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    Pollinia Morphology of 14 Species in Dendrobium(Orchidaceae) and Taxonomic Significance
    Yan-Ping WANG, Lu LI, Chen-Xuan YANG, Yan LUO, Qing-Qing LI
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (1): 12-25.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.003
    Abstract562)   HTML36)    PDF (9877KB)(85)      

    The morphology and exine sculpture of pollinia in 14 species of Dendrobium Sw.(Orchidaceae) were investigated using stereoscope and scanning electron microscope in order to provide evidence for classification and systematic evolution of this genus. Under stereomicroscope, the anther is composed of 4 clavated pollinia with a golden, oily, waxy surface and a hard texture in 14 Dendrobium species. According to the general appearance, Dendrobium pollinia observed can be divided into 3 shapes(heart-shaped, nearly heart-shaped and long heart-shaped) and 4 types(extremely small pollinia, small pollinia, large pollinia and oversize pollinia). Based on the curvature of the boundary contour of a pollinium, it can be divided into four types(crescent-like, bow-like, stick-like and rice grain-like). There are 5 kinds of exine sculptures(psilate; psilate with threads; psilate-uneven,coarse reticulate and rugulate) under scanning electron microscope, as well as two types of crystals observed on the surface of pollinia in D.wislsonii Rolfe and D.thyrsiflorum Rchb. The morphology and exine sculpture of pollinia were distinguished in different species of Dendrobium, which is of some significance to its taxonomic clarification.

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    Flower Bud Differentiation and Endogenous Hormone Changes of Rosa ‘Angela’
    Zhi-Yuan LIU, Li ZENG, Xi-Wu DU, PENG-Yong-Zheng, Yi-Wei TAO, Yu-Qing LI, Jun QIN
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (1): 37-43.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.005
    Abstract515)   HTML31)    PDF (3215KB)(147)      

    The experiment was conducted to explore the relationship between structure of flower buds and hormones content in Rosa ‘Angela’, and to regulate flowering, to improve landscape quality and breeding work. The flower bud differentiation was divided into five periods within 30 d. The growth cone was conical before the differentiation period. Then the cone became flat, five protrusions appeared around the growth cone at the sepal differentiation period. Multiple petal primordiums and stamen primordiums were respectively appeared around the growth cone during the flower bud differentiation. Several pistil primordiums were appeared at the base of growth cone at pistil differentiation period. The contents of ABA and CTK increased first and then decreased, which contents at sepal primordium differentiation period were significantly higher than other periods. The content of IAA increased gradually trend, and the content of GA decreased gradually. The ratio of IAA/GA and IAA/ABA showed a gradual increasing trend. The ratio of CTK/GA and(ABA+CTK)/GA at sepal primordium differentiation period were significantly higher than that before the differentiation period. The significant increasing of ABA and CTK contents at the sepal primordium differentiation period were related to flower bud induction. Low level of GA and decreasing of IAA were beneficial for flower bud differentiation. The increasing of CTK/GA and(ABA+CTK)/GA ratio at sepal primordium differentiation period were related to the flower bud induction, and high levels of IAA/ABA and IAA/GA ratio may relate to the further development of floral organ primordium.

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    Establishing an Efficient Regeneration Protocol in vitro for Rapid Micro-propagation of Two New Varieties of Ilex verticillata L.
    Rui LIU, Jia-Yi ZHANG, Chao-Qi GE, Lu-Lu XIE, Ying CHEN, Can ZHANG, Xi CHEN
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 221-231.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.010
    Abstract457)   HTML27)    PDF (3381KB)(73)      

