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    Two New Species of Urticaceae from China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (4): 481-483.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.001
    Abstract1592)      PDF (413KB)(3236)      
    A species of the genus Laportea(Urticaceae), L.jinganensis, and a species of the genus Debregeasia(also Urticaceae), D.hekouensis, are described as new from Jiangxi Province and Yunnan Province respectively. The diagnostic differences between L.jinganensis and its Chinese congeners and between D.hekouensis and its ally, D.longifolia, are given respectively.
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    Seed Morphology of Five Genera of Berberidaceae in China
    ZHANG Jian-Ru, ZENG Ni, CHANG Zhao-Yang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (4): 491-502.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.003
    Abstract1600)      PDF (2145KB)(3157)      
    The seed morphology of 42 taxa(40 species and 2 varieties) in 5 genera(Berberis, Mahonia, Caulophyllum, Dysosma and Diphylleia) of Berberidaceae from China was studied by stereoscope and scanning electron microscope. The study seeds were tawny, reddish brown to black, and diverse in shape. Ornamentation of seed coat was ascribed into four types as reticular(including 7 subtypes), reticular-scalariform, scalariform and ruminate. Seeds of Caulophyllum robustum were sphere and the hilum located on the side of seed near middle, which could be the typical characters distinguished from the other 4 genera. According to the micromorphology of seed coat, systematic and phylogenetic implications of seed coat morphology in Berberidaceae were discussed, and the possible evolutionary route of seed coat ornamentation was conjectured. Seed morphology supported the sister relationship between Berberis and Mahonia, and Dysosma was more original than Diphylleia. Seed morphology of the genus Berberis did not support Ahrendt's treatment of some sections and subsections.
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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of CkGR Gene in Caragana korshinskii Kom.
    ZHANG Teng-Guo, ZHOU Ke, MAO Yu-Shan, NIE Ting-Ting, LI Ping, DIAO Zhi-Hong, WANG Juan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (4): 511-519.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.005
    Abstract1564)      PDF (1846KB)(3116)      
    A novel GR genewas isolated from Caragana korshinskii Kom. by RACE. The full-length cDNA of GR was 2122 bp, containing a 5'-UTR of 57 bp, a 3'-UTR of 415 bp, and a 1650 bp opening reading frame(ORF). The deduced protein was 550 amino acids with molecular weight 59.2 kDa and isoelectric point 8.2, named CkGR. This CkGR showed high identities with the Cicer arietinum CaGR(90.6%). The promoter of CkGR gene was isolated by chromosomal walking and 648 bp sequence was obtained by sequencing. Plant CARE analysis of this sequence showed that the peomoter contained some typical elements CAAT-box and TATA-boxand kinds of Cis-acting elements involved in defense and stress responsiveness. RT-PCR analysis revealed that CkGR was expressed in roofs, stems, and leaves with almost no tissue specificity. The transcript level of CkGR was increased in response to cold, high salt and drought stress. CkGR played an important role during cold, high salt and drought stress in Caragana korshinskii Kom..
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    Notes on the genus Pilea(Urticaceae) of China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (4): 484-490.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.002
    Abstract1617)      PDF (889KB)(3091)      
    In the present paper, two species of the genus Pilea(Urticaceae) are described as new, two new combinations for the two subspecies of Pilea gracilis are made, supplementary descriptions for P.shizongensis and P.racemiformis are given, and new distribution records for P.shizongensis, P.lomatogramma, P.racemiformis and P.peltata var. ovatifolia are provided.
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    Stamen Dynamics and Breeding System of Lonicera alberti
    LI Ya-Lan, LIANG Feng-Li
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (4): 503-510.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.004
    Abstract1546)      PDF (1673KB)(3020)      
    In order to study the flowering characteristics and breeding system of Lonicera alberti, we observed flower characteristics, floral dynamic and pollination insects in the field during the flowering period. We tested the pollen viability by TTC staining, MTT staining, benzidine α-naphthol staining and carmine acetate dyeing, and estimated its stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide and diphenyl tetrazolium bromide staining methods. We studied the breeding system of L.alberti by the pollen-ovule ratio(P/O), the out-crossing index(OCI), and artificial pollination methods. There are two kinds of L.alberti flowers opening:corolla lobes blooming one by one and corolla lobes simultaneous blooming. The pollen viability reached the maximum at 6 hours after anthers shedding, and stigma receptivity was increased after bloom; Apis mellifera played an important role in the process of pollination. P/O was 583.43±99.90 and the outcrossing index was 4. By artificial pollination testing, cross-pollination rate was 79.17%, and the self-fertility rate was 9.52%. The research suggested that the breeding system of L.alberti belonged to mixed mating system and cross pollination requires pollinators.
