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    Bulletin of Botanical Research 2011 Vol.31
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    Taxa Nova Salviorum labiatarum
    ZHU Zheng-Yin;MIN Bai-Qing;WANG Qiu-Ling
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 1-3.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.001
    Abstract1849)      PDF(pc) (489KB)(509)       Save
    A new species of the family(Labiatae) Salvia Linn. Salvia chuanxiensis Z.Y.Zhu,B.Q.Min et Q.L. Wang,from Baoxing sichuan,China is described.Compared with Salvia roborowskii Maxim.,the new species is a perennial herb with thicker root,1~2 cm in diameter,and longer calyxes,1~1.2 cm long,and longer corolla,about 2.1 cm long,furthermore,about 2 mm near the tube base,there is a 5 mm-long-part of villous surface inside the corolla(but not annular hair).Last but not least,from the middle part of the cylinderical corolla,the tube stretchs upward,expanding and curving gradually,and with purpclish red speckles found in the upper and lower lips of the corolla lobe,which distinguishes this new species from S.roborowskii Maxim..
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    Morphological Variations of Fruits and Seeds in Rare Oil Tree Horsfieldia pandurifolia Hu
    WU Yu;XU Yu-Lan;TIAN Yao-Hua;DUAN An-An;MAO Chang-Li;ZHANG Jun-Hong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 4-8.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.002
    Abstract1637)      PDF(pc) (886KB)(457)       Save
    Horsfieldia pandurifolia Hu is native to tropical rain forest in Yunnan, China. The morphological variations of fruits and seeds among 39 wild individuals were investigated. The results showed that differences of fruits and seeds between individuals were larger than within individual. The ripe fruits were ovoid to long-elliptical in shape, 4-7 cm in length, apex obtuse to acute, pedicel deflective, which were obviously different from the record in the original literature. The ripe seeds varied from ovoid to long-ovoid, sometimes slim or subulate in shape. The seed length, diameter and ratio of length to diameter were significantly different among 39 individuals ( p<0.01), variation ranges were 25.05-35.66 mm, 13.30-19.62 mm, 1.47-2.32, respectively. The seed characteristics, including gray testa with brown speckles, hilum and embryo at base, apex acute or shortly beaked, were stable, which were important characteristics differing from other endemic species within genus Horsfieldia.
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    The Seed Size Variation of 40 Graminious Species in the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    CHEN Xue-Lin;YANG Jian-Mei;WANG Wen-Min
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 9-14.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.003
    Abstract1897)      PDF(pc) (1107KB)(428)       Save
    The seeds of 40 gramineous species were collected from the alpine meadow in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Based on the data of 9 morphological characteristics of seeds, the relativity among the morphological characteristics of seeds with altitude, variance and seed weight was analyzed. The results showed that: ①The seeds traits of 40 gramineous species exhibited certain differentiations in 9 morphological characteristics and the variation of coefficient of ratio of length to high of seed was the highest, while the coefficient of variation of seed weight was the lowest, indicating that seed weight was more stable than the others among the characteristics studied. ②Correlation analyses suggested that there is significant linear correlation between the morphological variation of seeds and altitude, and there is significant linear correlation between seed length and seed weight. Variance considering three dimensions (length, breadth and high) of seeds have higher correlation to SL/SH.SL/SH instead of the variance considering three dimensions is more appropriate than the others to measure the seeds overall pattern of gramineous species; The altitude is an important factor affecting the seed size and its variation.
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    Pollen Morphology of Some Chinese Traditional Roses
    BAI Jin-Rong;ZHANG Qi-Xiang*;LUO Le;PAN Hui-Tang;YU Chao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 15-23.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.004
    Abstract2314)      PDF(pc) (2031KB)(454)       Save
    The pollen morphology of 15 Chinese traditional roses were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The features of pollen grains were goniotreme, prolate and perprolate, 37.59-51.95 μm×17.02-25.33 μm in size. The equatorial view was ellipse, while the polar view was trilobate-circular with tricolporate annularly distributed in equal space. Exine sculpture was striate with apertures. Features of the exine ornamentation showed variability among cultivars. Cluster analysis results indicated that the size and exine sculpture of pollen could reflect the differences among cultivars in a certain extent. According to the evolution of rose pollen, it can be inferred that Roses chinensis ‘Parsons’ Pink China’, ‘Slater’s Crimson China’ and ‘Pu Fu Hong’ were more evolutive than other cultivars, while ‘Si Mian Jing’ could be regarded as an original cultivar.
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    Developmental Anatomy of the Floral Nectaries in Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov
    WANG Hong;KUANG Dai-Liang;SUO Fei-Ya;DU Hong-Wei;WANG Yong-Xin*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 24-28.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.005
    Abstract1453)      PDF(pc) (1237KB)(463)       Save
    Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov nectary is located in the inner petal, and it is composed of secretive epidermal cells. According to Fahn classification of nectary, it belongs to the typical perianth nectary, it is also the typical nonstructure nectary based on the plant anatomy. It belongs to the non-starch nectary because starch dynamic is not obvious during dying. The secretive epidermal cells are specialized to secretive trichomes, and the secretory cavity is formed by the split of the original secretive cells during the development of nectary. The surface of the epidermis is covered with the cuticle. During the development of epidermis, the vacuole, which takes part in polysauharides decomposation transportation of honey etc.,changes regularly relating to the law of the formation and secretion of the honey. The starch and glycogen are not obvious. Finally, honey is secretive by epidermal cells from secretive cavity. The secreting trichomes come off by the perianth after flowering, so the nectary stops secreting.
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    Development of Embryo in Matteuccia struthiopteris(L.) Todaro
    ZHANG Di;TAN Long-Yun;LIU Bao-Dong*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 29-33.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.006
    Abstract1477)      PDF(pc) (961KB)(331)       Save
    This paper gives some details on the development of embryo in Matteuccia struthiopteris(L.) Todaro. The first zygote division, splitting the plane perpendicular to the prothallus, and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the archegonium neck; second division plane parallel to the prothallus and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the archegonium neck; the third division plane parallel to the longitudinal axis and the prothallus perpendicular to the archegonium neck. When the embryo reaches to the Spherical phase, the outer and outside areas of embryos which develop the first top leaf cell and the first top root cell separately at the same time. These were produced division first leaf primordium and the first root primordium. Subsequently, the first leaf primordium rapidly divides, breaking the cap-like formation and became first young leaves; the first root primordium split slower than the first leaf primordium and speed of the first root grows is slower than the first leaf.
