi
    HUANG Qing-Yang;ZHU Dao-Guang;Zhong Hai-Xiu;XIE Li-Hong;NI Hong-Wei*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 200-203.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.010
    Abstract833)      PDF(pc) (839KB)(365)       Save
    Because of special geographical location and genesis, there are unique ecological characteristics and huge scientific value in Wudalianchi. According to the theory and methods in floristic, floristic analysis on spermatophyte genera in wudalianchi was studied. The analysis showed that: (1) The Wudalianchi seed floristic composition is abundant, there are 869 kinds of seed plants belonging to 369 genera and 99 families. The ratio of single-species and few species is very high, reaching 89.16% of total area. (2) The composition of floristic is complex, it contains 14 distribution type and10 variants type. The temperate elements of genera dominate obviously. (3) The origin of the flora is ancient, China unique genera is not obvious.
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    Relationship between Plant Diversity and Environmental Factors of Excentrodendron hsienmu Community in Karst Mountains in Pinguo County,Guangxi
    OU Zhi-Yang;;ZHU Ji-Yu;;PENG Yu-Hua;;HE Qin-Fei;;PANG Shi-Long;
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 204-211.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.011
    Abstract750)      PDF(pc) (1532KB)(361)       Save
    Excentrodendron hsienmu is a species endemic to tropical limestone areas. It is one of the constructive species in north tropical limestone seasonal rainforest. The mixed forest dominated by E.hsienmu is very important to the karst ecosystem. So far, little is know about the main environmental factors affecting the plant diversity in this community. To explore the effects of variations in soils and topography on the species diversity in this community, woody plants with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1.0 cm, shrubs, herbs, soils, and topographic factors were investigated in 15 plots in the karst mountains of Pinguo County, located in Guangxi, south China. α diversity indexes were calculated, and 7 soil properties were measured. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were employed in this study. It was observed that the community composition was simple, and the α diversity indexes were low. All the species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index in tree layer were the greatest, followed by shrub and herb layer. Results of PCA showed the accumulative variance contribution of the first three principal components was 78.8%. The eigenvalue of first principal component was 5.29, and it encompassed 44.0% of the total variation, which mainly reflected the variation in soil nutrients. Results of CCA showed α diversity of tree layer was sensitive to the variation of soil nutrients. Shannon-Wiener diversity index of tree layer was negatively correlated with total phosphorus (TP) and positively with total nitrogen. Shannon-Wiener diversity index of shrub layer was sensitive to the topography gradient. It was positively related to both slope position and elevation. Meanwhile, there was close coupling relationship between soils and topography. TP was positively correlated with position, and pH negatively with per. of covered rock.
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    Effects of Long-term High-temperature Stress on the Biomass and NonStructure Carbohydrates of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Seedlings
    LI Na;SUN Tao;MAO Zi-Jun*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 212-218.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.012
    Abstract661)      PDF(pc) (1518KB)(380)       Save
    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings were collected from three diverse geographic populations, Honghuaerji, Heihe and Mohe of Northeast China. As the study subjects, these seedlings were grown up for four years in greenhouse of Northeast Forestry University under the stress of long-term high-temperature cultivation experiments by artificial control. The effects of long-term extreme high-temperature stress (+15℃, +18℃, +21℃) on plant height, base diameter, root-shoot ratio, biomass allocation and non-structure narbohydrates (NSC) of P.sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings were studied, The degree of P.sylvestris var. mongolica tolerance to high temperature was ascertained. Our results showed that significant differences ( P<0.05) was found among the different geographic populations of plant height, base diameter, root-shoot ratio, biomass allocation. Among diverse geographic populations, the largest plant height, base diameter and biomass allocation was found in Heihe population, the lowest was in Mohe population. But the largest root-shoot ratio was in Honghuaerji population, the lowest was in Mohe population. There were significant differences among both soluble carbohydrate and starch of different organs in the same population and different populations of the same organ. The largest proportion of soluble carbohydrate and starch content among the three different populations was in Heihe, and the lowest proportion was in Mohe. Among the different organs, the largest proportion of soluble carbohydrate and starch content was in the foliage, and the lowest proportion was in stem. Our study demonstrated that the P.sylvestris var. mongolica seedings from Heihe showed strong ability to adapt long-term high temperature stress, had stronger physiological basis of resistance to high temperature stress compared with the other two populations, it indicated that P.sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings can adapt the temperature rise in 15℃, while the temperature rise in 20℃ could produce severe stres, which was the ideal P.sylvestris var. mongolica provenance in the future of the global climate warming of Northeast China.
