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    A New Understanding of the Spines in Genus Berberis: Morphology and Occurrence of Spines in Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea
    MIAO Qing, ZHAI Qiang, QU Bo, SHI Mian-Mian, YAN Bi-Yu, SHAO Mei-Ni
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 172-176.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.002
    Abstract547)      PDF (1018KB)(1196)      
    In view of the different opinions on the origin of the spines of Berberis, we studied the morphology and occurrence of the spines of Berberis by means of entity anatomy and paraffin section. The spines of Berberis descended from leaves, origins from leaf primordial, are leaf spines, not stem spines. It was clear that the spines of Berberis belong to one of the leaf metamorphosis types.
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    Tissue Culture Technology of Stem Segment of Cinnamomum bodinieri var. citralifera
    XIAO Zu-Fei, WANG Ling-Ling, CAO Lu-Yao, LIAO Wen-Xuan, JIN Zhi-Nong, LI Feng, Lü Xiong-Wei, ZHANG Bei-Hong, ZHAO Jiao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 196-201.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.005
    Abstract490)      PDF (1173KB)(1119)      
    Cinnamomum bodinieri var. citralifera is an important tree species for landscaping, timber and oil. We studied the effects of collection season, disinfection time and hormones on tissue culture of annual branches of C.bodinieri var. citralifera. The axillary bud germination rate of stem segments from semi-lignified stem segments of C.bodinieri var. citralifera was highest with 0.1% HgCl2 disinfected for 5 min. in the Mid-May, and the browning rate and pollution rate were low. The suitable medium for stem segment germination was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.05 mg·L-1 IBA, with germination ratio 60%. The suitable medium for multiplication was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.2 mg·L-1 IBA, with multiplication coefficient of 4.33, plant height of 3.67 cm and ground diameter of 1.04 mm. Adventitious roots appeared at 11 d after culture of the base of tissue culture seedlings. The suitable medium for rooting was MS+1.5 mg·L-1 IBA. The rooting rate was 75.00%, the length of roots was 5.06 cm, the number of roots was 3.50, and the diameter of roots was 0.82 mm. Tissue culture seedlings with roots more than 3 had a survival rate of more than 80%.
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    Pollinia Development in a New Species of Pennilabium yunnanense(Orchidaceae)
    LI Lu, ZHANG Jin, LI Chu-Ran, WANG Yan-Ping, TAN Qing-Qin, LUO Yan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 161-171.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.001
    Abstract438)      PDF (2228KB)(1328)      
    Pennilabium J. J.Sm. is a newly recorded genus in China, including two species founded in Yunnan and Hainan. One of them is a new species of P.yunnanense. In this paper, floral morphology and pollina development in P.yunnanense were investigated. The column of a mature flower is short without column foot. Pollinarium unit is composed of two subglobose pollinia, stipe and viscidium. In the early stage, anther primordium is differentiated into a pair of lateral juxtaposed thecae. At the stage of microsporocyte, an incomplete sterile septum is formed adjacent to the inner anther wall between two thecae. During the microsporogenesis, the sterile septum becomes gradually degraded, resulting two pollinia with pore toward the inner anther wall disorganized. The hypodermal sporogenous cells produce 4-layered anther wall by periclinal divisions, including epidermis, endtothecium, middle layer, and a tapetum, which was of monocotyledonous type. Tapetum is uninuclear and secretory. Epidermis is not persistent, which becomes degraded as well as middle layer and tapetum. Fibrous thickenings occur on the entdothecium. Simultaneous cytokinesis results in tetrahedral and isobilateral microspore tetrads. Microspores undergo a mitosis leading to 2-celled pollen tetrads. Pollen tetrads arranged tightly and formed a subglobose pollinium in each theca. The embryological data on pollinia development of P.yunnanense could provide new insight for a better understanding of biodiversity and conservation in Orchidaceae.
