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    Bulletin of Botanical Research 2010 Vol.30
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    A New Species of Armeniaca Scop. from China
    FU Da-Li;LI Bing-Ren;FU Jian-Min;LI Jian-Hong;YANG Shao-Bing;ZHOU Dao-Shun;LIU Meng-Pei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 1-3.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.001
    Abstract1341)      PDF(pc) (150KB)(354)       Save
    A new species of the genus Armeniaca Scop. of Rosaceae, A.cathayana D. L. Fu, B. R. Li et J. H. Li, sp. nov., was described in this paper. The species appears to be similar to A.vulgaris Lam. and A.sibirica (L.) Lam., but it has some particular characteristics which can be distinguished from A.vulgaris Lam., A.sibirica(L.) Lam. and other species of the genus. The main distinguishing features are that the leaf blade pubescent sparsely on both surfaces, the margin serrate and biserrate, and entire at base; the petiole not glandular; the inflorescence 1-3-flowered; the ovary with white villous densely; the endocarp triangle ovoid with 5~7 longitudinal sharp ridges on ventral suture and 1 longitudinal shallow groove on dorsal suture; the seed large and compressed, and the kernel friable and not bitter. The species was found and collected on July 11, 2008 in Zhuolu County, Hebei Province of China by Da-li Fu. The holotype is kept at Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), No.2008071101.
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    Lectotypifications of Thirteen Names in Pellionia(Urticaceae)
    LIN Qi;YANG Zhi-Rong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 4-7.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.002
    Abstract2243)      PDF(pc) (155KB)(440)       Save
    Based on examinations of the specimens housed at BM, E, K and P, lectotypes for eleven species, one variety and one forma of the genus Pellionia Gaudich. (Urticaceae) are here selected under Art. 9.4, 9.9 and 9.10, and Recomm. 9A.1, 9A.2, 9A.3 and 9A.4 of the Vienna Code (McNeill & al., 2006) because no clear collections were cited in the protologue, or two or more specimens were cited, but without indicating the type in the protologue.
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    Pollen Morphology and Viability of Elaeagnus umbellata
    MA Xiao-Li;HAN Rong*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 8-11.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.003
    Abstract1866)      PDF(pc) (240KB)(312)       Save
    Different methods were applied to specimen preparation of Elaeagnus umbellata pollens for SEM observation. Results indicated that the natural drying pollen morphology of E.umbellata changed seriously, but pollen shape maintained well by the fixation and dehydration. The pollen grains of E.umbellata are subspheroid in equatorial view, triangle-boll and 3-colporate in polar view, and the exine sculpture is cerebroid. Viability of the pollen was measured by I 2-KI staining in different time after anthesis. Results showed that the mean pollen viability is high in inchoate anthesis, and declines after sharply 36 hours, but a few pollen grains are still viable at the end of anthesis.
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    Micro-morphology of Leaf Epidermis and Its Taxonomical Significance of Sanicula L.
    MA Yong-Hong;ZHANG Xue-Mei;ZENG Chun-Ting;ZHAO Huan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 12-17.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.004
    Abstract1361)      PDF(pc) (835KB)(346)       Save
    Leaf epidermis of 6 species and 13 populations of Sanicula were observed under light microscope and some quantity index was measured by analyses system of microphotograph. The results revealed that the epidermal structure is the same type: Almost adaxial epidermis are polygonal shapes and their anticlinalwalls are mainly straight-arched, abaxial epidermis are irregular and their anticlinalwalls undulate to sinuate. The stomata are scattered and anisocytic. But the types of anticlinalwall and the proportionment of length to width of stomatal aperture ect. are different among species. Leaf epidermal morphology may verify the systematic relationships and classification of Sanicula.
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    A New Observation on Several Morphological Characteristics of Gametophyte in Lygodium japonicum
    GUO Zhi-You;LIU Bao-Dong;ZHANG Xian-Chun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 18-21.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.005
    Abstract1340)      PDF(pc) (314KB)(329)       Save
    Lygodium japonicum(Thunb) Sw. is one of normal medicinal ferns. Based on many previous works, its gametophytic development was studied by the microscope. We also supplemented the representative characteristic of it, such as Shorter filament was 2~3 cells long, Prothallial plate and young prothallus of develop types were diverse, Adult prothallus was Cordate-thalloid form, Hair made of 1 cell or 2 cells, Unicellular rhizoid was either in chloroplasts or at top enlargment and so on. These characteristics of gametophytic showed that it was a middle type on phylogeny and evolution. Many young sporophytes were obtained by artificial culture of spores, which established foundation for protective development and utilization of resource of L.japonicum.
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    Induction of Embryogenic callus and Somatic Embryogenesis of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.
    ZHANG Jian-Ying;JIANG Si-Jia;XING Ya-Juan;GUO Shu-Ping;GUO Xi-Jun;WANG Fei;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 22-26.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.006
    Abstract1553)      PDF(pc) (248KB)(361)       Save
    Juglans mandshurica Maxim. is one of the most important component species of the mixed forest of the broadleaved species and Korean pine forest in the eastern mountains in Northeast China. Because of too much cutting, the resource is decreasing. Somatic embryogenesis is basic for the rapid development of population and research on artificial seeds and has important significance in genetic improvement. This study intended to establish a culture system that would induce somatic embryogenesis of J.mandshurica Maxim. Various plant growth regulators and their ratio were investigated with different explants of J.mandshurica Maxim. The results showed that the zygotic embryos were the best to induce embryogenic callus. May and June were the best period to collect explants for the induction. The best induction medium for embryogenic callus was MS supplemented with 1.0 mg·L -1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg·L -1 6-BA. The best medium for induction, development and differentiation of somatic embryos was MS supplemented with 60 g·L -1 sugar, 700 mg·L -1 CH without any growth regulation substances.