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    Characteristics of Chlorophyll Fluorescent Parameters and Daily Dynamics of Photosynthesis in Female and Male Populus cathayana Cutting Seedlings
    HE Jun-Dong;XU Xiao;*;HUAN Hui-Hui;YANG Shuai;QIN Fang;
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 219-225.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.013
    Abstract607)      PDF(pc) (1405KB)(320)       Save
    A field research was conducted on the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescent parameters and daily dynamics of photosynthesis in dioecious Populus cathayana cutting seedlings. The results showed as follows: The curves of diurnal variation in P n, T r and G s of dioecious cutting seedlings leaves had two peaks, and a significant midday depression phenomenon, although there were differences in the time and the value of the peaks and valleys occurred in terms of P n, T r and G s. WUE i decreased from morning to noon, reached the lowest value and then increase, he female individuals had the highest value of WUE i at 16:00; The photosynthetic indexes of male individuals such as P n, G s, T r, WUE i, F m, F o, F m′, F o′, F v′/ F m′ and ETR were significantly higher than those of female individuals ( P<0.05), but significantly lower NPQ than female individuals. Moreover, the gender-pecific differences of male and female cutting seedlings in C i, L s, F v/ F m, F v/ F o, Ф PSⅡ and qP were not significant (P> 0.05); Correlation analyses showed that the parameters affecting P n could be ranked, from the highest to the lowest, as G s> C a> RH> VPD> T a> PAR, and the factors T r could be ranked as G s> C a> RH> VPD> PAR> T a. The effects of climate factors on photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate of P.cathayana were obvious. Comparing with the female, the male had higher efficiency of light energy captured, electron transport rate, photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency, and thus, had greater resistance against adversity.
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    Side-hain Modification of Aliphatic Glucosenolates by Peptide Methionin S Reductase PMSR2 in Arabidopsis
    WANG Chuan-Qi;ZHANG Xian-He;WANG Hong-Bo;YU Xin-Xin;LI Jing*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 226-231.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.014
    Abstract740)      PDF(pc) (1193KB)(407)       Save
    Glucosinolates are amino acid-erived secondary metabolites. Aliphatic glucosinolates are derived from methionine and have diverse biological activity dependent on chemical modification of the side chain. According to the glucosinolates profile in different tissues of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) combined with bioinformatics analysis, we predicted that there is possible reduction reaction from methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates to methythioalkyl glucosinolates in aliphatic glucosinolates side chain modification and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase 2( PMSR2) might be the candidate gene. To verify this assumption, transgenic plants overexpressing PMSR2 were established. Glucosinolates profile was determined and compared in PMSR2 overexpression line, wild type and pmsr2 mutant. Overexpression of PMSR2 did not alter glucosinolates profile but pmsr2 mutant showed higher MS GSL/MT GSL. The results indicated that PMSR2 is involved in side-hain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates and catalyze the conversion from methylsulfinylalkyl to methythioalkyl glucosinolates by S-educing. The identification of PMSR2 as a reductase in glucosinolates side-hain modification is helpful to better understand the biosynthesis and function of aliphatic glucosinolates.