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    Leaf Structure of Ten Species of Bryum Dill from No.1 Glacier of Tianshan Mountains
    CHEN Qiu-Yan, WANG Hong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (6): 818-826.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.06.004
    Abstract1504)      PDF (1655KB)(2773)      
    Anatomical structure of the leaf of ten species of Bryum Dill from No.1 glacier of Tianshan Mountains was observed to explore the relationship between leaf morphological characteristics and environment and its taxonomic significance. The results indicated that:The leaf cells of these 10 species had thick cytoplasm. Middle ribs had large primary cells and well developed small-thick-wall-cells. The cell wall of leaf was thickened and the surface was concaved inwardly while being dried.The leaf surface of most species had particles and different ornamentation, such as rhombic, longitudinal ones etc. These characters were all the adaptabilities to environment for plants to improve cold resistance and drought resistance, to reduce moisture evaporation, and to enhance water conduction. Although some species with similar leaf structures were closely related, but they could be easily and accurately identified by combining paraffin sectioning and SEM technique. The results could provide some theoretical basis for classification of Bryum Dil.
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    Elatostema glochidioides is Decidedly Unconspecific with E.famosissimum
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (6): 801-804.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.06.001
    Abstract1311)      PDF (474KB)(2351)      
    In 2011, Elatostema glochidioides W. T. Wang, a species endemic to southern China, was reduced into the synonymy of E.ramosissimum Reinecke, a species endemic to Savaii Island of Oceania. Two species have rather similar habit, but there are important morphological differences. In E.glochidioides, the leaves are adaxially strigose, abaxially glabrous, and trinerved; the pistillate capitula have conspicuous receptacles; the pistillate flower lacks tepals; and the achenes are longitudinally ribbed. In E.ramosissimum, the leaves are adaxially glabrous, abaxially on midrib strigose, and semi-triplinerved; the receptacles of pistillate capitula are very small, inconspicuous; the pistillate flower has 3(-4) tepals; and the achenes are minutely tuberculate. On the basis of the morphological differences just mentioned the specific status of E.glochidioides is restored here.
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    Ranunculus lujiangensis,a New Species of Ranunculaceae from Anhui Province
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2018, 38 (6): 801-803.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.06.001
    Abstract615)      PDF (325KB)(2301)      
    A species of the genus Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae), Ranunculus lujiangensis, is described as new from Anhui Province. This new species is closely related to R.huainingensis W.T.Wang, Z.Yang & J.Xie, differing from R.huainingensis in its entire or inconspicuously crenulate lobes of leaves or leaflets, broadly cymbiflorm elliptic, not nervate and on margin 3-4-piliferous sepals, and broadly ovate ovaries. In R.huainingensis, the lobes of leaves or leaflets are 1-3-denticulate on margin, the sepals are narrowly elliptic, longitudinally 3-nerved and glabrous, and the ovaries are lanceolate in shape.
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    Seven New Species of the Genus Delphinium(Ranunculaceae) from Xizang Autonomous Region
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2018, 38 (6): 809-819.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.06.003
    Abstract674)      PDF (1471KB)(2217)      
    Seven species of the genus Delphinium (Ranunculaceae), D.longziense, D.xanthanthum, D.viridiovarium, D.dicentrum, D.zhanangense, D.latilimbum and D.lagarolobum are described as new from south-eastern Xizang Autonomous Region. The diagnostic differences between them and their allies are given respectively.