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    Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat Seedlings under Lead Stress
    WEI Xue-Ling;SHI Ru-Xia;JIA Ling-Yun;LIU Yan;ZHANG Hui;JIANG Yu;YANG Ying-Li*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 34-39.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.007
    Abstract1737)      PDF(pc) (1280KB)(520)       Save
    By the method of solution culture, wheat was used to investigate the effects of exogenous NO donor SNP on seed germination and seedlings physiological characteristics under Pb 2+ stress. The results showed that Pb 2+ treatment resulted in significant decreases in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat,and notable reduction in the levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll fluorescence, 25 μmol·L -1 SNP could alleviate the inhibition of Pb 2+ on these indexes. No significant changes in the activities of CAT and POD were observed in comparison with the control under Pb 2+ stress. However, the application of SNP induced increases of CAT activity and soluble protein content in wheat seedlings under Pb 2+ treatment. Therefore, exogenous NO could alleviate the poison of Pb 2+ and enhance the adaptation of wheat seedlings to Pb 2+ stress.
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    Physiological Responses of Hypnum fertile Sendtn.(Musci:Hypnaceae) to Short-term Extreme Temperature Stress
    SHEN Lei;GUO Shui-Liang*;YANG Wu;CAO Tong;Janice M. Glime
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 40-48.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.008
    Abstract1756)      PDF(pc) (596KB)(446)       Save
    Mosses attracted more and more attention in the fields of molecular biology and stress physiology as mode plants. Researches on osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes of mosses under stress conditions will provide base materials to understand their physiological mechanisms to stress conditions. Hypnum fertile Sendtn. a moss species with a wide range of habitats and geographical distributions, was treated under 5, 40 and 60℃ for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h, respectively. The contents of soluble sugar, free proline, MDA and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were determined. The main results were: 1) the content of soluble sugar increased with stress time under 5℃, while first increased and then decreased under 40 and 60℃; 2) the contents of free proline and MDA both increased with stress time under 5, 40 and 60℃;3) the activity of CAT gradually increased under 5℃, first increased and then decreased under 40℃, while declined rapidly and completely lost activity after 6h treatment under 60℃; 4) the activity of SOD decreased with the time under 5℃, while first increased and then declined under 40 and 60℃; 5) the activity of POD both increased under 5 and 40℃, while first increased and then decreased under 60℃. Our conclusions were: 1) the damage of low temperature (5℃) to H.fertile is less than high temperature (40 and 60℃), namely H.fertile is suitable to distribute in lower temperature environments; 2) Free proline enhanced the tolerance of H.fertile to both lower and higher temperature stresses; 3) POD and CAT might play a role in the adaptation of H.fertile to lower temperature environment, while SOD to higher temperature environment.
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    Effects of Water Stress on Plasma membrane Permeability and Protective Enzyme Activities of Red Pine Seedlings Needles
    LIU Ya-Li;WANG Qing-Cheng*;LIU Shuang;YANG Yuan-Biao;PENG Hong-Mei;HAO Long-Fei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 49-55.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.009
    Abstract1949)      PDF(pc) (1276KB)(486)       Save
    Two-year-old red pine seedlings were grown in soils to study the effects of different water treatments (including aridity and waterlogging stress) and relief stress on the plasma membrane permeability and protective enzyme activities of red pine seedling needles. The main results were as follows: with the time extension of aridity and waterlogging stress, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased; the activities of catalase (CAT) decreased; and the peroxidase (POD) activities rose. After relief stress, the tested indices of all treatments experienced different levels of recovery. Among them, the tested indices of FC40%, FC80% and FC restored relatively fast. However, indices of FC20% and FL could not completely recover within 14 days. Moreover, FL had the worst physiological performance. To sum up, 60% was the optimum soil water content to red pine seedlings, because the seedlings under this circumstance presented the most comprehensive physiological performance.
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    Expression,Purification and Immunoreactivity of Hygromycin-B-Phosphotransferase
    GAO Bin;ZHANG Hai-Yan;FAN Hai*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 56-60.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.010
    Abstract1653)      PDF(pc) (998KB)(286)       Save
    The prokaryotic expression plasmid of hygromycin-B-phosphotransferase(HPT) was constructed. The hpt gene was cloned by PCR. It was digested by SalⅠ/ NotⅠand subcloned into expression vector pET-28b(+). pET-28b- hpt was transferred into E. coli Rosset; fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The most products existed in an inclusion body form. The HPT protein purified by Ni 2+-NTA column was used to immunize New Zealand rabbits. The HPT polyclonal antibodies reveal high sensitivity and specificity.
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    Comparison of Species Composition and Diversity of Four Successional Forest Communities in Zhejiang Province,East China
    YUAN Jin-Feng;HU Ren-Yong;SHEN Jia-Hong;ZHANG Lei;ZHANG Xiao-Yu;YU Ming-Jian*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 61-66.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.011
    Abstract1775)      PDF(pc) (1151KB)(516)       Save
    The species composition and diversity, as well as the inter-community similarity of four successional forest communities in Zhejiang province, including coniferous forest (pine), coniferous (pine) and broad-leaved mixed forest, mid-aged evergreen broad-leaved forest and pre-matured evergreen broad-leaved forest, were investigated by chronosequences and quadrat methods. The results showed that, there were 170 vascular species belonging to 53 families, 105 genera in the 23 plots. Along with the disappearance of pioneer species and appearance of later successional species, the trends of species richness and Shannon-Wiener index of three layers both decreased and then increased with the succession, and the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had the lowest species diversity. The Jaccard similarity indices of four communities decreased along the successional sequence. Among them, the similarity index of pine coniferous forest and pre-matured evergreen broad-leaved forest was the lowest, and the principal component analysis showed the similar result. The differences among four communities were mainly presented in the species composition, especially that of tree layer. The coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had lower species richness and diversity, but it had higher similarity with other forest types, and stored most species of the later successional stage-evergreen broad-leaved forest, suggesting it is a key stage in the succession.