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    Biomass Study on Pinus koraiensis Plantations in Eastern Heilongjiang Province
    SUN Mei-Ou;JIA Wei-Wei*;LI Feng-Ri;DONG Li-Hu;XIAO Rui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 232-237.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.015
    Abstract596)      PDF(pc) (1135KB)(311)       Save
    Two compatible biomass equations of Pinus koraiensis single tree were built using nonlinear simultaneous equations modeling theory, then biomass of each tree organ of every plot was calculated. The forest biomass distribution in tree organs based on forest age, diameter at breast height and forest density was analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of main forest factors on forest biomass was discussed. The results were as follows: Young age P.koraiensis plantation forest biomass are positively correlated with the average diameter at breast height; Forest density has a great effect on forest biomass and the most suitable forest density is 1 000-1 400 N·ha -1; The distribution law of young and middle-age P.koraiensis plantation forest biomass are the same, stem>root>branch>leaf, biomass of aboveground forest is the main part of stand biomass and accounts for about 79%; The proportion of aboveground and underground biomass is about 3.8∶1.
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    GGE-Biplot Analysis on Gene Expression of Seven Key Genes Mediating Biosynthesis of Steroidal Glycoalkaloid in Potato
    BAI Jiang-Ping;;CUI Tong-Xia;;ZHANG Jin-Wen;;ZHANG Jun-Lian;;WANG Di;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 238-244.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.016
    Abstract733)      PDF(pc) (1424KB)(365)       Save
    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are a family of secondary metabolites that closely associate with the eating and processing qualities of potato tuber. In the present study, GGE-Biplot was used to analyze the transcriptional gene expression of seven genes that involved in the SGAs biosynthesis pathway. The microtubers of five varieties (genotypes) were incubated for 6, 12 and 24 h under red light, and the expression of seven genes were measured with RT-PCR and further analyzed via GGE-Biplot. The data indicated that the expression levels of pvs1, sgt1 and sgt3 were significantly higher among all tested genes. In addition, the transcriptional abandon of sgt3 was high and stable in all tested genotypes, but showed less stability among the light treatment durations. The very similar expression patterns of seven genes were observed for both 12 and 24 h treatments, while expressions of all except pvs1 were relatively lower after 6 h treatment. Among all tested genotypes, similar expression patterns of all genes were observed for HA and Zh-3. The genes that mediated different stages of SGAs biosynthesis also showed great variations among genotypes. Therefore, the results demonstrated that GGE-Biplot is a very useful tool to analyze and display the differential expression profile of seven key genes in potato tubers under red light illumination. According to the quantitative data, the results also presented the relationship among treatments and genotypes. The outcome of this study thus provides valuable reference for future study on SGAs biosynthesis, as well as the potato tuber quality improvement via manipulating the SGAs biosynthesis.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cyclophilins A( CyPA) Gene form Chlorella
    WANG Xu-Hui;QIAO Kun;WANG Zhen-Juan;GUAN Qing-Jie*;LIU Shen-Kui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 245-251.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.017
    Abstract729)      PDF(pc) (1309KB)(297)       Save
    Cyclophilins (CyPs) are widely distributed in organisms, and play important roles. Cyclophilin A-like was screened in our study from Chlorella sp. cDNA library. By extracting Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that was transformed the 35S:: CyPA:: GFP fusion plasmid, it showed that CyPA located in the chloroplasts. Overexpression of CyPA gene in yeast enhanced the InV yeast growth ability to resistance of NaCl, NaHCO 3 and drought stress. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that under abiotic stress conditions, CyPA gene expression quantity increased. So we speculated that CyPA genes were associated with abiotic stress resistance, through the cyclophilin A involved in improving survival ability of resistant organisms.