    An efficient and rapid micro-propagation system using tissue culture for two new varieties “Red Sprite” and “Winter Gold” of Ilex verticillata L. was established with the young shoots as explants, and an optimum method produced large numbers of genetically uniform seedlings and maintained its excellent character for I.verticillata L was offered. The optimal medium for axillary bud induction was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.2 mg·L-1 NAA, and the induction rate of both varieties were 100% respectively. The preferred medium for cluster bud proliferation was MS+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.5 mg·L-1 CPPU. The highest proliferation coefficient was 5.7 for “Red Sprite”, and 4.5 for “Winter Gold” for 25 d culturing respectively. The optimal seedling medium for “Red Sprite” was MS+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+1.0 mg·L-1 TDZ+1.0 mg·L-1 GA, and that of “Winter Gold” was MS+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.05 mg·L-1 TDZ+1.0 mg·L-1 GA, the seedling height was up to 6.80 and 4.38 cm respectively. The optimal rooting induction medium was 1/2MS+0.4 mg·L-1 NAA+0.4 mg·L-1 IBA+1.0 mg?L-1 activated carbon, the rooting rate of “Red Sprite” and “Winter Gold” were 95.0%, or 97.0% respectively. The best transplanting substrates were peat∶perlite=3∶2, with a survival rate of 95.7% for “Red Sprite” and 96.8% for “Winter Gold” respectively.

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    Identification of Key Enzyme Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Synthesis pathway in Clinopodium gracile by Transcriptome Analysis
    Li-Qiang ZHAO, Chun-Miao SHAN, Sheng-Xiang ZHANG, Yuan-Yuan SHI, Ke-Long MA, Jia-Wen WU
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (6): 886-896.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.011
    Abstract456)   HTML19)    PDF (6749KB)(137)      

    In order to further understand the pathway of anthocyanin synthesis, the four tissues of C.gracile, namely, root, stem, leaf and flower, were sequenced using BGISEQ-500 platform. 128 856 unigenes were assembled and 40 unigenes encoding six key enzymes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified. Homologous alignment and structure simulation of bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase(DFRs) were carried out, which showed that they have well-conserved sequences, spatial structures and NAD+ binding sites. The DFR structure model showed a tetrameric structure with Rossmann-like α-helixes/β-sheets/α-helixes sandwich fold.

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    A New Species and a New Variety of Delphinium(Ranunculaceae) from China
    Wen-Tsai WANG
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 161-163.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.001
    Abstract451)   HTML160)    PDF (823KB)(286)      

    A species, belonging to Sect.Delphinastrum DC. subsect. Grandiflora W.T.Wang, and a variety of D. iliense Huth were described as new.

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    Fruit Shape and Micromorphological Characteristics of Pericarp Surface of 18 Lamiaceae Plant in Jinggangshan Area
    Xian-Lan DENG, Xia-Xia CHEN, Zheng-Guang ZHANG
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (6): 820-829.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.004
    Abstract449)   HTML10)    PDF (2966KB)(159)      

    The fruit shapes and micromorphological characteristics of fruit surface of 18 species of Lamiaceae in Jinggangshan area were examined by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Six types of the fruit shape were recognized, including oblong, circular, oval, triangular, globose, and ellipsoid. The cell shapes of exocarp surface were tetragon-hexagon, irregular-shaped and invisible, and the protrusion of epidermis were observed as smooth, depressed and raised. The waxy ornamentation of exocarp surface was more complex and diverse, which can be classified into four types: smooth and no ornamentation, negative-reticular ornamentation, reticular ornamentation with warty or lumpy projections, reticular ornamentation with secondary stripes. The accessory structures mainly included epidermal hairs and filamentous structures, and with more or less squamaccous or granulated secretions on fruit epidermal surface. In conclusion, fruit shapes and micromorphological characteristics of pericarp surface of the 18 species exhibited rich diversity, which could provide important taxonomic evidence for the study of inter-genera and interspecies relations of Lamiaceae.

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    Dynamic Changes of Endogenous Hormones in Rootstocks and Scions within Nurse Seedling Graft in Camellia oleifera Under Wound
    Wei LONG, Xiao-Hua YAO, Le-Yan LÜ
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 232-242.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.011
    Abstract446)   HTML25)    PDF (1252KB)(54)      