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    Characteristics of Osmunda vachellii Communities and Species Diversity from Mount Maluanshan in Shenzhen
    SUN Yan-Jun;Mo Xian-Hua;XU Xiao-Hui;DING Ming-Yan;Liao Wen-Bo*;YE Chang-Jing
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 67-72.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.012
    Abstract1950)      PDF(pc) (1384KB)(294)       Save
    According to the field investigation and analysis of the Osmunda vachellii populations and communities from Mount Maluanshan in Shenzhen,the results indicated that:82 species of vascular plants, belonging to 48 families and 69 genera were found in the O.vachellii community,the floristic components of community was with an south subtropical property; The analysis for the age structure of the community showed that the main dominant species were stable populations,but the frequence index of community was A>B<C>D>E,which was different from the Raunkiaer’s frequency law,and was also different from those of montane rainforest of Hainan island; The percentage of tree height and individual number from O.vachellii population showed that those with a tree height 0.3-0.7 meters occurred a higher proportion,indicating the populations was in a bloom of development period;and the Simpson and Shannon-Wiener index of diversity is 16.42 and 4.56,while the evenness index for E and E′ is 0.33 and 0.83, respectively,which indicated the diversity and evenness index is closed to those of the climax community from typical subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. The study reveals the natural survival state of O.vachellii and provides protection and utilization data for O.vachellii.
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    Effect of Disturbance on the Community Species Diversity in Yunding Mount. Subalpine Meadow
    LU Ai-Ying;ZHANG Xian-Ping;WANG Shi-Yu;WANG Meng-Ben*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 73-78.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.013
    Abstract1536)      PDF(pc) (1185KB)(498)       Save
    Disturbances, such as grazing and so on, can affect the appearance, structure and function of subalpine meadow community. In order to indicate the changing law of subalpine meadow community, 45 plots (1×1 m) were investigated using the community sample method. On these bases, the meadow communities were classified with TWINSPAN, the effects of different disturbances on the species diversity and their changing law were studied using the richness index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou evenness index.The results showed that: the meadows were classified into 6 associations. The richness index is the highest in association 3 where the disturbance degree is moderate; followed by association 1 where the disturbance degree is relatively light; the lowest is in association 6 where the disturbance degree is heavy. At the same time, disturbances have brought different influences on the plant function group and species. Along with the disturbance getting serious, the dominant station of shrub and legumes is wearing off, even disappearing, some graminoids such as Carex lanceolata did not have obvious response to the disturbance, and the dominant station of toxic grasses is rising in the community.
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    Inoculation Methods and Effects of Beneficial Symbiotic Fungi of Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe.(Orchidaceae)
    CHEN Bao-Ling;SONG Xi-Qiang;*;HU Mei-Jiao;YANG Fu-Sun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 79-84.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.014
    Abstract1449)      PDF(pc) (1360KB)(719)       Save
    Symbiosis with orchid mycorrhizal fungi is essential to the orchid seeds germination and seedlings growth in nature. To study the effects of orchid mycorrhizae on the growth of orchid seedlings, especially the direct relationship between inoculation methods and inoculation effects in laboratory, three mycorrhizal fungi (M1, M2 and M3) was isolated from fresh nutritious roots of Dendrobium loddigesii and used to establish the asymbiotic culture system, single and mixed inoculation were adopted, inoculation effects on D.loddigesii seedlings was analyzed. At last, beneficial fungi M1 and M3 were screened out, and mixed inoculating was good for biomass accumulation of D.loddigesii seedlings, such as inoculation modes with two mycorrhizal fungi M1-M2, M2-M3 and with three mycorrhizal fungi M1-M2-M3. Mixed inoculating would play an effective role in orchids production, which has great practical significance.
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    Phenology of Batrachospermum acuatum in Xin’an Spring of Shanxi Province,Shanxi Province
    HU Bian-Fang;XIE Shu-Lian*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 85-88.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.015
    Abstract1887)      PDF(pc) (328KB)(262)       Save
    The phenology of Batrachospermum acuatum was studied. The specimens were collected four times from January 2005 to October 2005(one sampling per season). The air temperature, water temperature, current velocity, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance were monitored at every sampling time. Ten main morphological characteristics of B.acuatum were observed and measured under the microscope. The results showed that all the environmental factors had seasonal patterns to different extent and some of the morphological characteristics had significant seasonal fluctuations, indicating the differences in their seasonality. B.acuatum grew well in spring but not so good in summer. The relationship results showed that despite the development of B.acuatum was affected by environmental factors to some extent, the key factor was its own biological rhythm.
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    Optimization of RAPD Reaction System for Eomecon chionantha Hance,an Endemic Herbaceous of China
    HU Xue-Hua;CHEN Xiang;XIAO Yi-An*;LIAO Xin-Jun;JU Jian-Wen;GUO Yong-Jiu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 89-94.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.016
    Abstract1696)      PDF(pc) (1234KB)(365)       Save
    In order to establish the optimal reaction of RAPD-PCR amplification for Eomecon chionantha Hance, the following parameters were optimized: the concentrations of Mg 2+, template DNA, dNTPs, primers and Taq DNA polymerase. The optimal RAPDPCR reaction system was as follows a total volume of 25 μL contains 2.5 μL 10×Buffer, 1.8 mmol·L -1 Mg 2+,2 U Taq DNA polymerase, 50 ng template DNA, 0.2 mmol·L -1 dNTPs and 1.6 μmol·L -1 primer. The reaction program fitting to the RAPD-PCR was as follows: initial denaturation at 94℃ for 2 min, followed by 5 beforehand cycles of 94℃ for 20 s, 36℃ for 30 s, 72℃ for 75 s; followed by 40 cycles of 94℃ for 20 s, 40℃ for 30 s, 72℃ for 60 s, and a final exposure to 72℃ for 20 min, then stored in 4℃. This RAPD-PCR system has some distinguising features including clear marker site, stable reaction system, reliable abundant polymorphisms, and better repeatability. It is suitable for the study on genetic diversity of E.chionantha.