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    Mitigative Effect of IBA and CaCl 2 on Under Salt Stress Ammopiptanthus mongolicus Seedlings
    LI Jing-Nan;LIU Qiang*;LI Sheng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 27-31.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.007
    Abstract1945)      PDF(pc) (214KB)(325)       Save
    Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, an endangered evergreen leguminous shrub, which is endemic to the semi-arid desert region of central Asia was successfully introduced in Tianjin by our team. In order to understand the mitigative effect of IBA and CaCl 2 of A.mongolicus seedlings under salt stress, the seedlings were treated with 1.3% NaCl and different concentrations of IBA and CaCl 2 under water culture. Antioxidant enzyme activities, photochemical efficiency of PSII and other related physiological index are measured and analyzed. The results showed that several treatments improved the growth of A.mongolicus seedlings; they were also helpful to increase the content of chlorophyll, the activity of antioxidant enzyme. It was also found that the application of IBA and CaCl 2 could decrease the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). Therefore, the injuries induced by the salt stress were mitigated and salt resistance of A.mongolicus was raised by the low concentration of IBA and CaCl 2. When the concentration of IBA and CaCl 2 reached 5 and 20 mmol·L -1, respectively, the seedlings growth were inhibited. The application effect of CaCl 2 is better than IBA.
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    Effects of He-Ne Laser and Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Chloroplast Pigments in Wheat Seedlings
    GAO Li-Mei;LI Yong-Feng;HAN Rong*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 32-36.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.008
    Abstract1547)      PDF(pc) (217KB)(355)       Save
    The seedlings of wheat were exposed to He-Ne laser(5 mW·mm -2) irradiation and enhanced UV-B(10.08 kJ·m -2d -1) radiation. Then the content changes of chloroplast pigments and the composition of pigment-proteins were measured in order to test the mitigative effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on injury by enhanced UV-B radiation. After treating wheat seedlings for 4 days circularly, chloroplast pigments were extracted respectively by 90% ethanol and 80% acetone. The contents of chloroplast pigments were detected with spectrophotometer or paper chromatography. The composition of pigmentproteins were detected with column chromatography. It suggested that the content of chloroplast pigments decreased 17.76% approximately in wheat seedlings by enhanced UV-B radiation. The binding degree of Chl-Pro is weakened. The composition of pigment-proteins also differed from the control group. Straps of D1 and D2 proteins lost. However, the content of chloroplast pigments increased about 10.64% exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation, but decreased 8.12% comparing with the control. The binding degree of Chl-Pro is higher than the B group. At the same time, the composition of pigmentproteins was similar with the control group. So the lower dose of He-Ne laser irradiation can partly repair the radiation injury on chloroplast pigments and pigment-proteins in wheat seedlings after enhanced UV-B radiation.
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    Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donor on the Ascorbate-glutathione Cycle in Peganum multisectum Seedling Leaves under NaCl Stress
    LIU Jian-Xin;WANG Xin;LI Bo-Ping
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 37-41.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.009
    Abstract1641)      PDF(pc) (216KB)(393)       Save
    The effects of spraying exogenous NO with the donor of sodium nitroprusside(SNP) on the ascorbate-glutathione cycle dependent antioxidant system and the contents of H 2O 2 and malondialdehyde(MDA) in Peganum multisectum Bobr under salt stress were investigated. The results showed that the activities of ascorbate peroxidase(APX), glutathione reductase(GR), glutathione-S-transferase(GST) and the contents of ascorbic acid(ASA) and reduced glutathione(GSH), the ratios of ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG in leaves of P.multisectum with 0.15 mmol·L -1 SNP treatment under 300 mmol·L -1 NaCl stress were increased while the contents of oxidized ascorbic acid(DHA), oxidized glutathione(GSSG), H 2O 2 and MDA were decreased, the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase(MDAR) and dehydroascorbate reductas(DHAR) were not affected under NaCl stress. However, the effects of SNP on the activities of APX, GR, GST, the contents of ASA, GSH, DHA,H 2O 2, MDA, and the ratios of ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG under NaCl stress were reversed by methylene blue(MB), inhibitor of the key enzyme guanylyl cyclase(GC) during signal transfer of NO. It is suggested that NO is involved in regulation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle dependent antioxidant system through cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP) pathway to alleviate the oxidative damage of P.multisectum seedlings from salt stress.
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    Adaptive Evolution in the Chloroplast Gene rps4 in Ferns
    ZHANG Li-Jun;CHEN Jie;WANG Ting*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 42-50.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.010
    Abstract1611)      PDF(pc) (497KB)(479)       Save
    RPS4 (ribosomal protein small subunit 4) is one of the primary rRNA-binding proteins that initiate assembly of the 30S subunit in prokaryotes and plant chloroplast. In ferns, RPS4 is encoded by chloroplast gene rps4. Recently polypod ferns have been demonstrated to undergo diversification in the Cretaceous after the rise of angiosperms. To further test this proposal, an adaptive evolutionary analysis was performed on the rps4 gene sequences of 23 types of ferns, under the branch model, site model and branch-site model developed by Yang et al. The results from branch model indicated that 4 lineages were under the positive selection with ω>1. No positive selected sites were detected under the branch-site model, however, 85 negative selected sites were identified under the site model. There were only 2 lineages from Polypodiaceous ferns which are under positive selection. And this finding was constant with the proposal we had mentioned before. Moreover, the fact that rps4 was under highly negative selection indicated that the function and structure of rps4 had been almost stabilized.