    In order to analyze the physiological response to the surface healing of rootstocks and scions, and to provide the theoretical support for the growth mechanism, the dynamic changes of endogenous hormones in post-traumatic stress response in Camellia oleifera A. under wound were studied. The six-year-old Changlin 18 and Changlin 53 trees were used, and the contents of IAA, ABA, TZR, Zeatin, SA, JA were assayed using HPLC-MS at different wound stages, and the changes of endogenous hormone in different period and relationship between varieties were analyzed. The results showed that the content of IAA, SA and JA decreased with the increasing time of wound in scions of Changlin 18, and the content of TZR and Zeatin increased first and decreased later which they were respectively reached the highest in S10 and S0. The content of ABA rose continually and reached the peak in S10. In scions of Changlin 53, the contents of IAA and JA would decrease after peak; the TZR, Zeatin, SA were gradually increased after minimum. The content of ABA was gradually decreased in S0 after maximum. The contents of endogenous hormones were higher in Changlin18 than in Changlin53 in stem of rootstock between varieties. The endogenous hormones were decreased in Z0 and increased in Z10 in varieties except the contents of ABA and SA in Changlin53 increased first and then decreased. In stem and root of rootstocks, the contents of endogenous hormones were higher in Changlin 18 than in Changlin 53 except JA; The contents of IAA and ABA in stem of rootstocks were higher than roots which other endogenous hormones in root of rootstocks were higher than in stem. There was difference in the ratio of hormone in varieties and part of rootstocks. The ratios of IAA/ABA, IAA/TZR, IAA/Zeatin, IAA/JA, ABA/TZR, ABA/Zeatin, ABA/JA in scions and rootstocks were higher in Changlin 53 than in Changlin 18. The ratio of SA/IAA in scions was higher in Changlin 18 than Changlin 53, and it was higher in Changlin 18 than Changlin 53 in ratios of SA/JA, SA/ABA of scions while it was higher in Changlin 18 in stem of rootstocks. The ratio of TZR/SA, TZR/JA in scions and stem of rootstocks were higher in Changlin 18 than Changlin 53. There was the significantly positive correlation in IAA and JA after wound, and the correlation of IAA and SA, SA and JA had difference between varieties, the significantly positive correlation in Changlin 18 and the significantly or significantly negative correlation in Changlin 53. There was the significantly positive correlation among TZR, Zeatin, SA and the significantly negative correlation among TZR, Zeatin, SA. In stem of rootstocks, there was very significantly positive correlation among hormones in Changlin 18, and there was the significantly positive correlation among TZR, IAA and JA, Zeatin and IAA and JA while there was the significantly negative correlation in TZR and SA, Zeatin and SA. There was significantly negative correlation in SA and JA. In stem and root of rootstocks, there was the difference in correlation of SA and other hormones among varieties, and other hormones in Changlin 18 and Changlin 53 had the same significantly positive or negative correlation. To sum up, it was easy to callus formation in surface of wound in Changlin 18, but it was difficult in Changlin 53 because there was much more high-level hormone of stress-resistant so that it would be possible that affects healing after grafting wound 10 min. The differences in ratio and contents of hormones between rootstocks and scions may be affected by the morphological reconstruction of grafted unions and the growth of scions in later stage.

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    Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Cerasus Plants in China
    Tao FU, Zhi-Long WANG, Le-Jing LIN, Li LIN, Wen LI, Dong-Ming YUAN
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (6): 876-885.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.010
    Abstract440)   HTML8)    PDF (1547KB)(191)      

    To provide some molecular basis for the species classification and lineage location of cherry blossoms mainly planted in China, with 88 cherry blossoms, by nuclear gene ITS and chloroplast intergenic sequence, trnH-psbA were sequenced, and after processed by software MEGA 6, phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic development was confused in Cerasus serrulata group, which is related to the complex genetic background and the close phylogenetic relationship among the primitive parental, meanwhile, it could be clustered together in most of the cultivars C.subhirtella group or C.campanulata group, and could be separated from the cultivars of the Cerasus serrulata group, however, it was difficult to distinguish in many hybrids using ITS and trnH-psbA, which indicated that DNA barcoding technology was difficult to apply to the phylogenetic relationship of hybrids, in addition, some cherry cultivars could be identified by ITS or trnH-psbA sequence length, and some unidentified varieties were also revised.