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    Construction and Primary Analysis of Subtractive cDNA Library of Capsicum annuum L. Under Phytophthora capsici Stress
    HE Li;WU Yang*;XU Dong-Feng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 95-99.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.017
    Abstract1691)      PDF(pc) (1151KB)(266)       Save
    To identify the Phytophthora capsici stress induced genes of pepper, a high P.capsici resistant pepper cultivar was used as main material in this study. With cDNA from pepper seedlings treated with P.capsici as the tester and cDNA from this plant in normal growth as the driver, we constructed subtracted library using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Thirty positive clones were picked out randomly from SSH library, plasmid PCR suggested that the inserts were between 200-1 000 bp and library was suitable for the following work. Forty clones were randomly selected and sequenced, 35 differential gene fragments were obtained. Blastx analysis showed that 30 ESTs have high homology with known genes in GenBank, 5 ESTs was unknown function genes. The obtained known function ESTs code NAC transcription factor protein, Serine/threonine protein kinase, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, chlorophyll a b-binding protein, glutathione s-transferase, chitinase, respectively. These expressed genes are involved in disease-resistant signal transduction, antioxidative stress, transcriptional regulation, photosynthesis, physiological processes. The research established a basis for cloning stress resistance genes and further studying genes expression in Capsicum annuum L. seedlings under P.capsici stress.
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    Variation of Seedling Growth of Open-pollinated Progeny from Natural Populations of a Rare and Endangered Tree Species Erythrophleum fordii Oliv. in China
    ZHAO Zhi-Gang;GUO Jun-Jie;ZENG Jie*;XU Jian-Min;HA Er;LIN Kai-Qin
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 100-104.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.018
    Abstract1651)      PDF(pc) (998KB)(427)       Save
    Erythrophleum fordii Oliv. is a rare and endangered tree species with great economic and ecological value in warm subtropical and tropical zones of China. In the present study, variation of seedling growth traits of open-pollinated progeny was investigated within and among six natural populations of this species, and the correlations among seedling growth traits, seed traits, and geographic and climate regimes of their parent populations were analyzed. Significant differences existed in seedling growth among populations as well as among individuals within populations. Variation of seedling height among populations was higher than that of stem collar diameter, so early selection should be conducted mainly on the basis of seedling height. Epicotyl length was in significant positive correlation to seed length as well as seedling height to seed volume, seedling stem collar diameter to weight per 1000 seeds. Radicle length was in significant negative correlation to longitude, as well as seedling stem collar diameter to mean annual rainfall and ratio of height and diameter to altitude. These findings will provide basic data for further studies on genetic breeding, and help facilitate natural resources management and plantation development of E.fordii Oliv..
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    Optimization of ISSR-PCR System for Paris vertcillata
    ZHANG Long-Jin;BAI Cheng-Ke;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 105-108.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.019
    Abstract1444)      PDF(pc) (849KB)(446)       Save
    The optimal ISSR-PCR system for Paris vertcillata was established with orthogonal design.A total of 20 μL ISSR-PCR system contains 1×buffer, dNTP 175 μmol·L -1,Primer 0.6 μmol·L -1,Mg 2+ 1.4 mmol·L -1Taq DNA polymerase 2.5 U and 80 ng template DNA.The suitable PCR procedure is one cycle denaturing at 95℃ for 5 min;40 cycles each involved denaturing at 94℃for 40 s,annealing at 55℃ for 45 s,extending at 72℃ for 90 s,one cycle extending at 72℃ for 7 min,and then remaining at 4℃.This optimized system would play an important role in further research of systematology on P.vertcillata and its related species, as well as identification on germplasm, and genetic diversity by ISSR molecular marker.
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    Anatomical Structures of Achyranthes bidentata BL. Roots and Its Relationship to the Accumulation of Triterpenoid Saponins
    WANG Gui-Qin;AbdusaLerk N;ZHENG Yu-Hua
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 109-112.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.020
    Abstract1427)      PDF(pc) (1027KB)(449)       Save
    Barbloin substances which mainly existed in the roots are the important medicinal ingredients in Achyranthes bidentata BL.. The study of the relationships between anatomical structures and barbloin substances in A.bidentata root is of great meaning. Anatomical structures and barbloin accumulations are studied by the methods of quantitative analysis, anatomy and histochemical localization. The results indicated that the main accumulation sites of barbloin are primary phloem, secondary phloem, phelloderm and tertiary phloem. The changing pattern of accumulated barbloin appears low-higher-low with the growing of A.bidentata. The accumulated barbloin reached the maximum when the root is 3-4 years old.
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    GC-MS Analysis and in Vitro Antitumor Activity of the Extract from Typhonium giganteum Engl using Supercritical Fluid CO 2
    LI Qing-Yong;WANG Chun-Cheng;SONG Zhen;QU Zhen-Huan;JIANG Chun-Fei;QIU Wei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 113-116.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.021
    Abstract1697)      PDF(pc) (760KB)(475)       Save
    In order to explore the antitumor active components of Typhonium giganteum Engl, the powder of T.giganteum Engl tubers was extracted using supercritical fluid CO 2-80% ethanol, and the extract was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) technology. The in vitro antitumor effects of the extract was evaluated by MTT colorimetric method. Thirty-seven compounds were identified from the extract by GC-MS analysis. Four major components are as follows: β-Sitosterol, accounting for 40.22%; Campesterol, accounting for 18.45%; n-Hexadecanoic acid, accounting for 9.52%; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, accounting for 8.15%. MTT experiments indicated that the extract showed significant inhibition on the colon cancer HCT-8, ovarian cancer HO-8910, gastric cancer SGC-7901, and liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells. Liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells were the most sensitive to the extract. The extract of T.giganteum Engl tubers by supercritical fluid CO 2 showed remarkable anti-tumor effect. Further research on this extract is necessary to find its active substances for reasonable development and utilization of T.giganteum Engl.