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    Analysis on Relationship and Taxonomic Status of Some Species in Subg. Cerasus Koehne with Chloroplast DNA atpB-rbcL Fragment
    ZHU Hong, YI Xian-Gui, ZHU Shu-Xia, WANG Hua-Chen, DUAN Yi-Fan, WANG Xian-Rong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2018, 38 (6): 820-827.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.06.004
    Abstract663)      PDF (1822KB)(2186)      
    Subg. Cerasus Koehne of Rosaceae families (Flowering Cherries) has important ornamental value. An in-depth research on the interspecies relationships and their taxonomic status contributes to the development of those cherry species and germplasm resource innovation. in China. The tree species of Subg. Cerasus (including variety) collected from Yunnan, Jiangxi and Fujian were amplified and sequenced, using the atpB-rbcL fragment of noncoding region in chloroplast DNA, and integrated with homologous sequences from four other species committed to database of GenBank. Haplotype of Median-Joining network and the phylogenetic tree were both constructed based on a total of 30 sequence matrix including 7 species, and their relationships and classification status were discussed. (1) There were total 15 polymorphism sites in the 774 valid sites of atpB-rbcL sequence matrix, accounting for 1.94%, and the (A+T) content 70.50%, reflecting an obvious base bias; (2) Total 9 haplotypes were detected by DNASP 5 software, with average Haplotype diversity (Hd=0.880 5±0.026) and average nueleotide diversity (π=0.007 11±0.000 54); Except for Prunus dielsiana (Hap5~Hap7), the remaining species had their own unique haplotype, which indicate abundant genetic diversity; (3) After integrating with the results of MJ network as well as reconstruction of the phylogenetic tree, we speculated that P.pananensis was during the original stage of evolution,moreover, it is closely related to P.schneideriana when compare with P.dielsiana; P.dielsiana var. longistyla was a sister branch to P.dielsiana, also together constituted an independent evolutionary unit. With the above results, we believe that the Chloroplast DNA atpB-rbcL fragment is relatively suitable at intergeneric or interspecific levels, which could be selected as DNA bar code in priority. Molecular evidence combined with morphological features support the viewpoint that regarding P.dielsiana var. longistyla as a varity of P.dielsiana, while the taxonomic status of P.pananensis calls for more evidence.
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    Effects of Destruction and Alteration of Habitat on Distribution of Specific Genera of Taxodiaceae
    HUANG Pu-Hua
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (6): 815-817.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.06.003
    Abstract1284)      PDF (685KB)(2185)      
    A Taxodiaceae family is with 10 genera 16 species,including 5 monospecific genera(Metasequoia, Glyptostrobus,Sequoiadendron, Sequoia and Sciadopitys), and 5 oligospecific genera(Cunninghaimia, Tawania, Cryptomeria,Taxodium and Athrotaxis), each accounting for 50%. Taxodiaceae is distributed in north temperate regions, mostly in East Asia and North America, and only a genus Athrotaxisis in Australia Tasmania. Plants and habitat are an interdependent entity. Destruction and alteration of habitatis a serious problem for the distribution of specific genera of Taxodiaceae family. Monospecific genera mostly are relict species(living fossil), but there is only fossil in Europe due to destruction in the quaternary glacial period. Today, there are only 2 monospecific genera of Sequoiadendron and Sequoia due to the volcanoin a small area of California, US.
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    One New Section and Three new species of Elatostema (Urticaceae) from Chongqing
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2018, 38 (6): 804-808.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.06.002
    Abstract638)      PDF (692KB)(2174)      
    One section and three species of the genus Elatostema (Urticaceae) are described as new from the Simian mountain, Jiangjin district, Chongqing city:(1) Sect. Gynosciadion with one species, Elatostema femineocymosum, is chracterized by its numerous pistillate flowers in a 3-4 times branched cyme, lacking a receptacle with an involucre, and by these charactes can be distinguished from all other sctions of the genus Elatostema; (2) E.gyronanophyllum is closely related to E.sinense H. Schröter, differing from the latter in its smaller leaves with fewer secondary nerves, orbicular or suborbicular reduced leaves, pistillate involucre with 12 triangular bracts, pistillate flower with 2 tepals, and the depressed-globose stigma; (3) E.zhengyuanum is closely related to E.simianshanicum W.T.Wang, differing from the latter in its glabrous, sometimes vegetative stems, larger leaf blades, cystoliths and stipules, and oblanceolate-oblong bracts of staminate involucre not carinate abaxially.