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    Effect of Light Quality on Seed Germination and Seeding Growth of Emmenopterys henryi
    XIAO Zhi-Peng, YIN Chong-Min, GUO Lian-Jin, WU Yuan-Rong, HU Jin-Ping, LIU Yan-Yan, ZHONG You-Chun, XUE Ping-Ping
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 189-195.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.004
    Abstract430)      PDF (1195KB)(1185)      
    We studied the effect of light quality on seed germination and seedling growth of the endangered plant Emmenopterys henryi by setting eight light quality treatments including the 940 nm(far red), 850 nm(far red), 730 nm(far red), 630 nm(red), 610 nm(orange), 590 nm(yellow), 525 nm(green), 460 nm(blue) and a nature light as CK, and setting six light quality treatment include 730, 630, 610, 590, 525 and 460 nm, respectively. The results showed that no seed germinate under 940 and 850 nm, and only 1.33% seeds germinate under 730 nm. The germination percent under 525 nm was significantly higher than that under other treatments include natural light control, and there was no significant difference between the final germination percent under natural light and that under 610 and 590 nm. The final germination rate under 460 and 610 nm was significantly lower than that of other treatments. At 120 d, the dry weight of the seedlings was 590 nm > 630 nm > 610 nm > 730 nm > 525 nm > 460 nm. At 120 d, the dry weight of the seedlings under 590 nm was significantly higher than that under other light treatments. The relative growth rate under 630 nm was significantly higher than that of other treatments between 30-90 d, and that under 590 nm was significantly higher than that of other treatments between 90-120 d. It was significantly higher than other treatments at 460 nm between 120-150 and 150-180 d. Root mass ratio was between 0.17-0.25 on the 30th day of treatment, and with no significant difference between treatments. Root mass ratio under 460 nm was significantly higher than that of other treatments on the 30th day of treatment. At 30 d, stem mass ratio under 730 nm was significantly higher than that of other treatments. Leaf mass ratio in each treatment was between 0.53-0.68 on the 30th day of treatment, and there was no significant difference between the treatments.
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    Photosynthetic and Stomatal Morphological Variation of Poplar Clones in Seedling Stage under Drought Stress
    QIAO Bin-Jie, WANG De-Qiu, GAO Hai-Yan, LI Zhao-Min, GE Li-Li, DING Wen-Ya, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 177-188.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.003
    Abstract428)      PDF (1918KB)(1173)      
    The experiment was conducted to study the changes of leaf stomatal morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of Populus spp. under different drought stress. Four poplar clones were taken as materials and investigated their photosynthetic and leaf stomatal morphological characteristics under drought stress. By ANOVA analysis, there were significant differences(P<0.01) for all traits among different source of variation in different treatment except stomatal apparatus length. With the reduction of soil relative water content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased, however, the intercellular CO2 concentration increased at first and then decreased. These results suggested that that drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition was due to stomatal limitation when the relative water content of soil was above 40%; However, the main limiting factor of photosynthetic inhibition of plants under severe drought stress was due to non-stomatal limitation. Drought decreased all traits of stomatal morphological characteristics. Using the method of subordinate function analysis, the drought-tolerance of Populus psedosimonii×P.nigra ‘baicheng-1’ was better than other clones.
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    Structural and Functional Analysis of R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor HbMYB88
    FAN Song-Le, WANG Ji-Kun, XIE Gui-Shui, WANG Meng, WANG Li-Feng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (1): 106-116.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.01.015
    Abstract341)      PDF (1870KB)(72)      
    The R2R3-MYB transcription factors are involved in biological processes, such as plant growth and development, hormone signaling transduction, and stress response, etc. To explore the structure and functions of the MYB family members in the rubber tree, we cloned the full-length cDNA of HbMYB88 from the leave of rubber tree Reyan 73397(RY73397). It is 1 848 bp in length, containing a 1 440 bp ORF which encodes 479 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of HbMYB88 contains two SANT conserved domains, has HTH tertiary structure, share highly similarity to Arabidopsis AtMYB88, AtMYB124. AtMYB88 and AtMYB124, not divided into subfamilies, are related to drought stress response, etc. By qRT-PCR analysis, HbMYB88 was mainly expressed in the stem and flower of rubber tree, whilst its expressions in root, leaf, bark and latex were extremely low. The expression level of HbMYB88 in tissue culture seedling leave was significantly upregulated under the treatment of hydrogen peroxide(H2O2), and abscisic acid(ABA). These indicated that HbMYB88 has a relationship with stress response such as drought in rubber trees, which providing a foundation for further study of its structure and function.