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    Effects of Different Nitrogen-form Proportions on the Growth of Schisandra chinensis Seedlings
    XU Hai-Jun;SUN Guang-Yu;ZHANG Yue;ZHOU Zhi-Qiang*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 51-56.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.011
    Abstract1593)      PDF(pc) (220KB)(332)       Save
    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different nitrogen(N)-form proportions of NH + 4-N to NO - 3-N on the growth of Schisandra chinensis seedlings. The soluble protein content, chlorophyll concentration in leaves, whole nitrogen content, and the seasonal regulation of biomass accumulation and distribution in roots, stems and leaves were analyzed on 2-year-old S.chinensis seedlings. The results showed that the absorbance and assimilation of different nitrogen(N) form in each growth stage of S.chinensis seedlings were significantly different. NH + 4-N and NO - 3-N had notable jointeffect: NH + 4-N was beneficial for early growth stage of S.chinensis seedlings, when the proportion of NH + 4-N and NO - 3-N was 75∶25, above-ground biomass was the most; but NO - 3-N was more useful in middle and late growth stages, when the proportion of NH + 4-N and NO - 3-N was 25∶75, the biomass was mostly distributed above ground.
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    Plant Species Diversity in Sinocalycanthus chinensis Community and its Correlation with Soil Factors in Dalei Mountain of Zhejiang Province
    LIU Li-Li;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jian-Hui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 57-64.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.012
    Abstract1216)      PDF(pc) (280KB)(364)       Save
    Plant species diversity of Sinocalycanthus chinensis community in Dalei mountain of Zhejiang Province was determined by using the index of species richness, species diversity and community evenness, and the relationships between the biodiversity indices and soil factors were studied by employing correlation analysis. According to the statistics of ten plots, there are altogether 74 families of vascular plants which can be subdivided into 193 species, 165 genera. Most of them are distributed in the temperate zone in terms of the geographic composition of seed plant genera. In different communities, the species richness and species diversity index of the woody plants were highest in Cunninghamia lanceolata+ Schima superba forest, the community evenness was highest in C.lanceolata forest, and these index were lowest in bamboo grove. The species richness of the herbal plants was highest in C.lanceolata+ Pinus massoniana forest and lowest in C.lanceolata forest. The species diversity index and community evenness of the herbal plants was highest in bamboo grove and lowest in Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata+ Eurya muricata forest. In the vertical structure of these different communities, the species richness and species diversity index of tree layer were lower than those of shrub layer, the species diversity of herb layer was greatly varied in different communities. The correlation analysis showed that there was great correlation existing between the species diversity of S.chinensis community and soil organic matter content in which organic matter content was positively related to species diversity of the woody plants but negative to the herbal plants significantly, respectively.
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    Morphological Variations in Fruit Among Population of Calligonum roborowskii A.Los.
    GULNUR Sabirhazi;PAN Bo-Rong*;YIN Lin-Ke
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 65-69.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.013
    Abstract1892)      PDF(pc) (179KB)(306)       Save
    Eleven morphological attributes of fruit among five populations of Calligonum roborowskii A.Los. from Tarim basin of Xinjiang, China were compared by statistical analysis in the present study. One way ANOVA showed that there are significant difference in 10 morphological traits among populations; The five populations were incorporated into two types according to the results of clustering analysis (Euclidean distance). The principal component analysis result indicated that the distance of the between bristles, the distance of the between ribs and length of bristle were the main reasons leading to the morphological variations among populations. The correlation analysis showed that length of seed had a very significant correlation with diameter of seed and altitude had a very significant correlation with length of bristles.
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    Morphological Diversity of Flower Lotus( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) germplasms
    GUO Hong-Bo;KE Wei-Dong;LI Shuang-Mei
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 70-80.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.014
    Abstract1913)      PDF(pc) (508KB)(414)       Save
    The genetic diversity in forty flower lotus germplasms of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera from Chinese National Garden of Aquatic Vegetable was evaluated using nineteen morphological characters. Among all characters, flower type (FT), number of petals (NP), pistil character, pistil function and rhizome color (RC) exhibited significant positive correlation with figure of floral bud (FB). The correlations of FB with FT, NP and RC were positive and highly significant. The path analysis revealed that days of emerging flower bud (DB) had the highest positive direct effect on FB (0.552), followed by NP (0.516) and RC (0.368). Characters showing highly negative direct effect on FB were petal length (PL) (-0.801), days of emerging first flower (DF) (-0.558) and leaf width (-0.451). Four principal components accounted for 65.68% of the total variability. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characters revealed four continuous groups according to the evolutionary direction.
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    Cloning and Analysis of Dirigent-like Protein in Gene from Tamarix androssowii
    GAO Cai-Qiu;LIU Gui-Feng;WANG Yu-Cheng;JIANG Jing;YANG Chuan-Ping*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 81-86.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.015
    Abstract1703)      PDF(pc) (373KB)(366)       Save
    A dirigent-like protein (DIR) full length cDNA was cloned from Tamarix androssowii cDNA library. The Tadir gene is 724 bp in length without its polyA sequence, including 26 bp of 5′untranslated region and 143 bp of 3′untranslated region. It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 555 bp, encoding 184 amino acid residues. The protein molecular weight is 19.69 kD and its isoelectric point is 6.96. Hydrophobicity analysis showed that there was a hydrophilic region between 1 to 41 residues. This gene was accepted by Genbank, the accession numbers are DQ462418 (gene) and ABE73781 (protein). Under the stress of 0.4 mol·L -1 NaCl and NaHCO 3, expression of Tadir gene has been changed by real-time PCR. Therefore, this gene may be associated with salt resistance of T.androssowii.