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    Photosynthetic and Stomatal Characteristics of Pinus koraiensis and P.sibirica under Low Temperature Stress
    Fang WANG, Zhi-Min LU, Jun WANG, Shi-Kai ZHANG, Yu-Xi LI, Shao-Chen LI, Jian-Qiu ZHANG, Yu-Chun YANG
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 205-212.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.008
    Abstract437)   HTML34)    PDF (1276KB)(76)      

    Both Pinus koraiensis and P.sibirica with strong cold resistance are famous forest species in the cold temperate zone. Compared with P.koraiensis P.sibirica has stronger cold resistance. In order to explore the physiological response and cold resistance mechanism of the two species under low temperature stress,5-year-old P.koraiensis and P.sibirica seedlings were used to be conducted by low temperature treatment. By setting three stress temperatures(0℃, -20℃ and -40℃) and three stress times(6, 24 and 48 h), taking 20℃ as control, which were used to study the photosynthetic characteristics and stomatal characteristics of P.koraiensis and P. sibirica under low temperature stress. By t test and variance analysis, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between P.koraiensis and P.sibirica for each photosynthetic index and stomatal density, both low temperature and low temperature stress time had an extremely significant effect on each photosynthetic index of P.koraiensis and P.sibiricaP<0.01), and low temperature also had an extremely significant effect on stomatal opening size and stomatal area of P.koraiensis and P.sibiricaP<0.01). The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate in P.koraiensis were significantly higher than those in P.sibirica at 20℃(without stress) and 0℃(low temperature stress). However, under -20℃ for 6 h, each photosynthetic index in P.sibirica was higher than that in P.koraiensis. With the decrease of temperature and the extension of stress time, each photosynthetic index of the two species showed a decreasing trend. The stomatal density in P.koraiensis was significantly higher than that in P.sibirica. Before stress(20℃), the stomas of P.koraiensis and P.sibirica were all oval. The stomatal opening size and stomatal area of the two species decreased significantly with the decrease of temperature.

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    Floral Phenotypes and Pollen Morphological Characteristics of 13 Species from Calanthe in Tibet
    Hong-Chi LI, Tian-Yu WU, Li GONG, Jian LUO
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (4): 547-556.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.04.010
    Abstract430)   HTML517)    PDF (2263KB)(66)      

    To explore the classification and identification and interspecific relationship of Calanthe, the floral phenotypes and pollen morphological characteristics of 13 species of Calanthe in Tibet were studied. The results showed that: ①the floral color was divided into yellow, yellow-green, yellow-brown and pink, with pink flowers in the majority; ②the inflorescence was raceme, and length and width of various parts of the flower(sepal, petal, labellum, ovary, stigma) showed the difference. The difference of sepal length, petal width, labellum width, and stigma length was the largest, and the P value showed significant differences among various species; ③the pollen masses of these 13 Calanthe species were composed of thousands of single grains, which has no germination hole found, the obvious sticky substance between pollen grains of some species was found. The different size pollen blocks vary shaped mostly oval, oblong, and pear; ④the surface morphological characteristics of pollen blocks in different species were different, the pollen grains were stacked vertically or horizontally, and the shape of the pollen grains were also different; ⑤the appearance differences of pollen grains of different species were obvious, divided into concave type, smooth type, small hole type and perforated type. The results above showed that the flower phenotype and pollen morphological characteristics refer for identification of 13 species of Prairie Calanthe, and played the supplementary role in determining their phylogeny and systematic classification.

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    Oreorchis bashanensis Wang Yong, a New Species of Orchidaceae from Shaanxi, China
    Yong WANG
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 164-167.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.002
    Abstract422)   HTML35)    PDF (2020KB)(201)      

    A new species of Orchidaceae, Oreorchis bashanensis Wang Yong from Dabashan mountain area in Shaanxi was reported. The species was closely related to O.patens. Comparing with O.patens, the new species was decedious. The leaves fell during its flowering period. During its nutritional growth period, there were 2-3 leaves on each individual. It had larger pseudobulb and leaf blade. The lateral petals were erect. The claw of lip petal was about half the length of the whole lip petal. The orange callus protruded between lateral lobes on lip. However, O.patens was evergreen, and it had 1-2 leaves on each individual. The claw of lip petal was about 1/4 the length of the whole. The lateral petals were curved. The longitudinal lamellae was white or pale yellow. The type specimens were deposited in Herbarium of Shaanxi University of Technology(HZTC).