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    Accumulation Characteristic of Heavy Metals Between Gametophytes and Sporophytes of Moss Funaria hygrometrica
    XIE Fei;ZHANG Zhao-Hui;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 117-120.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.022
    Abstract2044)      PDF(pc) (834KB)(348)       Save
    Specimens were collected from abandoned slags in the Chatian Vanadium Deposit in western Hunan Province. Heavy metal concentrations in gametophytes, sporophytes and substrates were quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. It showed that the moss Funaria hygrometrica gametophytes and sporophytes accumulated considerable concentrations of heavy metals. Each generation had a great difference for accumulating heavy metals, and gametophytes accumulated significantly more heavy metals than sporophytes( p<0.05). Concentrations of Zn and Mn in sporophytes were always higher than concentrations of other heavy metals. We also discuss the bioaccumulation and biological barrier of heavy metals in moss gametophytes and sporophytes.
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    Research Advances on the Germination of Desert Plants Under Stress
    REN Jun;YU Fang-Ke;TAO Ling;
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (1): 121-128.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.01.023
    Abstract1647)      PDF(pc) (1443KB)(453)       Save
    Effects of water, temperature, light, buried depth in sand, salt stress and their combinations on the seed germination of desert plants under stress were reviewed. The rainfall frequency, rainfall size and distribution, as well as soil moisture are the important ecological factors that governing the seed germination of desert plants. Temperature is one of the key ecological factors influencing the seed germination of desert plants, changing temperature is conducive to seed germination of desert plants. Illumination is not the necessary conditions for the seed germination of majority of desert plants. A small portion of desert plants need light for seed germination, and some germinate in the dark, while some show no specific requirements of light. Light shows inhibition effect to some extent on the seed germination of some desert plants. Sand buries regulates the seed germination of desert plants through soil moisture, soil temperature and illumination. Salinity stress restrains the seed germination. Seed germination of desert plants under the above coordinating factors shows some adaptability. Along further studies and the need of environmental protection or reconstruction, it is necessary to enhance the eco-physiological research in desert psammophytes, in depth and systematicity.
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    Newly Recorded Species of Hantzschia(Bacillariophyta) in China
    YOU Qing-Min;LIU Yan;WANG Quan-Xi*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 129-133.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.001
    Abstract1899)      PDF(pc) (937KB)(346)       Save
    Seven species of Hantzschia(Bacillariophyta) are first reported from Xinjiang and Neimeng’gu Province in China. They are Hantzschia abundans Lange-Bertalot, H.alkaliphila Lange-Bertalot, H.barckhausenii Lange-Bertalot & Metzeltin, H.longa Lange-Bertalot, H.paracompacta Lange-Bertalot, H.spectabilis(Ehrenberg) Hustedt and H.subvivacior Lange-Bertalot. The taxonomic characteristics, LM (light microscope) or SEM (scanning electron microscope) photos and ecological affinities were described for each taxon. It will provide new data on the geographical distribution of this genus.
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    A taxonomical Note on Caragana kansuensis Pojark. and Its Confusable Taxa
    CHANG Zhao-Yang;SHI Fu-Chen;
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 134-138.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.002
    Abstract2008)      PDF(pc) (877KB)(338)       Save
    A taxonomical note on Caragana kansuensis Pojark. and other confusable taxa is presented in this paper. C.kansuensis Pojark. and C.brachypoda Pojark.should be treated as two distinct species. The plants from North Shaanxi Province, Northwest Shanxi Province and other neighboring areas which misidentified as C.kansuensis Pojark., in fact, should be a new variety of C.opulens Kom. named C.opulens Kom. var. angustifolia Y. Z. Zhao ex Zhao. Y. Chang et F. C. Shi. The new variety is different from C.opulens Kom. var. opulens by its narrow and dense pubescent leaflets, which often becoming reddish on lower surface when dry. It is also similar to C.licentiana Hand.-Mazz., but distinguishes from it by long petioles, long and narrow leaflets and nearly glabrous fruits.
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    Spore Morphology of 26 Species of Family Pottiaceae and Its Systematic Significance
    WANG Xiao-Rui;LI Min;ZHAO Jian-Cheng*;LI Lin
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 139-146.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.003
    Abstract1575)      PDF(pc) (1718KB)(517)       Save
    The spore morphology of 26 species of the family Pottiaceae was observed by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the spore characteristics are similar in shape, shape of the proximal face and exine ornamentation, but different in the size and exiguous structure of the ornamentation. It showed heredity similarity and differentiation among the different genus and species in Pottiaceae, and Pottiaceae may be a natural taxon.
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    Flowering Dynamics and Breeding System of Incarvillea sinensis var. przewalskii
    LI Jin-Xia;SU Xue;LIU Yu-Guo;CHEN Ming-Zhong;SUN Kun*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 147-151.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.004
    Abstract1833)      PDF(pc) (1198KB)(328)       Save
    Flowering and breeding characteristics are important for understanding the plant population reproduction characteristics. In this paper, the flowering dynamics were observed in the fields and the breeding system of Incarvillea sinensis var. przewalskii was studied by using the data of pollen/ovule ratio(P/O), pistil recipient phase, out-crossing index(OCI), pollen viability and bagging experiments. The results showed that the flowering period of I.sinensis var. przewalskii population lasted about three months (from June to September). The life span of individual flower was generally 2-3 d. During the flowering course, the stamen matured before pistil and there was obvious herkogamy. The flowering course for one flower of this species can be divided into four periods based on the flower morphology and anther dehiscence: initial dehiscence, full dehiscence, terminal dehiscence, withering period. The pollen/ovule ratio of I.sinensis var. przewalskii is about 331.3, and its outcrossing index is 5. Combining with the result of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination, the breeding system of this species was determined to be out-crossing, partially self-compatible and entomoplily plays a larger role in the process of pollination. According to bagging experiments and field observations, it can be inferred that the species is insect pollination.