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    Genetic Diversity of Alfalfa( Medicago sativa) Germplasm using Bulked DNA Based on RAPD Markers
    WANG Xiao-Juan;BAN Ting;HAN Peng;LIU Xiang;YANG Xiao-Li
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 87-91.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.016
    Abstract1178)      PDF(pc) (218KB)(345)       Save
    Analysis of molecular genetic diversity in Alfalfa( Medicago sativa L.) germplasm is of great importance for conserving and breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of alfalfa varieties, and to identify them through screening the variety-specific primers. This report analyzed the genetic diversity of 16 alfalfa varieties from Gansu Province based on RAPD markers using bulking equal quantities of DNA from 20 individuals of a cultivar. Based on the Roger’s distances between the sixteen cultivars, the dendrogram by UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the relationships among these cultivars were tightly related to breeding programs. There was a clear difference between creeping variety Jindera and other erect varieties. Within the erect accessions, 3 distinct groups including one introduced varieties and synthetic varieties originated from alien germplasm, one east-central group and one west group, were detected. Four of 10 primers, OPE4, OPE5, OPE6 and OPE7, amplified the specific bands belong to 5 cultivars, Gannong 3, Ganza 27, Jindera, Longdong and Algoniun, were detected, respectively, which could be used to identify alfalfa varieties through exploring the variety-specific primers.
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    Removal Effect of Two Species of Filamentous Green Algae on Phenol at Low Concentration
    DONG Xiao-Li;LIU Xiao-Ling;XIE Shu-Lian*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 92-97.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.017
    Abstract1289)      PDF(pc) (295KB)(322)       Save
    Removal effect of two species of filamentous green algae, Cladophora fracta and Spirogyra longata, on phenol at low concentration was studied. The results show that the removal rate of C.fracta and S.longata towards phenol are 86% and 75.63% under absence of between-subjects effects, respectively. It was indicated the temperature is the primary factor to C.fracta and the exposure time is the primary factor to S.longata. The removal rate of C.fracta and S.longata towards phenol were 88.98% and 75.63% under presence of between-subjects effects, respectively. It was indicated the temperature is the primary factor to C.fracta and the exposure time is the primary factor to S.longata. The best combination for removing phenol by C.fracta is temperature 18℃, exposure time 2 h and algal weight 0.5 g and the best combination for removing phenol by S.longata is temperature 8℃, exposure time 1 h and algal weight 0.5 g.
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    Biosynthesis and Function of Glutathione in Plant
    DUAN Xi-Hua;TANG Zhong-Hua;GUO Xiao-Yui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 98-105.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.018
    Abstract2087)      PDF(pc) (287KB)(888)       Save
    Glutathione (GSH) is the major non-protein terminal production containing sulfur in the reduction assimilation pathway and the oxidized forms of GSH is called GSSG in the organism. Because of the abroad and unique ability to maintain the redox state, GSH has got extensive attention. In this paper, the progresses made in the research of GSH recently was reviewed about the biosynthesis, compartmentation, transport and degradation, and the function of glutathione during abiotic stress.
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    Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Rare Plant in Codariocalyx motorius(Houtt.)
    MAO Yan-Ping;SU Zhi-Xian*;ZOU Li-Juan;WU Qing-Gui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 106-110.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.019
    Abstract1537)      PDF(pc) (243KB)(311)       Save
    The aseptic seedings of Codariocalyx motorius(Houtt.) Ohashi were the materials of our study on issue culture and rapid propagation, MS and 1/2MS were the basic mediums. Impact of different conditions on the rapid propagation of C.motorius(Houtt.) was discussed and a tissue culture system of C.motorius(Houtt.) was initially established, the best callus adventitious and bud differentiation medium was MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L -1+NAA 0.1 mg·L -1+sugar 30 g·L -1+VC 2.0 mg·L -1, the best medium for the shoot regeneration was MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L -1+NAA 0.05 mg·L -1, the best rooting medium was 1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg·L -1+IAA 0.5 mg·L -1.
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    Molecular Identification of Genets of Clonal Plant Duchesnea indica
    SONG Wen-Jing;LI Jun-Min;JIN Ze-Xin*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 111-115.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.020
    Abstract1519)      PDF(pc) (203KB)(364)       Save
    Inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR)was used to determine the genets of Duchesnea indica. The results show that 6 ISSR primers amplified 62 DNA bands in 22 ramets. Each of the primers amplified 4~16 bands, the average amplified band was 10.3. The use of six primer pairs 22 ramets cloned amplified DNA bands have 28 kinds of type, which has nine specific bands. Comprehensive analysis of these bands, ascertaining that 22 ramets belong to 16 genets. According to the banding patterns, all ramets tested in this study were distinguished from each other by four of 6 selected primers. It was shown that the ISSR technique is a reliable and effective tool to identify the genets of D.indica. At the same time, the polymorphic proportion of the bands amplified by each primer, with an average of 90.3%.
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    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lycium barbarum L. by RAPD
    SHANG Jie;LI Shou;ZHANG Kao-Wen
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 116-119.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.021
    Abstract1831)      PDF(pc) (147KB)(299)       Save
    By screening 13 samples being polymorphic with 10 base random primers, we amplified the genomic DNAs of four domestic and three wild cultivars of Lycium barbarum L.. A total of 123 RAPD bands was detected, 68 among which were polymorphic, and the percent of polymorphic bands was 55.28%. Then we calculate the genetic similarity coefficient by Ntsyspc 2.1 and did UPGMA cluster analysis, and found the genetic relationship among the domestic cultivars is close, especially Ningqi No.1 and Ningqi No.2, whose similarity coefficient goes 81.82%, but between the domestic cultivars and the wild cultivars the genetic relationship is far.