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    Micromorphology of Leaf Epidermis of Phleum
    WANG Yan-Hong, ZHANG Xue-Jie, FAN Shou-Jin
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (6): 827-837.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.06.005
    Abstract1347)      PDF (2048KB)(2134)      
    The micromorphology of the leaf epidermis for 35 species and 2 varieties belonging to Phleum and its related genera of Poaceae were examined by scanning electron microscope. The intercostal long cells on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of Phleum were long tubular or rhomboid, and the outlines of long cells were straight or curved. The shapes of silica cells in costal zones were nodular. Parallel-sided subsidiary cells were found. Prickles were frequently occurred in costal zones and absent or rarely seen in intercostal zones. No papillaes and micro-hairs were found. Meanwhile, a phylogenetic tree was constructed according to the characters of leaf epidermal micromorphology. Phleum and Poeae clustered together, which indicated that they had the closer relationship and distantly related to Aveneae, Agrostideae and Phalarideae. According to the micromorphology of leaf epidermises. Phleum should place into Poeae.
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    A revision of Boehmeria sect. Duretia ser. Spicatae(Urticaceae) of China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2016, 36 (6): 805-814.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.06.002
    Abstract1347)      PDF (1647KB)(2127)      
    (1) Boehmeria subgen. Duretia sect. Spicatae is recognized, but relegated to serial rank, and treated as one of the series under Sect. Duretia. (2)In Ser. Spicatae are recognized 6 species, including 1 new species, which are keyed, except the new species briefly described, and illustrated. Besides, the geographical distributions and a distribution map of them are provided. (3)The close relationships among the 6 species are discussed, and several speculations are thought out:In Ser. Spicatae, Boehmeria gracilis is the primitive species, and all other species of this series might originate from it; or B.gracilis and B.densiglomerata might be a pair of sister groups derived from a common ancestry; or B.allophylla might be derived from B.silvestrii.
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    Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Morphological and Physiological Characteristics of Physocarpus amurensis Seedlings
    YIN Dong-Sheng, WEI Xiao-Hui
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2018, 38 (6): 828-833.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.06.005
    Abstract598)      PDF (1064KB)(2125)      
    Growth performance, biomass accumulation and distribution, photosynthetic characteristics, non structural carbon (NSC) accumulation of one-year-old seedlings of Physocarpus amurensis was studied under four kinds of nitrogen fertilization treatment by pot experiment. The results showed that nitrogen fertilization promoted the growth of basal diameter, branch number, and crown width of seedlings. The nitrogen fertilization increased the biomass of stem, leaf and plant (P<0.05) and biomass allocation ratio of stem, and decreased biomass allocation ratio of root. The nitrogen fertilization significant increased net photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen content, soluble sugar and NSC in stem (P<0.05), and significant decreased soluble sugar and NSC content in root (P<0.05). However, there were no significant different in most of the parameters among nitrogen fertilization treatments (N1, N2 and N3), indicating that the seedlings of P.amurensis were not sensitive to the change of soil nutrients.
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    Progress on Plant Genes Involved in Biosynthetic Pathway of Anthocyanins
    SHI Shao-Chuan;GAO Yi-Ke*;ZHANG Xiu-Hai;SUN Jia-Qi;ZHAO Ling-Li;WANG Ye
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2011, 31 (5): 633-640.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.020
    Abstract1510)      PDF (1555KB)(1722)      
    Anthocyanins, responsible for a series of flower color changes from red to blue in most plants, are the principal pigment in flowers with important nutritional and medical usages. At present, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins is understood continuously, and many enzymes and genes are obtained. A lot of new transgenic plants with commercial values have been created. In this paper, the current advances in research of key genes in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins are briefly reviewed and the progress on the application of these genes in plant genetic engineering is discussed. Prospectives of the study on the anthocyanins genes are elucidated in the end.