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    Variation of Stem-leaf Size Relationship of Woody Plants among Different LifeForms in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden
    SHANG Kan-Kan, ZHANG Xi-Jin, SONG Kun
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 641-647.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.001
    Abstract324)      PDF (1190KB)(308)      
    There is a significant positive correlation between stem and leaves, which determines the plant architecture and biomass allocation. In this study, leaf and stem mass, total leaf area, stem cross-sectional area of 70 cm long leading-shoot were investigated for 149 woody species in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden. The stem-leaf size relationships were analyzed for individuals in similar habitats. The results showed that there was allometric scaling relationships with stem cross-sectional area and total leaf area with a common slop(a=1.148 6, CI=1.000 6-1.302 3) for different life forms. However, leaf mass was found to be isometrically related to stem mass(a=1.054 2, CI=0.921 3-1.205 6) for all life forms. For both of area-based or mass-based stem-leaf relationship, there were significant differences in allometric/isometric regression constants b(y-intercept) among different life forms. Deciduous trees had larger leaf area than evergreen trees and shrubs given the same stem cross-sectional area, while evergreen trees and deciduous trees had larger leaf mass than evergreen shrubs given the same stem mass. Therefore, this may be related to the difference of water competition efficiency and leaf construction cost among different life-forms of woody plants.
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    Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents and Their Ecological Stoichiometry Characteristics in Leaves of Casuarina equisetifolia and Ipomoea pes-caprae in the Coastal Zone of Hainan Island
    ZHANG Shu-Qi, XU Quan, YAO Hai-Rong, YANG Qiu, LIU Wen-Jie, WANG Meng
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 224-232.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.009
    Abstract312)      PDF (1503KB)(100)      
    The experiment was conducted to study the stoichiometry characteristics of the plant leaves and their influencing factors for improving the ecological environment of the coastal zone. The Casuarina equisetifolia and the Ipomoea pes-caprae on the nearby beaches of 12 cities(counties) along the coast of Hainan Island were selected as research objects. The stoichiometry characteristics and differences of C, N and P in the leaves of two plants were analyzed to explore the different environmental factors by measuring the contents of carbon(C), nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) in leaves of C.equisetifolia and I.pes-caprae. And the effects of C, N, P content, C:N, C:P and N:P on the leaves of the two plants were conducted. These could find the main limiting factors affecting the growth of coastal zone plants. The results showed that the average contents of C, N and P in leaves of C.equisetifolia in Hainan Island were 399.06±20.29, 12.55±1.03, 12.55±1.03 g·kg-1, respectively. The ratios of C:N, C:P and N:P were 32.02±2.8, 420.65±121.27 and 13.10±3.47, respectively. The average contents of C, N and P in leaves of I.pes-caprae were 364.31±30.20, 12.84±1.96 and 2.06±0.64 g·kg-1, respectively. The ratios of C:N, C:P and N:P were 29.13±4.95, 198.74±79.41 and 6.92±2.69, respectively. The N content in leaves of C.equisetifolia was significantly correlated with annual mean temperature(AMT) and annual mean precipitation(AMP). The P content in leaves of C.equisetifolia was significantly positive correlated with AMP. The C:P and N:P in leaves of C.equisetifolia were significantly negatively correlated with AMP. There was a significantly positive correlation between C content in leaves of I.pes-caprae and AMT. The C:N of I.pes-caprae leaves showed a significantly negative correlation with AMP. The N content in leaves of C.equisetifolia was significantly negatively correlated with the SOC of the soil at the depth of 10-20 cm. C:N was significantly correlated with the SOC of the soil at the depth of 10-20 cm. C:P was significantly correlated with C:N of the soil at the depth of 0-10 cm. The C content in leaves of I.pes-caprae was significantly negatively correlated with the SOC of the soil at the depth of 10-20 cm. The P content were significantly correlated with the TN content, N:P of the soil at the depth of 0-10 cm, and the SOC of the soil at the depth of 10-20 cm. C:N was significantly correlated with C:N of the soil at the depth of 0-10 cm. C:P was significantly negatively correlated with TN content of the soil at the depth of 0-10 cm. C:P was significantly correlated with C:N of the soil at the depth of 0-10 cm. N:P was significantly negatively correlated with TN content of the soil at the depth of 0-10 cm. The results show that the carbon and nitrogen contents of the leaves are low in the coastal zone of Hainan Island, and N may be the main factor affecting plant growth in this area. At the same time, vegetation growth is affected by the AMT and AMP. Vegetation growth was less affected by soil nutrient content. The environment factors have differently effects on different plants.