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    Effect of Drought Stress on the Ultramicrostructures of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria of Five Plants
    YU Hui;LIU Zhong-Liang;HU Hong-Liang;GUAN Qing-Wei*;WAN Fu-Xu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 152-158.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.005
    Abstract1865)      PDF(pc) (1582KB)(636)       Save
    The effect of soil drought stress on the ultramicrostructure of mesophyll cells was studied and observed by SEM using the potted seedlings of the following trees in the greenhouse, i.e. Quercus acutissima Carruth, Dalbergia hupeana Hance, Pistacia chinensis, Pinus elliottii and Celtis sinesis Pers. The experiment results showed that under the condition of well water state, the organelles of mesophyll cells keep integrity. Under the condition of light drought stress, the ultramicrostructure of P.elliottii was not damaged. The mitochondria of Q.acutissma Carruth remained normal, but the chloroplasts expanded. For C.sinesis Pers, plasmolyses occurred and the mitochondria and chloroplasts were damaged. Under the condition of heavy drought stress, the mitochondria of P.elliottii and Q.acutissima Carruth were degraded, and the chloroplasts were not adhered to the cell walls. For P.chinensis and D.hupeana Hance, plasmolyses occurred and the mitochondria and chloroplasts were severely damaged. The cells of C.sinesis Pers were damaged most severely. The results showed that the drought resistance of these five plants could be divided into three degrees: P.elliottii and Q.acutissima Carruth have strong drought resistance, P.chinensis and D.hupeana Hance have moderate drought resistance while C.sinesis Pers has the weakest drought resistance.
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    Microstructural Observations on the Development of Gametophytes and Oogenesis in the Fern Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum
    HUANG Wu-Jie;CAO Jian-Guo*;WANG Quan-Xi
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 159-163.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.006
    Abstract1781)      PDF(pc) (1075KB)(526)       Save
    The development of gametophytes and oogenesis of the fern Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum was studied using microscopical techniques. The spores are brown, tetrahedral and trilete. The spores germinate about 3-7 days after being sowed. They develop into prothallia through filament and plate stages. The adult prothallia are usually dioecious or hermaphroditic. Section observations show that the archegonium of the P.aquilinum var. latiusculum develops from a superficial cell, i.e. the initial cell of archegonium, which forms a tier of three cells by two divisions. The upper and lower cells develop into the jacket cells of the archegonium. The middle cell, i.e. the primary cell,finally develops into an egg, a ventral canal cell and a neck canal cell by two unequal divisions. When new formed, the periphery of the three cells is appressed closely to the jacket cells of the archegonium. A large amount of vesicles are seen in the cytoplasm. During maturation, a separation cavity occurs between the egg and the ventral canal cell, but a pore region persistently connects the two cells. Simultaneously, the egg membrane is formed in the upper surface of the egg. Thereafter, the neck canal cell and ventral canal cell degenerate gradually. Some black granular substances appear in the jacket cells of archegonium. Series sections show that a fertilization pore appears in the central region of the upper surface of the mature egg. The ultrastructural observations are needed to elucidate the detailed cytological features of oogenesis.
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    The Role of Light Intensity in the Recovery of Photosynthesis in Tomato Leaves after Chilling under Low Light
    HU Wen-Hai;YAN Xiao-Hong;YUAN Li-Fang;YAN Qing;WU Zhang-Yi
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 164-168.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.007
    Abstract1603)      PDF(pc) (930KB)(603)       Save
    To investigate the role of light intensity in the recovery of chilled plants, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were examined in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Zhefeng 202) plants with natural sunlight or shading during recovery period after chilling under low light. Chilling under low light (8℃/12℃, PFD 80 mol·m -2·s -1) significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate ( P n), the relative quantum efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry ( Ф PSⅡ), photochemical quenching ( qP), and efficiency of energy capture by open PSⅡ reaction centres ( F v′/ F m′), but increased nonphotochemical quenching ( NPQ) and did not induce PSⅡ photoinhibition ( F v/ F m). P n, F v/ F m, Ф PSⅡ, qP, NPQ and F v′/ F m′ further deceased when the chilled plants were recovered under natural sunlight at 1 and then increased to the values close to the control. However, decreases in these parameters were less significant for shaded plants. Compared with control plants, shaded plants maintained higher NPQ during recovery period. Our results suggested that chilling under low light inhibited photosynthesis, but induced photoinhibition until the plants were exposed to full natural sunlight during recovery period. The photoprotection by shading is associated with the increased photochemical activity of PSⅡ and the enhanced thermal dissipation from antenna in PSⅡ.
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    Anther Development and Pollen Germination of Jackfruit
    WU Tian;YE Chun-Hai;FENG Feng;XIA Chun-Hua
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 169-174.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.008
    Abstract1744)      PDF(pc) (1232KB)(585)       Save
    Studies on the anther development and pollen germination conditions are the essential elements for a good harvest and high quality of jackfruit. Using paraffin sections and in vitro culture method, the anther development and pollen germination of jackfruit were observed. The results showed that there are four pollen sacs in the jackfruit anther, and there are two types of cytokinesis in the meiotic, namely the continuous type and the simultaneous type, which formed tetrads arranged to be equally bifacial or tetrahedral. Moreover, a great many of tannin was observed to be accumulated in the mature anther epidermal cells. The mixed solution of 160 g·L -1 sucrose and 0.25 g·L -1 boric acid had an obvious catalytic effect on the jackfruit’s pollen germination, while CaCl 2 exerted almost no effect.
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    Effects of Water Stress on Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Red Pine Seedlings
    LIU Ya-Li;WANG Qing-Cheng*;YANG Yuan-Biao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 175-179.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.009
    Abstract1985)      PDF(pc) (941KB)(491)       Save
    Two-year-old red pine seedlings were grown in pots to study the effects of different soil water contents (including aridity, waterlogging stress and stress relief) on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of red pine seedlings in order to provide theoretical foundation for the expansion of cultivation and management of red pines. The results were as follows: (1)Dramatic responses in fluorescence origin ( F o), fluorescence maximum ( F m), fluorescence variety ( F v), maximal photochemical efficiency ( F v/ F m) and quantum yield of PSⅡ electron transport ( Φ PSⅡ) were detected under different soil water stress ( p<0.05); (2)Under both aridity and waterlogging stress, F v/ F m decreased with the increasing of the stress intensity and the extending of the stress time, presenting as FC60>FC80>FC>FC40>FC20>FL, and the F v/ F m in all treatments had risen with various extents (recovery speed of aridity treatment was faster than that of waterlogging treatment); (3)The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under the condition of FC60 were optimal. Therefore, the moderately and mildly arid sites are more suitable for the growth of red pine seedlings.