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    Rediscovery of Ulota germana(Mont.) Mitt.(Orthotrichaceae) In New Zealand
    WANG Qing-Hua, JIA Yu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2018, 38 (1): 1-6.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.001
    Abstract155)      PDF (2421KB)(1676)      
    Ulota germana(Mont.) Mitt., formly as U.rufula(Mitt.) A.Jaeger, was recorded from only Marlborough District of South Island in New Zealand and it has not been refound for more than 60 years. A new locality is added here: Nelson, Denniston, near parking area at top of Denniston Incline. The plants from New Zealand agree well with those from South America except some variation in the size of leaves, perichaetial leaves and spores. This new specimen is well described, especially the opercula and calyptra not seen in previous works, the distribution is mapped and its distinction from other close species is discussed here. Ulota luteola(Hook.f. & Wilson) Wijk & Margad., formly as U.pygmaeothecia(Müll. Hal.) Kindb. is excluded from the moss flora of New Zealand.
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    The Enzyme Activities,Pigment and Inclusion Contents in Different Leaves Color of Cotinus coggygria ‘Royal Purple’ in Autumn
    NIE Qing-Juan;SHI Bao-Sheng*;MENG Zhao;LIU Dong-Yun;LOU Li-Na
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2008, 28 (5): 599-602.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.020
    Abstract2328)      PDF (144KB)(1471)      
    The physiological character of different leaves color in autumn was studied. Three kinds of leaves colors were selected to measure the pigment content, enzyme activity and inclusion in the leaves. The results showed that it had lower chlorophyll content,higher PAL and POD activities and larger ratio of anthocyanin to chlorophyll in red leaves. The green leaves have higher chlorophyll content,lower PAL and POD activity and lower ratio of anthocyanin to chlorophyll. Through the determination of soluble contents, the content of sugar and protein was relatively high in red leaves. The correlation coefficient between the ratio of anthocyanins to chlorophyll and soluble contents were all reach absolutely significance levels. These indicated that the accumulation of material contents was favorable in the synthesis of anthocyanin.
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    The Micro-morphology Characters of Leaf Epidermis of Iris
    XU Yu-Feng;ZHANG Ke;WANG Wen-He;LI Nan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2008, 28 (5): 547-551.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.009
    Abstract2302)      PDF (139KB)(1450)      
    The micro-morphology characters of leaf epidermis of 12 species of Iris were examined under light microscope(LM). It is considerd that there are obvious differences in the characters of leaf upper and lower epidermis of I. dichotoma Pall., I. uniflora Pall. and I. typhifolia Kitagawa of themselves, but there are not differences among the other 9 species. The type of stomata of 12 species of Iris is diacytic type, stomata is randomly distributed. Guard cells are parallel to leaf veins where no stomata distribute. There are obvious differences among 12 species of Iris in the micro-morphology characters of leaf epidermis, which will provide bases for Iris classification.
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    Study on the Flower Morphology and Structure of Fargesia fungosa
    DENG Lin, HUANG Ling, CHU Cai-Hua, WANG Qian, ZHAN Hui, WANG Shu-Guang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2019, 39 (6): 801-807.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.001
    Abstract218)      PDF (1552KB)(1406)      
    Fargesia fungosa was an important economic bamboo species in the genera Fargeisa.The studies on the morphology and anatomical structure of their organs were lack.In this paper, the morphology and anatomical characteristics of F.fungosa flowers were observed and analyzed. The results showed that the flowers of F.fungosa belong tothemixed inflorescence and the base of spikelets had resting bud, besides several spikelets were wrapped by the "floral bud" was formed of singal leaf. The mean length of spikelets was 3.05±0.390 cm, containing 3-7 small flowers per spikelet. The mean length of florets was 1.85±0.167 cm, with 2 glumes,1 lemma and palea, 3 lodicules, 3 stamens, and 1 pistil. The young anther wall contained epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum from outside to inside. The matureanthers were splited longitudinally for pollen releasing.The mature pollen grainsweretwo- or three-celledand with 1 germination aperture. The ovary was unilocular, superior andand lateral membranous placenta with a anatropous ovule. The stigma of pistils has two feather-liking stigmas. The anther developed abnormally, resulting abortion phenomenonin the majority of anthers.