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    Cloning of Coding Sequence of Glutamin Synthetase from Polygonum sibiricum Laxm. and Its Expression under Alkali Salinity Stress
    ZHAO Shu-Ting;QU Chun-Pu;XU Zhi-Ru;LI Yang;LIU Guan-Jun*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 252-257.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.018
    Abstract625)      PDF(pc) (1392KB)(330)       Save
    The full-length of Glutamin synthetase (termed PsGS) gene was cloned using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end) technology based on GS partial sequence obtained from a random clone in SSH library of Polygonum sibiricum Laxm.. The acquired 1 273 bp sequence includes a 5′ untranslated region of 178 bp, a 3′ untranslated region of 24 bp with poly (A), and an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 356 amino acids. Based on the comparison with amino acid sequences of other plant glutamin synthetase and the phylogenetic analysis of protein evolution, this gene was divided into glutamin synthetase family. The expression analyses by RT-PCR showed that PsGS expressed in leaves, stems and rhizomes of P.sibiricum Laxm.. Under the induction of 3% NaHCO 3, the expression of PsGS was significantly influenced, which suggested that PsGS might play an important role in alkali salt stress resistance.
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    Comparative Analysis on the Metabolic Compositions of Flower Bud and Rachis of Tussilago farfara Based on GC-MS Fingerprinting Approach
    ZHANG Li-Zeng;MI Xia;XUE Shui-Yu;LI Zhen-Yu*;QIN Xue-Mei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 258-265.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.019
    Abstract666)      PDF(pc) (1464KB)(347)       Save
    Flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. is a widely used herbal medicine in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, due to the increasing demands, adulteration with rachis is frequently encountered in the marketplace. In this study, chemical differences and pyrrolizidine alkaloid contents of flower bud and rachis were compared. No report demonstrated the chemical and pharmacological differences between flower bud and rachis before. Chemical differences between flower bud and rachis were compared by GC-MS based on metabolic approach, and the metabolites were identified by NIST data base search and comparison with the authentic standards. The transformed data matrix was introduced into SIMCA-P 11.0 software for multivariate analysis. Content of pyrrolizidine alkaloid was determined by UPLC. 54 metabolites were identified by GC-MS, and the PCA analysis revealed the clear separation between the rachis and flower bud, indicating the obvious chemical differences existing between them. The loading plot of OPLS-DA indicated that the rachis contained less inositol, aromadendrene, stigmasterol, palmitic acid, and more sucrose and arachidonic acid. UPLC results revealed that the flower bud contained more senkirkine (102 μg·g -1) than the rachis (64 μg·g -1). Due to the obvious chemical differences between the flower bud and rachis, to guarantee the clinical effect, rachis should be picked out before use, and set the limit of rachis in the quality standards.
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    Seasonal Change of Contents of Six Taxanes in Branches and Leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei
    GAO Yin-Xiang;YANG Feng-Jian;ZHANG Yu-Hong;ZHAO Chun-Jian;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2014, 34 (2): 266-270.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.02.020
    Abstract696)      PDF(pc) (1035KB)(341)       Save
    Taxol is a natural anticancer agent mainly extracted from Taxus species. Taxanes are the precursors or branches of taxol metabolites, also have the potential for developing as anti-tumor drugs. The seasonal change of contents of six taxanes i.e. taxol, 10-deacetylbaccatin Ⅲ(10-DAB), 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl-taxol (7-xyl-10-DAT), 10-deacetyltaxol (10-DAT), cephalomannine (CE) and 7-epi-10-deacetyl taxol (7-epi-10-DAT) in the branches and leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei was studied by high Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The results showed that the contents of Taxol and 10-DAT were the lowest in August and September, at the same time the contents of 10-DAB and 7-xyl-10-DAT were relatively higher. The seasonal content change of taxol was negatively correlated with 10-DAB, and positively correlated with CE. The seasonal content change of 7-xyl-10-DAT was positively correlated with 10-DAB and 10-DAT, respectively. This paper provided the theory bases for the metabolism and accumulation rules of taxol and related taxanes, it is not only helpful to clarify the biosynthesis key steps and physiological regulation mechanisms of taxol, but also has the guidance significance for Taxus resources development.
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