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    The Relationship Between Shrub Growth and Stoichiometry Characteristics of C.davazamcii and the Stability of Soil Substrates
    ZHANG Xin-Jun;GAO Yu-Bao*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 180-187.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.010
    Abstract1631)      PDF(pc) (1446KB)(518)       Save
    The community characteristics and leaf C, N and P stoichiometry of Caragana davazamcii Sancz in the semi-mobile dune area, semi-fixed dune area and inter-dune lowland in the Mu Us sandy land were studied. The soil substrates of different habitats as well as the relationship between plants characteristics and soil conditions were studied. We found three major results: (1)The soil substrates of different habitats showed significant differences, i.e. the semi-mobile dune area had relatively poor and loose soil while the semi-fixed dune area and inter-dune lowland had relatively compact soil. (2)Length of current branches, weight of dry current branches, weight of dry leaves and leaf dry matter content were negatively correlated with the soil compaction, while leaf N:P ratio and leaf C:P ratio were positively correlated with the soil compaction. There was no significant relationship between leaf C:N ratio and soil compaction. (3)The crown, density and coverage of C.davazamcii Sancz from different habitats showed significant differences, which might be caused by the differences of soil compaction. In one word, soil compaction influenced the growth status of C.davazamcii Sancz, not only by affecting the above ground biomass and length of current branches, but also affecting the leaf C, N and P stoichiometry and the efficiency of nutrient contents of leaf.
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    Differences in Absorption and Distribution of Main Mineral Elements Between Male and Female Populus cathayana Seedlings
    YANG Peng;XU Xiao;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 188-192.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.011
    Abstract1659)      PDF(pc) (946KB)(470)       Save
    In the present experiment, the sex-related absorption and distribution patterns of the main mineral elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) were investigated between male and female Populus cathayana seedlings. The results showed that the female individuals exhibited significantly higher total content of P and Ca, but lower total content of K than male individuals. For two sexes, the content of N in leaf was significantly higher than that in root and stem, and the distribution pattern of P, K and Mg content showed that root>stem>leaf, leaf>root>stem, and root>leaf>stem, respectively. Meanwhile, the distribution pattern of Ca content showed the tendency of root>stem>leaves in males but the tendency of root>leaf>stem in females. Furthermore, females exhibited significantly higher Ca content in leaf and P content in root, but lower Mg content in root than males. In addition, the ratio patterns of these mineral elements contents were characterized as Ca>N>K>Mg>P in females, but N>Ca>K>Mg>P in males. However, in root, stem and leaf of all individuals, it was characterized as Ca>K>N>Mg>P, Ca>N>K>P>Mg, N>K>Ca>Mg>P, respectively. Our results suggested that there were sexual differences in mineral elements content and its distribution between male and female P.cathayana seedlings although similar ratio patterns of these elements contents were found in root, stem and leaf for two sexes.
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    Relationship of 17 Rosa Plants Detected by Morphology and ISSR Analysis
    YANG Fan;ZENG Li*;YE Kang;ZHAO Zi-Gang;ZHANG Pin;GONG Xiao-Wen;YIN Qin;SUN Qiang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 193-198.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.012
    Abstract2037)      PDF(pc) (1041KB)(442)       Save
    The genetic relationship of 17 Rosa plants is analyzed by ISSR and morphological data. NTSYS2.1 is used in clustering analysis. The results showed: 13 primers were selected to perform ISSR-PCR. A total of 479 DNA bands was obtained, of which 221 bands had polymorphism, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.46. All these plants could be divided into three groups by morphological data: the first group was consisted of Rosa rugosa ‘Bao Dao’, Rosa chinensis ‘Sophie’s perpetral’, Rosa chinensis ‘Comtesse dll cayla’, Rosa hybrid tea‘Sophy’s Rose’, Rosa hybrid climbingroses ‘Ten Shen Qi’, Rosa chinensis ‘Da Fu Gui’, Rose hybrid bracteata ‘Mermaid’, Rosa chinensis‘Jin Ou Fan Lv’, Rosa chinensis‘Jin Fen Lian’ and Rosa chinensis ‘Yi Ji Fen’; the second group was consisted of Rosa chinensis ‘Viridiflora’, Rosa chinensis ‘Hu Zhong Yue’ , Rosa chinensis‘Yu Shi Zhuang’ , Rosa hybrid tea ‘Yankee Dodle’, Rosa chinensis‘Si Mian Jing’ and Rosa chinensis ‘Pu Fu Hong’; the third group was consisted of Rosa gallica ‘Versicolor’. All these plants can be divided into four groups by ISSR cluster analysis. The first group was consisted of Rosa rugosa ‘Bao Dao’; the second group was consisted of Rosa chinensis ‘Viridiflora’, Rosa chinensis‘Pu Fu Hong’, Rosa chinensis‘Comtesse dll cayla’, Rose hybrid bracteata ‘Mermaid’, Rosa chinensis‘Si Mian Jing’, Rosa chinensis ‘Hu Zhong Yue’ and Rosa chinensis‘Yu Shi Zhuang’; the third group was consisted of Rosa hybrid tea ‘Sophy’s Rose’ and Rosa hybrid tea ‘Yankee Dodle’; and the fourth group was consisted of Rosa gallica ‘Versicolor’, Rosa chinensis ‘Jin Ou Fan Lv’, Rosa hybrid climbingroses ‘Ten Shen Qi’, Rosa chinensis ‘Sophie’s perpetral’, Rosa chinensis ‘Yi Ji Fen’, Rosa chinensis ‘Da Fu Gui’ and Rosa chinensis ‘Jin Fen Lian’. The results of morphologic cluster analysis and ISSR cluster analysis were similar.