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    Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis of Meconopsis integrifolia under Different Altitudes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    TANG Nan, LI Miao-Miao, TANG Dao-Cheng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2019, 39 (2): 161-168.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.001
    Abstract391)      PDF (1734KB)(1402)      
    Characteristics of leaf epidermis of Meconopsis integrifolia were observed under optical microscope, including trichome, stomata and epidermis cell. The relationship between epidermis trichome, stomata, epidermis cell of leaf and altitude was discussed. The trichome density, stomata density and epidermis cell density of both upper and lower leaf epidermis increased gradually as the altitude increased. While the length, width and area of both stomata and epidermis cell decreased. Morphology of epidermis cell changed from irregular to polygonal. The shape of anticlinal wall altered from corrugated to arched or straight. These variation of characteristics probably be a general response of plants which living under plateau environment in a long-term, providing theoretical support for further study on alpine plant adaptation.
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    Geographical Distribution Pattern of Macromitrium in the World and Its Biogeographical Significance
    GUO Shui-Liang, WU Qian-Qian, YU Jing, CAO Tong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2017, 37 (2): 164-173.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.002
    Abstract750)      PDF (1332KB)(1391)      
    The genus Macromitrium(Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta) is an important taxon in bryological systematics, ecology and biological conservation. On the basis of our taxonomical revision of the genus, we got the distribution data of 274 species of the genus in 14 geographical unites(suggested by "Index Muscorum") in the world.By using Clustering Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis(DCA), we got a dendrogram and a three-dimensional scatter plots to reveal the distribution pattern of the genus visually. The results showed a distinctive floristic differentiation of Macromitrium among As2, Oc, As3-4, Afr2-3-4, Am2-3-4-5, and Austr1-2, with highest diversity in Tropical Asia and Tropical America. Except M.microstomum(Hook.& Grev.) Schwägr., all other species were recorded from a single or a few geographical unites. Among different global regions, Macromitrium differentiated not only in its floristic elements, but also in their morphological characters. We discussed the systematic and biogeographical significances of the genus according its global distribution pattern.
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    Correction of A Typographical Error in the Protologue of Clematis chaohuensis
    LIN Yun, SHAO Qing, YANG Zhi-Rong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2017, 37 (2): 161-163.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.001
    Abstract718)      PDF (685KB)(1358)      
    In the course of the normalized compilation of type specimens which deposited at China National Herbarium(PE), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, we discovered an error in the citation of type collection of Clematis chaohuensis W.T.Wang & L.Q.Huang(Ranunculaceae). The holotype of C.chaohuensis W.T.Wang & L.Q.Huang was incorrectly cited as D.Q.Wang 70543 in the protologue, but is actually D.Q.Wang 95043.
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    Geographical Elements of Bryophytes Recorded from Zhoushan Archipelago——Discussion on Methods of Geographical Element Division of Bryophytes
    SHEN Lin, YU Jing, LI Dan-Dan, GUO Shui-Liang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2019, 39 (6): 826-834.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.004
    Abstract251)      PDF (1577KB)(1336)      
    Global geographical coordinates of 284 bryophytes, which had been recorded from the Zhoushan archipelago, were obtained based on the data of GBIF(Global Biodiversity Information Facility), Tropicos.org and other published literature. The world were divided into 576 geographical units(GUs), each with a size of 15°E×7.5°N. Their presence/absence data in these GUs were recorded by using ArcGis 10.2. Eleven geographical elements were identified for these bryophytes based on a clustering analysis with the above data and their actual geographical distribution. The eleven elements include cosmopolitan(26, 9.15%), North temperate(36, 12.68%), North temperate-South temperate(30, 10.56%), Palaeotemperate(16, 5.63%), Eastern Asian-Northern American(11, 3.87%), Eastern Asian(84, 29.58%), Pantropical(28, 9.86%), Palaeotropical(6,2.11%), Tropical Asian-Papua New Guinea(11, 3.87%), Eastern Asian-Tropical Asian-Papua New Guinea(6, 2.11%), Eastern-tropical Asian-Australian-Ocean(11, 3.87%) and other unknown(19, 6.69%). Among these eleven elements, eight accord with the concepts proposed by Wu ZY. However, tropical Asian element was special, cover larger regions than spermatophytes of the same element. Therefore, the tropical Asian element of the bryophytes recorded in the Zhoushan archipelago was further divided into three groups.