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    Genetic Diversity in the Natural Populations of Liquidambar fornosana Revealed by ISSR Molecular Markers
    BI Quan-Xin;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jun-Min;LI Jian-Hui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 120-125.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.022
    Abstract1742)      PDF(pc) (246KB)(368)       Save
    By using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers technique, the genetic diversity of five populations of endangered relic shrub Liguidambar fornosana was studied in this paper. Using 10 primers, ISSR amplification was conducted in 100 individuals from 5 L.fornosana populations and 118 polymorphic loci were detected from total 135 loci. The total percentage of polymorphic loci( P) was 87.41%. The mean of Shannon’s Information index( I) and Nei’s gene diversity( h) at population level was 0.366 0 and 0.254 3. It suggested that the genetic diversity of BS population was the highest while that of TTS population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular differences showed that 85.49% was distributed among individuals within populations, while only 1451% was distributed among populations, The gene differentiation coefficient ( G st) among populations is 0.185 6. The gene flow among populations is 2.194 4. The average genetic distance of 5 populations was 0.119 9. Using unweighted pair group method arithmatic average(UPGMA), BYS population, TTS population, BS population and ADH population were clustered into one group; the DMS population was clustered into another group.
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    Preliminary Anatomy Study on Leaf of Lonicera maackii
    NIE Jiang-Li;MENG Ling-Ning
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (1): 126-128.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.023
    Abstract1634)      PDF(pc) (238KB)(339)       Save
    Preliminary anatomical structure of leaf from Lonicera maackii was studied by the methods of barehanded section in order to provide the basis for anatomy, systematic and pharmacognosy. The results show that: leaf of L.maackii is bifacial leaf , the upper and lower epidermis are 1 layer, the stomata only exist in lower epidermis, stomatal index is 14.3%~25%,most stomata are anomocytic type, palisade tissue is 1 layer with a lot of chloroplasts, there are cluster crystal of calcium oxalate in spongy tissue ,the main vein of leaves is collateral vascular bundle. There is collenchyma in cortex. The characters mentioned aboved show leaf of L.maackii adapted well to the physiological function and ecological environment.
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    Lectotypifications of Eighteen Names of Chinese Taxa in Angiospermae
    LIN Qi;YANG Zhi-Rong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 129-133.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.001
    Abstract1604)      PDF(pc) (224KB)(347)       Save
    In the voucher specimens housed at the Herbarium (PE), Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of eighteen names of Chinese taxa in Angiosperm are found to be syntypes under Article 9.4 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). According to Article 8.1, 9.9 and 9.10, and Recommendation 9A.2 and 9A.3, lectotypes for these names are here designated.
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    Anatomy Studies on Six Mosses in Kanas Nature Reserve
    WANG Jian-Hong;WANG Xin;JIANG Yan-Cheng;TUEr HongJiang;WANG Hong*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 134-139.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.002
    Abstract1941)      PDF(pc) (839KB)(349)       Save
    Paraffin sectioning technique and scanning electron microscopy methods were applied to observe six species of masses. The internal structure of stems,leaves and the stratum corneum surface ornamentation, warts growth and micro-hole were compared.The results indicated that the epidermal cells of Rhytidium rugosum(Hedw.) Kindb. have small verrucose on outer wall, while the tandem of the wall adjacent to the surface of the cuticle cell patterns long into parallel bundles; stem axis of the Abietinella abietina(hedw.) fleisch was not obvious, in the back of a rib-like thorns protruding warts, dorsal, ventral surfaces of the side wall warts, was covered like; the epidermal cells wall of Bartramia ithphylla Brid. uplift, holes was not sink, orifice was covered by the cuticle ornamentation; the back surface of leaf crude cell wall of Aulacomnium palustre(Hedw.) Schwagr. warts highlighted by the depression, cuticle ornamentation was banded, leaf faces big belly, and in many cell wall-like interface was open; the epidermal cells of back leave of Hylocommium splendens(Hedw.) B.S.G wart like thorns wide, dorsal, ventral warts rough high, the top of the cell wall with depression; Dorsal, ventral cells irregular depressions adjacent cell wall of Ceratodon purpureus(hedw.) Brid. was a small intensive wart.
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    Foliar Structure of Several Species of Epiphytic Tillandsia(Bromeliaceae)
    WANG Si-Wei;ZHENG Gui-Ling;FU Ying;WANG Dan;LI Peng;*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 140-145.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.003
    Abstract1359)      PDF(pc) (442KB)(327)       Save
    We analyzed and compared external and internal structure of the leaves of three epiphytic Tillandsia species( Tillandsia stricta‘Hard leaf’, T.stricta ‘Cotton candy’ and T.filifolia) and one terrestrial species of Bromeliaceae, Guzmania ‘Denise’, by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and paraffin section. The results showed that the sunflower-shaped trichomes covered the leaf surface in all species studied. The foliar trichomes were made up of disc cells, ring cells and wing cells, and the central disc cells were connected with mesophyll cells by a passage with 2-3 cells. The foliar trichomes of the epiphytic Tillandsia were white and waxy with high densities, but stomata is little or not detectable, which indicated the foliar trichomes would functioned as reduction of transpiration, water repellency and photoprotection other than water and nutrient absorption. In addition, the foliar trichomes among different epiphytic Tillandsia species were different in density, shape and size, which suggested that different species have been adapted to their ancestral and present environment.