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    TwoNew Species of Delphinium from Xinjiang
    Wen-Tsai WANG, Zong-Zong YANG
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (6): 801-804.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.001
    Abstract420)   HTML257)    PDF (1660KB)(375)      

    Two species of the genus Delphinium(Ranunculaceae), D.adenopodum and D.gongliuense, are described as new from Xinjiang Weiwuer Autonomous Region. The diagnostic differences between the two species and their allies are given respectively.

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    Respond of Soil Nutrient to Plowing and Reseeding of Achnatherum splendens in the Qinghai Lake Region
    Tao LIU, Di ZHU, Ting LÜ, Rui-Fang LIANG, Feng LIU, Zi-Lan MA, Yi-Kang LI, Yu-Zhi MA, Xu SU
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 270-280.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.015
    Abstract413)   HTML24)    PDF (1707KB)(48)      

    In order to explore the vertical variation character of soil nutrients caused by plowing and reseeding treatments, the grassland of Achnatherum splendens was used to analyze the effects of two restoration with plowing in 1958 or reseeding in 1992 nutritional distribution characteristics of 0?10, 10?20, 20?30, 30?40 and 40?60 cm soil in the zone of the Qinghai Lake of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results showed that the soil organic carbon and the content of total K, the plot under plowing and reseeding disturbance, were significantly higher than natural A.splendens grassland. Both disturbances were beneficial to the shallow layers of soil to enrich available phosphorus and organic carbon nutrients, not to the restoration of total N(P<0.05). The contents of available K, total N and organic carbon decreased as the depth of the soil increases, but the soil bulk density, soil pH, the content of total P and K were not significantly different among each layers of plowing soil. Compared with the natural group, the content of available N was significantly decreased at each layers of reseeding soil(P<0.01), but both disturbances caused significantly higher total K content, and significantly lower total N content in the soil 40?60 cm(P<0.05). Compared with the natural group, there were significantly positive correlation between the contents of total N and K(P<0.05), not significant correlation between the contents of available P and N after reseeding, both disturbances aroused the negative correlation between the soil nutrients and the soil bulk density. The pH values of the soil decreased significantly after plowing and reseeding, and plowing treatment could concentrate the soil available nutrients in the surface layer. The reseeding treatment accelerated the turnover of soil nutrients, and the increase of output promoted the restoration of aboveground vegetation, Beside the total potassium content. Both disturbances caused the recovery of total nutrients in different soil layers will be an extremely slow process.

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    Observation and Comparison of Root Primary Xylem Archy in Different Chlorophytum Varieties
    Xue-Peng FU, Le WANG, Jia-Le WEN, Kai-Fang YANG, Xiao-Jie YANG
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 199-204.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.007
    Abstract407)   HTML28)    PDF (4001KB)(620)      

    Three Chlorophytumcomosum varieties were used to investigate the relationship between the root primary xylem archy and C.comosum varieties, diameter of the roots and living conditions by using sections cut free-hand and stained with Safranin. The root primary xylem archy in the roots of different varieties were different. The root primary xylem archy in the roots of C.comosum in soil culture were also different from those under hydroponic condition, and the number of xylem bundles in the roots of C.comosum under hydroponic conditions was much less than that in soil culture. Under hydroponic conditions, there was a positive correlation between the number of xylem bundles in the roots of C.comosum and the diameter of the roots, however, the root xylem archy in C.comosum ‘Yinxin’ and ‘Yinbian’ has no correlation with the roots diameter of C.comosum.

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    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Two Key Genes of Jasmonic Acid Synthesis in Response to Endophytic Infection from Rehmannia glutinosa
    Shu-Ping PENG, Cheng-Ming DONG, Yun-Hao ZHU
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 294-301.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.017
    Abstract404)   HTML24)    PDF (1047KB)(589)      