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    Preliminary Selection of Potential DNA Barcodes for Rubus
    WU Wei-Feng, SHEN Xi-Long, CHEN Zhe, YANG Ding-Yuan, LI Yong-Xia, WANG Yao, ZHANG Qun-Ying
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 301-307.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.018
    Abstract295)      PDF (1186KB)(120)      
    In order to establish a molecular identification technique of DNA barcoding for Rubus, and screening universal barcode sequences suitable for Rubus. With GenBank data we analyzed the genetic variation, barcoding gap and NJ consensus tree of six DNA barcoding sequences that contain ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF. The intraspecific variation and interspecies variation of trnH-psbA, matK, rbcL and rtnL-trnF were different, and the variation resolutions were 97.32%, 83.33%, 79.07% and 64.95%, respectively. And trnH-psbA, matK, rbcL and rtnL-trnF had obvious barcoding gap; NJ consistent tree showed that matK had the highest proportion of solopathogenicity(67%), and then trnH-psbA(64%), rtnL-trnF(43%), rbcL(30%). The intraspecific variation and interspecies of matK and trnH-psbA sequences for Rubus are different, which can distinguish different species well with great identification potential. It is recommended to use matK and trnH-psbA as the core barcode sequences identified for Rubus, and rtnL-trnF and rbcL are used as auxiliary barcode sequences.
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    Geographical Characteristics of Orchidaceae Plants in Qinling Mountains
    GAO Xu-Zheng, KANG Yong-Xiang, ZHANG Li-Li, KANG Yue-Cheng, GUO Ming
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (1): 18-28.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.01.005
    Abstract277)      PDF (2019KB)(359)      
    The Qinling Mountains is one of the most abundant and highly differentiated areas with wild Orchidaceae plants in China. However, the systematic arrangement of Orchidaceae plants in this area has not yet been seen. The aim of this study is to provide certain basic data for the protection of plant biodiversity. On the basis of references and sorted out relevant data, we did supplementary investigation and collected specimen in the key areas of Orchidaceae plants in Qinling Mountains, made a list of Orchidaceae plants in Qinling Mountains, and analyzed their genera and species characteristics, floristic composition and spatial distribution pattern. There were 149 species of Orchidaceae plants belonging to 52 genera in Qinling Mountains, of which 70 species were endemic to China, accounting for 47% of the total species; life forms were terrestrial, epiphytic, semi-epiphytic and saprophytic, mainly terrestrial; Orchidaceae plants in Qinling Mountains were mainly distributed at altitudes of 800-3 400 m; hotspots were Southwest Longnan Mountains, Taibai-Foping Mountains and Funiu Mountains. At the same time, we concluded the floristic characteristics of Orchidaceae plants in Qinling Mountains:(1)rich in species and remarkable temperate traits; (2)ancient origin and coexistence of new and old species; (3)abundant endemic components; (4)accumulation of rare and endangered protected plants; (5)richness varies with habitats.
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    Optimization of Dry Enzymatic Extraction Process and Physicochemical Properties of Pine Seed Oil
    ZU Shu-Chong
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 308-313.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.019
    Abstract274)      PDF (1078KB)(91)      
    Used a single factor experiment to optimize a dry enzyme extraction process of pine seed oil. The best preparation process for dry enzymatic extraction of pine seed oil was:0.2% of amylase, the ratio of material to liquid of 6:1, the hydrolysis temperature of 55℃, and the hydrolysis time of 8 h, and the maximum oil yield 90.2% with the residual oil rate of 6.2%. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in pine seed oil extracted after testing for the best preparation conditions was 90.09%, of which oleic acid content was 26.84%, mediating acid content was 2.41%, linoleic acid content was 46.25%, and pinolacol acid was 14.59%. The content of palmitic acid in saturated fatty acids was 6.5%, and the stearic acid was 3.41%. The pine oil had an acid value of 2.61 mg·g-1, a peroxide value of 1.56 mmol·kg-1, and a malondialdehyde content of 0.41 mg·kg-1. All the test results are higher than the requirements of the quality standards in pine seed oil in the "Food Industry Standard of the People's Republic of China LS/T 3242-2014".