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    Characteristic of Molecular Evolution of Sibiraea angustata Based on nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F Sequence Analysis
    DUAN Yi-Zhong;ZHANG De-Jun;GAO Qing-Bo;ZHANG Fa-Qi;LI Yin-Hu;CHEN Shi-Long*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 146-151.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.004
    Abstract2287)      PDF(pc) (316KB)(311)       Save
    The differences between the nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F sequences in Sibiraea angustata were analyzed by PCR direct sequencing, and then compared with cpDNA trnS-G, rpl20- rps12 sequences of this species. Total DNA was extracted from silica-dried leaves of S.angustata using modified CTAB method. With the extracted DNA as template, nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F regions were amplified, then purified and sequenced. The length of nrDNA ITS sequence of S.angustata was 601 bp, of which 3 were variable sites with a percentage of 0.05%, the (G+C) content was 41.4%. The length of cpDNA trnL-F sequence of S.angustata was 927 bp, of which only one was variable site with a percentage of 0.01%, the(G+C) content was 32.6%. The nrDNA ITS region of S.angustata was more conserved and evolved more slowly than the cpDNA trnS-G and rpl20- rps12 sequences, but evolved a little more rapidly when compared to cpDNA trnL-F. The present distribution range of S.angustata has experienced range expansion by the haplotype analysis of this species,which consists with the conclusion resulting from cpDNA genome. Therefore, the nrDNA ITS sequence of S.angustata was fit to the phylogeographic study of this species.
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    Comparative Study on the Microstructure and Ultrastructure for Three Cultivated Varieties of Rice
    YANG Yan-Hua;WANG Cai-Lin*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 152-156.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.005
    Abstract1981)      PDF(pc) (380KB)(359)       Save
    The microstructure and ultrastructure of three cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica(Wuyujing 3, Wuyunjing 7, and Kanto 194) were investigated using light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The number of vascular bundles and air spaces in the main vein of the leaves in both Wuyujing 3 and Wuyunjing 7 was more than those of Kanto 194. Meanwhile, the grana lamellae of chloroplast were arranged closely and there was no gap in the middle of grana lamellae. The grana lamellae of chloroplast were arranged loosely and there were more gaps.These results showed that the microstructural and ultrastructural features of Wuyujing 3 and Wuyunjing 7 were correlated to their high yield characteristics, which lay a theoretical foundation for our future research.
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    Ecological Adaptation of Huperzia serrataⅠ Leaf and Stem Anatomical Characterstics
    ZHOU Yi;HUANG Heng-Yu;*;LI Jing;
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 157-163.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.006
    Abstract1732)      PDF(pc) (452KB)(365)       Save
    By using the method of anatomy, we compared and analyzed the anatomical characterstics of the leaf and stem of five wild populations of Huperzia serrata in Xiangxi Region. The results showed that H.serrata populations have obvious differences in anatomical characterstics. Among all anatomical characterstics, vascular cylinder thickness, cortex thickness, spongy tissue thickness, and leaf thickness are the main factors which contribute to the differences of anatomical characterstics of H.serrata populations; The anatomical characterstics of stem and leaf are morphologically adaptive to damp environment, but among all populations, H.serrata in S1 population have the tendency of adapting dry environment. These morphological characterstics are mainly controlled by genetic factors, but environmental factors(mainly light and water) also have important influence on them. Therefore, the anotomical difference and plasticity of H.serrata populations are essential for the adaptation and the existance of H.serrata.
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    Variation in Fruit Characteristics of Hippophae tibetana(Elaeagnaceae) in the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,China
    WEN Jiang-Bo;SUN Kun*;YAN Min-Sheng;HU Rui;SUN Wen-Bin
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 164-169.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.007
    Abstract1904)      PDF(pc) (225KB)(366)       Save
    Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. is one of the endemic species of Hippophae L. in the high altitude area of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Himalayas. It presents high variety in the size, shape and color of its fruits, the length of fruit stalk, etc. The variation in fruit characteristics such as fruit length, fruit width, indexes of fruit shape, the length of fruit stalk and fruit ornamentation length of 7 natural populations, distributing in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, were analyzed statistically in order to study its variation level and geographic variation patterns. The results showed that very significant variation existed among and within populations ( p<0.01),except the fruit ornamentation length among populations( p<0.05). Coefficient of variation( CV) ranged between 11.19% and 45.03%, the length of fruit stalk presented the greatest variation ( CV was 45.03%), followed by ornamentation length of fruit( CV was 31.97%), fruit width presented the least variation( CV was 11.19%). Phenotypic differentiation coefficients of variance ( V st) ranged from 0.213 3 to 0.629 9 and the mean was 0.489 5. Each of the variation among and within populations accounted for a half of the fruit variation. Correlations analysis indicated that there were very significant correlations among the fruit characteristics ( p<0.01) except the fruit length and the length of fruit stalk, fruit width and fruit ornamentation length. There were also very significant correlations between characteristics and geographical factors ( p<0.01) except fruit length and altitude, fruit width and latitude and longitude. Some fruit characteristics showed geographic variation gradient.Cluster analysis indicated that 7 populations clustered according to the geographical distance.
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    Effects of Light Intensity on Spore Germination and Sex Differentiation of Ceratopteris thalictroides(L.) Brongn.