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    Pollinia Development in a New Species of Pennilabium yunnanense(Orchidaceae)
    LI Lu, ZHANG Jin, LI Chu-Ran, WANG Yan-Ping, TAN Qing-Qin, LUO Yan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 161-171.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.001
    Abstract438)      PDF (2228KB)(1328)      
    Pennilabium J. J.Sm. is a newly recorded genus in China, including two species founded in Yunnan and Hainan. One of them is a new species of P.yunnanense. In this paper, floral morphology and pollina development in P.yunnanense were investigated. The column of a mature flower is short without column foot. Pollinarium unit is composed of two subglobose pollinia, stipe and viscidium. In the early stage, anther primordium is differentiated into a pair of lateral juxtaposed thecae. At the stage of microsporocyte, an incomplete sterile septum is formed adjacent to the inner anther wall between two thecae. During the microsporogenesis, the sterile septum becomes gradually degraded, resulting two pollinia with pore toward the inner anther wall disorganized. The hypodermal sporogenous cells produce 4-layered anther wall by periclinal divisions, including epidermis, endtothecium, middle layer, and a tapetum, which was of monocotyledonous type. Tapetum is uninuclear and secretory. Epidermis is not persistent, which becomes degraded as well as middle layer and tapetum. Fibrous thickenings occur on the entdothecium. Simultaneous cytokinesis results in tetrahedral and isobilateral microspore tetrads. Microspores undergo a mitosis leading to 2-celled pollen tetrads. Pollen tetrads arranged tightly and formed a subglobose pollinium in each theca. The embryological data on pollinia development of P.yunnanense could provide new insight for a better understanding of biodiversity and conservation in Orchidaceae.
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    Floral Traits and Reproductive Characters of Different Large-flowered Taxa Epimedium(Berberidaceae)
    CHEN Lan-Ying, XIAO Xiao, XIAO Juan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2019, 39 (6): 808-816.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.002
    Abstract256)      PDF (1690KB)(1316)      
    Epimedium is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb plant that plays important roles in traditional Chinese medicine, functional foods and landscaping design. Caused by regional differences, Epimedium plants had different plant morphology, flower traits, flowering phenology and reproductive characteristics. Three Epimedium(E.wushanense, E.acuminatum and E.davidii) breeding systems were researched through flowering dynamics, floral characteristics, and flower visiting insect observation of the wild natural populations of from different habitats in Sichuan. The results show that:(1)The flowering period of three Epimedium populations are concentrated:E.wushanense flowering period is from the late March to late April, solitary flower mostly is 3-4 d. E.acuminatum from the late March to late April, solitary flower mostly is 3-4 d, E.davidii from Mid-April, solitary flower mostly is 5-6 d. With the elevation of Epimedium habitat, the initial flowering period of Epimedium was gradually delayed, and the flowering period gradually increased; (2)From the observation of flowers and the frequency of visiting flower, Hymenoptera and Diptera were effective visitors to three species of Epimedium, and there was a significant correlation between the floral characteristics and the floral characteristics of the effective floral visitors; (3)The number of inflorescences, flowers and fruits of the three species of Epimedium is greatly influenced by the environment of temperature and illumination factors. Under natural conditions, the seed setting rate under natural conditions is quite different for different species of plants with the order of E.wushanense>E.davidii>E.acuminatum.
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    Ecological Adaption of Leaf Costa of Bryophyte from Alpine Periglacial Region
    YUAN Zhen-Yan, WANG Hong, WANG Kai
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2019, 39 (6): 817-825.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.003
    Abstract243)      PDF (1487KB)(1313)      
    Thirty-five species of bryophyte were gathered from different habitats of Tianshan No.1 Glacier of Xinjiang. They were isolated and analyzed by nitric acid-chromic acid segregation in lab. Based on the observation, It is deduced that the cell length, cell width and cell wall thickness were relatively larger and larger, the number of pit field were higher associated with the habitats from wet to dry. The end tails have various forms, the leaf costa of bryophyte, especially lived in damp soil and in rock, have a few end tails. It assumed that end tails was active in strengthening cell connection and coordinating the exchange of water and nutrients between cells. There is no significant difference on the number of pit fields of bryophyte from four habitats respectively. The result indicates the adaptive strategies of bryophyte how to survive in alpine environment. This study provides a basis for further researches of the conductivity and ecological adaption of bryophytes in alpine environment.