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    Cloning and expression analysis of 5 ZFP genes from Poplus trichocarpa
    LI Ya-Bo, Lü Jia-Xin, TAN Bing, GAO Cai-Qiu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 243-250.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.011
    Abstract270)      PDF (1349KB)(69)      
    ZFPs are a class of transcription factors in plants that have a loop domain. In this study, 5 ZFP genes(named PtrZFP1-5) were identified from Populus trichocarpa, and their sequence characteristics and expression patterns were analyzed to understand the stress response function. The bioinformatics analysis of PtrZFP1-5 gene was carried out, and the expressions of 5 PtrZFP genes in root, stem and leaf of Populus under NaCl, PEG6000 and ABA treatment were further analyzed by qRT-PCR. The number of amino acid residues encoded by PtrZFP1-5 gene was 258-338 aa, the molecular weight of the encoded protein was 27.7-37.3 kDa,and the theoretical isoelectric point was 4.87-8.61. 5 PtrZFP genes were unevenly distributed on the three chromosomes of Populus genome. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression patterns of 5 PtrZFP genes in roots, stems and leaves of Populus were significantly different after treatment with 0.2M NaCl, 15%(w/v) PEG6000or 100μM ABA treatment. The expressions of PtrZFP1 were all up-regulated in three kinds of stresses. The expressions of PtrZFP2 were significantly inhibited in leaves after salt, osmotic and ABA treatment. The expression changed of PtrZFP3 in roots was most obvious under drought stress. In leaves and stems, the expression level did not change significantly at most of the time points of most stress. The PtrZFP4 gene also responded to drought stress in roots and stems. The expression of PtrZFP5 gene in leaves was significantly reduced after exposure to salt and ABA stress. PtrZFP1-5 genes can respond to at least one stress treatment in one organ, but the type and mechanism of the involved stress response may be different.
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    Effect of Three Growth Regulators on Rooting of Cuting of Crateva unilocularis
    ZHENG Xin-Hua, DONG Qiong, DUAN Hua-Chao, CHA Xiao-Fei, ZHOU Chun, ZHOU Zhi-Chao
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 202-208.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.006
    Abstract258)      PDF (1281KB)(97)      
    Different kinds and mass concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to deal with the cuttings of Crateva unilocularis, in order to know the cutting mechanism and to screen out the growth regulator and concentration ratio for the propagation of the C.unilocularis, so as to provide a real and feasible scientific basis for the expansion propagation and production of C.unilocularis. By taking C.unilocularis annual branches as materials, orthogonal test was conducted with three kinds of plant growth regulator(IAA, NAA, ABT-1) in three kinds of different mass concentration, and water treatment(CK) was kept as contrast, cutting three months after the shoot growth and root traits(longest rooting rate, root volume, root length, average root length, etc.) were measured and comprehensively analyzed. The test screening of C.unilocularis cuttings, the optimal scheme for A1B2C2, namely ABT1 mass concentration of 50 mg·L-1, mass concentration of 200 mg·L-1 NAA, IAA concentration of 200 mg·L-1, the rooting rate(83.33%), average root length(24.03 mm), the longest root length(46.13 mm), the average root number(24), root effect index(19.06) for CK 2.27 times, 2.97 times and 3.03 times, 4.50 times and 12.79 times, The root system was well developed. The rooting ability of C.unilocularis can be significantly increased by mixing different plant growth regulators at the appropriate concentration, thus accelerating the growth and increasing the rooting rate of cuttings.