    Allene oxide synthase(AOS) and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase(OPR) were the key genes of jasmonic acid biosynthesis in the plants. The genes of AOS and OPR responding to endophytic fungus infection were screened from the interaction transcriptome of Rehmannia glutinosa with endophytic fungus GG22. Specific primers were designed to the open reading frame of RgAOS and RgOPR. Bioinformatics analysis of the sequences and theirs encoded product were performed, and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of RgAOS and RgOPR in different tissues infection by endophytic fungus GG22. The open reading frame of RgAOS was 1 626 bp, encoding 541 amino acids with a molecular weight of 60.2 kD. The open reading frame of RgOPR was 1 197 bp, encoding 398 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44.07 kD. QPCR analysis showed that the expression of RgAOS was the highest in roots, the lowest in flowers, and the expression of RgOPR was higher in flowers and leaves, respectively. Endophytic fungus GG22 induced the expression of RgAOS and RgOPR in R.glutinosa. The RgAOS and RgOPR were successfully cloned from R.glutinosa, laying the foundation for further study on the biological activity of Jasmonic acid substances in R.glutinosa and claiming the molecular mechanism of endophytic fungi in the regulation of secondary metabolites of R.glutinosa.

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    Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis GATA Family of Populus trichocarpa
    Meng-Xuan REN, Yang ZHANG, Shuang WANG, Rui-Qi WANG, Cong LIU, Zhi-Gang WEI
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (1): 107-118.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.014
    Abstract398)   HTML24)    PDF (5569KB)(157)      

    The GATA transcription factor gene family played an important role in plant growth and development, cell differentiation, and response to environmental changes. However, no genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been reported in woody plants so far. We systematically analyzed the number, gene structure, chromosome positioning, phylogenetic evolution, physicochemical characteristics and conserved motifs of the GATA family members from the genome level respectively. The results showed that the GATA family contains 39 genes distributed on 15 chromosomes, and 6 genes distributed on chromosome 5, and only 1 gene distributed on chromosomes 9, 13 or 19 respectively. The rest chromosomes had no gene distributed on. The genes structure in this family and the basic characteristics encoded protein were somewhat heterogeneous, and could be divided into 4 subfamilies. By the qRT-PCR, there were significant differences in the expression levels of the genes of the GATA family at different developmental stages, and salt stress significantly affected the expression characteristics of the genes. The above results indicated that the structure and function of the genes were significantly differentiated after the replication of GATA family genes, and some of these genes might play an important role in the secondary growth of Populus trichocarpa and the response to salt stress. This study laid the foundation for a comprehensive analysis of the biological functions of the members of the GATA family of P.trichocarpa in their growth and development and response to salt stress.

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    Diameter Structural Distribution of Coniferous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest in Taxus cuspidate Habitat in Changbai Mountain
    Xiao-Hong FAN, Li-Tao WANG, Juan-Yan AN, Dong MENG, Qing YANG, Chun-Jian ZHAO, Yu-Chun YANG, Yu-Jie FU
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (1): 89-97.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.012
    Abstract389)   HTML21)    PDF (2268KB)(46)      

    This research aimed at the management of Taxus cuspidate stand by selecting suitable models for imitating diameter structural distribution of coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest in T.cuspidate stand, Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve. On the basis of 15 coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest in T.cuspidate stands in Longhuanggou Forest Farm, Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, negative exponential model, three-parameter Weibull model and χ2 test were used to analyze the diameter structural distribution of 15 plots. The density of 15 plots was 400-981 trees·hm-2, and the mean DBH was 10.5-19.9 cm. The skewness of all plots was positive, which showed the diameter distribution function curves was partial to left. The three-parameter Weibull distribution model was better for the diameter distribution of the 9-11 plots, while negative exponential model was suitable for other plots. The irregular diameter distribution can be fitted better by three-parameter Weibull model, while the inverse J-shaped curves can be fitted well by negative exponential model. It showed that the diameter structure of coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest of Taxus cuspidate stand in the study area were not reasonable, and the management of T.cuspidate stand should be strengthened.

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    Differences in Population Structure and Dynamic Characteristics of Davidia involucrata Baill. Between High and Low Latitude Regions
    Yun-Fei XU, Qin-Song LIU, Wen-Juan XU, Jun-Feng TANG, Ting-Fa DONG, Bao-Zhen YANG, Xiao XU
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (6): 855-866.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.008
    Abstract388)   HTML4)    PDF (1356KB)(119)      