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    The Analysis of the Dynamics of the Landscape Structure of Mengjiagang Forest Farm
    WANG Lei;JIA Wei-Wei*;LI Feng-Ri
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2008, 28 (4): 497-502.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.023
    Abstract1634)      PDF (167KB)(1312)      
    This paper, basing on forest type map and forest management survey database of 1989 and 2006 and on a GIS platform and the software of FragStats, calculates the index of landscape pattern,and systematically analyies the dynamic character of the landscape spatial structure of Mengjiagang Forest Farm Heilongjiang Province with the method of landscape index. The result indicates that with the landscape elemental types of the study area increases, and landscape diversity index and landscape dominance increases, the fragment index and isolation index of forest landscape increases. Larix gmelinii(Rupr.)Rup is the dominating landscape element type in this region, but its landscape dominance is decreasing gradually, so the result implies that L. gmelinii(Rupr.)Rup landscape element translate into other landscape elements. This paper firstly applied with landscape internal structural index analysis the dynamics of forest landscape of Mengjiagang Forest Farm, and the result implies that Broad-leaved forest and Mixed forest landscape were mainly made of mature and overmature age. Three main coniferous forest landscape elements are mainly made of middle age and near-mature age. Human activities are the main influence factor on forest, which accelerate the simplification of age structure of coniferous forest.
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    Individual Traits and Their Interrelationships of Gametophyte and Sporophyte of a Moss Pogonatum inflexum in the Dalongshan National Forest Park in Anhui Province
    QIU Dong, ZHANG Jing, WU Nan, TAO Ye
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2019, 39 (6): 835-845.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.005
    Abstract259)      PDF (1905KB)(1309)      
    Plant functional traits are the comprehensive expression of plants responding and adapting to the changing environments. So far, studies on individual functional traits of bryophytes are still rare. In this study, the female plants of Pogonatum inflexum distributed in the Dalongshan National Forest Park in Anhui Province was chosen as the target, the morphological features and biomass of sporophytes and gametophytes were determined in the period that the sporophytes are mature; and then, the variation characteristics, allometric relationship and covariation(integration) pattern of individual plant traits were analyzed systematically. The results indicated that, the variation coefficient of morphological traits of gametophytes was higher than that of sporophytes, and meanwhile the biomass both of gametophyte and sporophyte showed the highest variation. The height(length) of sporophytes was two times greater than that of gametophytes, while the biomass of the former only accounted 23% of the total aboveground biomass(total sporophyte and gametophyte biomass). The functional traits of sporophytes and gametophytes represented correlations to a certain extent; the allometric relationships with scaling exponent <1.0 were detected mostly between morphological traits(Y-axis) and biomass(X-axis), whereas an isometric relationship(the scaling exponent is 1.135±0.158) was found between biomasses of sporophytes and gametophytes. The biomass allocation ratio of sporophytes decreased with the increasing of gametophyte size, indicating significant negative size-dependent reproductive allocation. The principal component analysis indicated that the main functional traits of sporophytes and gametophytes of P.inflexum represented different covariation directions(i.e., two different trait groups), among them, the sporophyte biomass was the key linkage of the two trait groups. In conclusion, the plant traits at individual level of P.inflexum showed a similar covariation relationship with vascular plants.
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    Microsporogenesis,Male Gametogenesis and Pollen Morphology of Gonocaryum lobbianum
    KONG Dong-Rui, LI Lu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2017, 37 (2): 181-184.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.004
    Abstract755)      PDF (952KB)(1279)      
    We studied the microsporogenesis, male gametogenesis and pollen morphology of Gonocaryum lobbianum using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to enrich the embryological and palynological data of Cardiopteridaceae s.l. The main results are as follows:(1) The anther is tetrasporangiate; (2) The anther wall comprises the epidermis, fibrous endothecium, ephemeral middle layer and secretory tapetum with 2-4 nuclei in each cell; (3) The microspore mother cell undergo meiosis, cytokinesis is simultaneous and the tetrads are tetrahedral; (4) The mature pollen grains are two-celled; (5) The pollen grains are cryptoaperturate with three pores and the extin is reticulate. The characters of microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis of Gonocaryum are similar to those of Cardiopteris with a little difference. G.lobbianum is almost the same as the other species in the pollen morphological characters.
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