    SUN Xin;ZHU Xuan-Lü;ZHANG Ying;DAI Xi-Ling*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 170-173.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.008
    Abstract1680)      PDF(pc) (152KB)(381)       Save
    The effects of different light intensities on spore germination and the growth of gametophyte of Ceratopteris thalictroides(L.) Brongn. were studied. The results showed that the intensity of 2 000~4 000 lx is suitable for spore germination, the optimum point is at 4 000 lx. When the intensity is around 4 000 lx,the spores easily grow into hermaphrodites gametophyte. When the intensity is around 1 000 lx,the spores mostly grow into males gametophyte. It gives evidence for the cultivation of C.thalictroides and the molecule biology study.
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    Somatic Embryogenesis from Mature Zygotic Embryo Explants of Sorbus pohuashanensis Hedl
    YANG Ling;SHEN Hai-Long*;LIU Chun-Ping;ZHAI Xiao-Jie
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 174-179.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.009
    Abstract1670)      PDF(pc) (480KB)(361)       Save
    Somatic embryogenesis of Sorbus pohuashanensis Hedl was studied by taking intact mature zygotic embryo, zygotic embryo with 1 cotyledon and the cut cotyledon as explants. The basal induction and differentiation media were MS and MS1/2, respectively. The results showed that somatic embryo induction rate was the highest on intact mature zygotic embryo explant, which was 100%,and the best combination of plant growth regulators was 5 mg·L -1 NAA plus 2 mg·L -1 6-BA for induction of somatic embryos on MS medium. The concentrations of NAA and 6-BA and their interaction have significant effects on induction of callus and somatic embryos. Light environment with longer subculture interval were favorable to somatic embryogenesis. Stereomicroscope observation showed that there were two regeneration patterns (direct and indirect) and four development stages (globular, heartshape, torpedo-shape and cotyledonary) for somatic embryogenesis of the species. Microscopic observation showed that the somatic embryos had bipolarity, and cotyledonary somatic embryos had fully-developed structure.
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    Gametophytic Development and Apogamy of the Fern Onychium siliculosum(Desv.) C. Chr.
    DAI Xiao-Fei;CAO Jian-Guo*;HUANG Wu-Jie;Zhong Xiao-Ye;LI Xin-Guo
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 180-184.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.010
    Abstract1694)      PDF(pc) (457KB)(363)       Save
    The gametophytic development and apogamy of the fern Onychium siliculosum(Desv.) C. Chr. were observed by microscope and semithin section technique. The results exhibited that the spores are tawny, tetrahedral, and trilete. During the period of germination a rhizoid was produced firstly, then the prothallial initial cells. The germination was of the Vittaria-type. The prothallial cells, after experiencing the stages of filament and thallus, developed into prothallium. The pattern of the prothallial development was Ceratopteris-type. The filaments were rich in branches and they formed cluster prothallia. Antheridia were generated on the prothallia, but no archegonia were formed through repeated experiments. This species belonged to obligate apogamy. The observation of semithin section showed that the apogamous embryo is caused by the divisions of a group of small cells, which originated from the gametophytic cells behind the apical notch of the prothallium. The apogamous bud was differentiated first from the small cells, and then the root. The apogamous bud and the embryo root were connected by the differentiated vessels which also connected the gametphyte and the sporephyte.
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    Observation on the Systematic Characteristics of Gametophyte in Sinephropteris delavayi
    JI Hong-Ling;SHI Lei;SUN Shu-Hong;LIU Bao-Dong*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 185-190.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.011
    Abstract1148)      PDF(pc) (618KB)(351)       Save
    Gametophytic development of Sinephropteris delavayi(Franch.) Mickel in Brittonia was first studied by the microscope. The spores germinate at about 6 days after cultured. The germ filiaments developments are uniseriate and can forked into 2~3 branches. The meristem of prothallial is unconspicuous. Mature prothallu are approximately cordate. We also discussed the characteristic of meristem, hair and sexual organs so that can show the reasonable view of Mickel who divided into an unique genus S.delavayi.
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    In Vitro Conservation of Rare and Endangered Emmenopterys henryi Oliv. Germplasm
    HONG Sen-Rong;YIN Ming-Hua*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 191-196.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.012
    Abstract1719)      PDF(pc) (223KB)(307)       Save
    The effects of culture temperature, inorganic salts level, sucrose, mannitol and plant growth inhibitor PP 333 on in vitro conservation of Emmenopterys henryi Oliv. stems with a bud in MS basic medium were studied using singlefactor experiments and orthogonal experimental method. The results showed that the survival rate of E.henryi Oliv. stems with a bud cultured in 1/2MS medium containing 2.0 mg·L -1 KT, 2.0 mg·L -1 6-BA, 0.1 mg·L -1 NAA, 50 g·L -1 sucrose and 10 g·L -1 mannitol and stored at 9℃ low temperature was up to 80%. PP333 also had a significant effect on in vitro conservation of E.henryi Oliv., the most suitable concentration of PP 333 was 6 mg·L -1, the survival rate after 180 d was over 95%. After morphological indexes measuring, physiological and biochemical indexes determination and RAPD analysis detection, the genetic variation of E.henryi Oliv. conservation in vitro plantlets did not appear. The results provided a simple and effective way for in vitro conservation of the rare and endangered plants E.henryi Oliv. germplasm.