    Davidia involucrata Baill. is a rare and endangered tree species which is endemic to China. Though population characteristics of D.involucrata have been reported by many studies, the effect of latitude on the structure and dynamic characteristics of D.involucrata has been largely neglected. In this study, we compared the variance of the age structure dynamic index, static life table, viability and quantity alteration of the populations between high latitude region(Pingwu) and low latitude region(Northeastern Yunnan). Our results showed that the population structure in Pingwu and Northeastern Yunnan were of growth type, the survival curve of the two D.involucrata populations was of a Deevey-Ⅱ type, and the population in Northeastern Yunnan displayed a higher growth trend and stronger anti-interference ability. Moreover, the population dynamics analysis revealed that younger individuals grew better in Pingwu and the middle-aged individuals competed fiercely. By contrast, younger individuals in Northeastern Yunnan population had high mortality, middle-aged individuals grew stable. Thus, based on the abovementioned findings, we conclude that latitude differences could affect population structure and dynamic characteristics of D.involucrata. The habitats of D.involucrata population at low latitude were suitable for middle-aged individuals to survive but not for younger individuals; younger individuals of D.involucrata populations at high latitude grew better, and higher mortality rate was observed in middle-aged individuals.

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    Effects of Rare Earth Element Lanthanum on Adventitious Buds Induction, Plantlets Growth and Synthesis of Secondary Metabolites of Dendrobium officinale
    Yong-Mei MIAO, Yuan Tong, Da Fang, Yu-Hao Wang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (6): 839-845.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.006
    Abstract384)   HTML21)    PDF (929KB)(71)      

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of rare earth element lanthanum on adventitious buds induction, plantlets growth and secondary metabolites synthesis of Dendrobium officinale by adding 30-150 μmol·L-1 La(NO33 to the media. The effects of 70-90 μmol·L-1 La3+ on induction and growth of adventitious buds were the best. The treatment of 130 μmol·L-1 La3+ could significantly increase chlorophyll content of seedlings, and 110 μmol·L-1 La3+ could significantly promote plant growth with 15.22 times of fresh weight, and 12.05∶100 of dry weight-fresh weight ratio, which was 64.39% higher than that of control. A certain concentration of La3 + could significantly improve the content of four components in D.officinale. The polysaccharide content reached the peak value of 98.84 mg·g-1 under 110 μmol·L-1 La3+ treatment. The contents of flavonoids, phenolic acid and bibenzyl reached maximum value of 4.31, 7.56 and 21.01 mg·g-1, respectively, when 90 μmol·L-1 La3+ added to media. Both indexes of bibenzyl and flavonoids were highly correlated with other five indexes, while phenolic acid and chlorophyll content were little correlated with other indexes. This study laid the foundation for further exploring the mechanism of rare earth on promoting growth and improving quality of D.officinale, and provided a theoretical basis for scientific and rational utilization of rare earth elements in plant tissue culture.

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    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Squalene Synthase(SQS) Gene from Dioscorea bulbifera L. Microtuber
    Wei-Zhong KE, Wen-Juan ZHONG, Kai-Ying LIU, Xiang-Yuan LI, Ming-Hua YIN
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2021, 41 (2): 243-250.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.02.012
    Abstract380)   HTML24)    PDF (2265KB)(79)      

    The core fragment of SQS gene was screened from the transcriptome database of Dioscorea bulbifera L. microtuber, the conservative fragment of SQS gene was obtained by RT-PCR, and the 3' and 5' terminal sequences of SQS gene were obtained by race technique, and the sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics. The SQS gene of D.bulbifera L. microtuber was 1 548 bp long and 415 bp amino acid sequence, with a theoretical molecular weight of 46 786.38 D and an isoelectric point of 5.97. SQS protein is a hydrophobic protein without signal peptide. It contains the functional domain necessary for SQS belonging to Isoprenoid_Biosym_C1 superfamily. The homology of SQS protein between D.bulbifera and other plants is high, and the amino acid similarity of SQS protein between D.bulbifera and D.zingiberensis is 96.4%. The full-length sequence of SQS gene was obtained for the first time from D.bulbifera L. microtuber, which has the typical characteristics of SQS homologous gene. It provides the basis for further study on SQS gene structure, gene expression and gene mutation of D.bulbifera microtuber, and provides data support for the correlation analysis of positive selection site and function of SQS, a key enzyme of triterpene synthesis pathway in Dioscorea.

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