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    Genetic diversity of Eomecon chionantha Populations in Jinggangshan revealed by RAPD
    CHEN Xiang;HU Xue-Hua;LIAO Xin-Jun;XIAO Yi-An*;JU Jian-Wen;GUO Yong-Jiu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 199-205.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.013
    Abstract1764)      PDF(pc) (1348KB)(329)       Save
    The genetic diversity of Eomecon chionantha Hance populations in five different habitats, namely, bamboo forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, shrubs, conifer and broad-leaved forest and fir forest, was analyzed by polymorphic DNA technique. Sixteen primers were selected from 50 random primers amplified 180 fragments in 90 individuals of E.chionantha, in which 156 segments were polymorphic. The rate of polymorphism was 85.56%. By Shannon index, the ratio of genetic diversity among 5 populations was 31.50%, the Nei’s genetic differentiation index was 0.302 9. Results from two indices showed that genetic variation among populations was the small part of the genetic diversity. Most of the genetic variation existed within populations. The number of migrants per generation was 1.150 8. The matrix for five populations displayed that: genetic distance between Ciping population and Jingzhushan population was 0.234 9; the highest genetic identity was 0.886 1 between Liping population and Shuikou population. The dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic identity clustered by UPMGA showed the same result: the genetic distance within populations was significantly related to the altitude and environmental heterogeneity by survival space.
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    Variation in Phenology and Population Distribution Pattern of Three Alpine Species Along the Snowmelt Gradient
    CHEN Wen-Nian;WU Yan;WU Ning*;LUO Peng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 206-212.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.014
    Abstract1550)      PDF(pc) (1335KB)(370)       Save
    In an alpine snowbed on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, three portions were established along snowmelt gradient. At each portion, the phenology and population distribution pattern of three alpine species( Pyrethrum tatsienense, Leontopodium longifolium and Polygonum macrophyllum) were tested. The results showed that from early-to late-melting portion, phenological phases of three species delayed to different extents. Plant emergence delayed 12-14d, first flowering delayed 6-8 d and peak flowering delayed nearly 6 d. For each species, however, consenescence at three portions did not differed significantly, indicating that growing season length of a species at late-melting portion shortened. At population level, the distribution pattern of Leontopodium longifolium and Polygonum macrophyllum varied as the snowmelt delayed, changing from cluster pattern at early-melting portion to random pattern at late-melting or medium portion. Pyrethrum tatsienense showed cluster pattern at three portions. However, its intensity of cluster weakened as the snowmelt delayed.
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    Effect of Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide on the Proline Metabolism in Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. Callus
    ZHANG Yuan-Yuan;LÜXiu-Jun;ZHANG Hui;LIU Yan;JIANG Yu;YANG Ying-Li*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 213-217.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.015
    Abstract1630)      PDF(pc) (1064KB)(460)       Save
    In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of proline metabolism at the cellular level, Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. callus was used to investigate the effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) treatment on the proline content and the activities of proline-related metabolism enzymes. After treatment with 2 and 10 μmol·L -1 H 2O 2 for 24 h, proline content was about 112% and 92% of the control value in N.tangutorum Bobr. callus, respectively; at 72 h treatment, the amount of proline increased about 41% and 19% in comparison with the control. Analysis of enzyme activities showed that exogenous H 2O 2 induced remarkable decrease in proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity and significant increase in glutamyl kinase (GK) activity, but no significant changes in ornithine aminotransferase activity. In addition, the endogenous H 2O 2 level was increased in exogenous H 2O 2 treated callus. In conclusion, our results indicated that exogenous H 2O 2 treatment resulted in the significant increase of endogenous H 2O 2 content in N.tangutorum Bobr. callus. Here it was also indicated that H 2O 2 induced proline accumulation, which was associated with the reduction of ProDH activity and the elevation of GK activity in N.tangutorum Bobr. callus.
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    Influence of Gibberellin and Amino Acid on Branch and Leaf Growth of Syzygium grijsii
    LIU Wei;XIE Bing;NI Guo-Ping;DENG Guang-Hua*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 218-226.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.016
    Abstract1327)      PDF(pc) (1645KB)(390)       Save
    An orthogonal design was used to assess the influence of gibberellin and amino acid on branch and leaf growth of Syzygium grijsii. The results showed: the growth curve of S.grijsii was a double-peak type, there were two growth peaks in spring and autumn, respectively. There was significant interaction between gibberellin and amino acid, which had promotion effects on the branch and leaf growth of S.grijsii. Most observed variance of growth was obviously affected by the concentration of gibberellin acid whereas amino acid had a little effect. For branch and leaf growth, 100 mg·L -1 was an appropriate concentration of gibberellin acid. Concentration variance of exogenous nutrient had a larger effect on young tissues like new shoot and new branch than those old ones. Principal component analysis(PCA) showed mean month growth of new shoot and number of new branch would be considered as rapid indices for evaluation of gibberellin and amino acid spraying effect. Leaf thickness and leaf area(second principal component) would be considered as potential indicators for long-term evaluation of spraying effect. Growth amount of new shoot and number of new branch would be used as fast indicators for evaluation of gibberellin and amino acid spraying effect in production.
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    Effects of Low Light Stress on the Biomass Distribution and Secondary Metabolism of Catharanthus roseus
    TONG Lu;ZHANG Bao-You;TANG Zhong-Hua;GUO Xiao-Rui;JIA Xue-Ying;YU Jing-Hua*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (2): 227-230.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.017
    Abstract1720)      PDF(pc) (909KB)(462)       Save
    Under full exposure and 20% exposure to light, the field-cultivated Catharanthus roseus(L.) Don. was used to investigate the changes of biomass distribution, antioxidative secondary metabolites and contents of objective active products such as vindolin, catharanthine and vinblastine after a growing season. The results indicated that the total biomass of C.roseus was extremely restrained by the low light intensity, especially the investment of generative propagation; the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in leaves under low light intensity decreased distinctly, and the contents of dry weight were 62.50% and 50.00% of the control, respectively, while the content of proanthocyanidins increased slightly, but not remarkably as compared to the full exposure group; vindolin and catharanthine contents under low light intensity were much higher than that of control while vinblastine content increased slightly; the contents of three alkaloids all reduced, which was affected by the reduction of biomass. In conclusion, C.roseus could regulate physiological metabolism to adapt the low light environment, including the remarkable increased content of vindolin and catharanthine. Land resource was fully utilized by planting C.roseus in low light environment. Meanwhile, the needs of vindolin and row material of vinblastine were satisfied as well.
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