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    Elytrigia Genome Structure of Hybrid Octoploid Trititrigia and Agropyron glaucum
    YAN Xiao-Dan;ZHANG Yan-Ming;LI Ji-Lin*
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 197-201.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.013
    Abstract1568)      PDF(pc) (200KB)(334)       Save
    The intergeneric hybrid was obtained for the first time among Maicao 8th, Maicao 9th, Form 2nd of Octoploid Trititrigia and Agropyron glaucum. The seed-setting rate of crossing generation reached 31.49%, 39.28% and 10.41% respectively. Interstitial type of parents was showed on F_1 hybrid, the plants were very big and flourish, its ear length ranged from 20 cm to 30 cm, the number of spikelet from 25 to 30. The hybrid could survived without coverage during the winter in Harbin, because it was perennial plants and could resist the cold. After scrutinizing the meiosis of pollen mother cells in F_1 hybrids, the results were concluded as follows: the chromosomes were paired unusually, with high rate of univalent and appearing multibivalent. At F_1 PMC MI, the chromosome configurations were 9.5Ⅰ+16.98Ⅱ+0.27Ⅲ, 13.6Ⅰ+14.01Ⅱ+0.87Ⅲ and 11.2Ⅰ+16.8Ⅱ+0.08Ⅲ, respectively. The variable range of bivalent was 13 to 18, univalent was 11 to 17, and multivalent was 0.08 to 0.087, most of bivalents were bar shaped. We could speculate that part of homologous chromosome were in relationship and the others were non-homologous genomes, there was also relationship in some chromosome among homologous. Ph gene in chromosome of 5B of wheat may be inhibited by the chromosome E.
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    Genetic Diversity of Lindera aggregata Populations in Zhejiang Province
    GU Jing-Jing;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jun-Min
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 202-207.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.014
    Abstract1885)      PDF(pc) (257KB)(340)       Save
    Eight populations of Lindera aggregata were collected from Zhejiang Province and the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were analyzed by using inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR) molecular makers. 12 relaible primers were selected from total 100 primers and 125 loci were detected in 160 individuals. 100 loci were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci( P) at species level was 80% with an average of 60.5% at population level. The genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index( I) and Nei’s gene index( h) was 0.376 2 and 0.246 4, respectively, while those at population level averaged 0.317 3 and 0.213 1, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance(ANOVA) showed that only 11.44% of the total variation was distributed among populations, while 88.56% was distributed among individuals within population. The gene differentiation coefficient( G st) and the gene flow( N m) was 0.134 9 and 3.205 2, respectively. The pair-wise genetic distance averaged 0.049 4. By using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean(UPGMA), the eight populations could be divided into two groups. Shuimokeng, Shangpan and Cangshan populations collected in Taizhou city were clustered into one group and the other five populations were clustered into the other group.
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    Genetic Diversity and Genetic Variation of Populations Endangered Tree Cercidiphyllum japonicum
    WANG Jing;ZHANG Xiao-Ping*;LI Wen-Liang;WANG Lei;WU Jian-Xun;CHEN Yi-Kun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 208-214.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.015
    Abstract1347)      PDF(pc) (265KB)(358)       Save
    By using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers technique, this paper studied the genetic diversity and variation of ten populations of Cercidiphyllum japonicum. The results showed that at species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci ( P) was 69.59%, Shannon’s index ( I) was 0.351 4 and Nei’s gene diversity ( H) was 0.231 3, indicating a high level of genetic diversity. Whereas, at population level, they were only 30.61%, 0.173 3 and 0.115 6, respectively, suggesting a low level of genetic diversity. Genetic variation analysis showed that the coefficient of gene differentiation is 0.500 3 and the gene flow is 0.527 3 among populations, demonstrating a relatively high level genetic variation among the populations. Cluster analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. The high genetic variance among populations and the low genetic diversity within population could be attributed to the habitat fragmentation and the limited gene flow among populations.
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    Dormancy Mechanism and Bioactivity of Hydroquinone Extracted from Seed of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
    LI Meng-Fei;LI Wei;DU Wei;LI Jin-Juan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 215-220.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.016
    Abstract1647)      PDF(pc) (275KB)(287)       Save
    Ethyl ether extract from seed of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle was separated and identified by GC-MS, nineteen compounds existed including fatty acid, alkenes and others, most of which had been proved to possess inhibition activities that might be the primary reason of unhealthy germination of P.hexandrum Royle seed. Hydroquinone was firstly identified in this experiment and its bioactivity had never been reported in the reference before. The further study of its bioactivity was conducted on wheat and in vitro culture of P.hexandrum Royle seed. The results showed that hydroquinone(1×10 -1~1.0 mg·L -1) played a positive role and shortened the cycle in growth and development, which indicates that hydroquinone has similarity to auxin on plant growth and development.
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    Purification,Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Alkaline Solution Extracted Polysaccharide from Tremella fuciformis Berk
    HONG Ge;LIU Pei-Xun;GAO Xiao-Rong;SHEN Xiu;XU Wen-Qing
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2010, 30 (2): 221-227.   DOI: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.017
    Abstract1880)      PDF(pc) (330KB)(300)       Save
    Tremella fuciformis Berk(TFB) is widely distributed in southwest China. Its sporocarps are used as traditional Chinese medicine for nourishing yin and promoting fluid production, moistening lung and relieving cough. In this study, a polysaccharide with the molecular weight of 58962, named TFBP-A, was isolated from the fermentation product of TFB by alkaline solution. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated using three in vitro assay experiments including hydroxyl free radicals scavenging, superoxide anion free radicals elimination and red cells hemolysis inhibition. TFBP-A showed scavenging activity to hydroxyl free radicals and the EC 50 was 0.191 mg·mL -1; while it could also eliminate superoxide anion free radicals and the highest eliminating ratio was 53.0%; it could still inhibit red cells hemolysis aroused by H 2O 2 and the inhibition ratio was 78.6%. These results suggest that TFBP-A has certain antioxidant activity.
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