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    Study on Salt Tolerance of AtUNE12 Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana
    LI Zi-Yi, HE Zi-Hang, LU Hui-Jun, WANG Yu-Cheng, JI Xiao-Yu
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 257-265.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.013
    Abstract240)      PDF (1597KB)(68)      
    Members of the bHLH transcription factor family plays an important role in plant growth, metabolism and abiotic stress response. The salt tolerance of AtUNE12 gene that was part of stress-related bHLH transcription factor family from Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed. Firstly, the plant overexpression vector of AtUNE12(pROKII-AtUNE12) was constructed, the transgenic T3 generation A.thaliana was obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated dip then verified by qRT-PCR. Under salt stress, the growth, root length and fresh weight of overexpression and wild-type A.thaliana were analyzed. The MDA content, electrolyte leakage and water loss rate of overexpression and wild-type A.thaliana were compared. H2O2 content determination and SOD, POD activity was used to study overexpression and wild-type A.thaliana plants. The results showed that overexpression of AtUNE12 gene could significantly decrease MDA content, electrolyte leakage and the water loss rate, improved POD and SOD activity, and decreased H2O2 content in A.thaliana plants. The results indicated that AtUNE12 gene protected the integrity of cell membrane structure, and then enhanced the ROS scavenging ability of A.thaliana plants, thereby improving the salt tolerance of A.thaliana.
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    Sequencing Analysis of Transcriptome of Male Floral Bud at Two Development Stages in Eucommia ulmoides
    ZHU Li-Li, DU Qing-Xin, HE Feng, QING Jun, DU Hong-Yan
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 284-292.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.016
    Abstract232)      PDF (1557KB)(100)      
    The male floral bud Eucommia ulmoides is rich in healthily kinds of nutrition compositions and active matter, which with a high nutritional and medicinal value. The transcriptome of male floral bud during two differentiation stages was sequenced, aimed to comprehend the expression of genes involved in the stamen development of E.ulcommia. lllumina high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to detect the transcriptome sequencing data of the male flora bud of ‘Huazhong No.11’ during bract differentiation and stamen differentiation stages. Obtained clean data was analyzed including gene function annotation and differentially expressed genes(DEGs) screening was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. A total of 40.48 Gb clean data were obtained, approximately 90.00% of the clean reads were mapped to the E.ulmoides reference genome. It was found that 315 genes were significantly up-regulated and 269 genes were significantly down-regulated in the male flower buds at stamen differentiation stage. GO and KEGG analyses of DEGs showed the DEGs were enriched in development process, photoperiodism, hormone biosynthetic and signal transduction process, carbon metabolism and other processes and pathways associated with flower induction. The photoperiodic was perhaps the most important pathway for the floral induction of E.ulcommia, and the carbohydrates, plant hormone and other metabolic substances was required in the process of male floral bud differentiation. Importantly, the members of MADs-box including FLC, SOC1, AGL3 and AGL8 regulated the stamen formation of E.ulcommia. It provides a significant reference for studying the genes involved in the floral organs and molecular breeding of E.ulcommia.
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    Rapid Propagation of Virus-free “Dan Mei 1” Strawberry Using Tissue Culture Technology
    WANG Xin, GAI Qing-Yan, JIAO Jiao, FU Yu-Jie, LIU Jing, WANG Zi-Ying
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (1): 153-160.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.01.021
    Abstract229)      PDF (1589KB)(47)      
    The superior "Dan Mei 1" strawberry variety that is suitable for growing in Northeast China were selected as the research object, and the tissue culture technology for detoxification and rapid propagation of strawberry was carried out systematically. The effects of different plant hormones on adventitious bud induction, proliferation and rootage were investigated using the stem tip of "Dan Mei 1" strawberry as explants. Also, the effects of transplanting medium on the domestication survival of strawberry plantlets were investigated. The results showed that MS with 1 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 2,4-D was suitable for adventitious bud induction. The best medium for adventitious bud proliferation was MS with 1 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.3 mg·L-1 NAA. And, MS with 0.4 mg·L-1 IBA was the best medium for adventitious bud rootage. Perlite:vermiculite:nursery soil with the ratio of 1:2:1 was the best transplanting medium for the domestication of strawberry plantlets. Overall, this study provided a theoretical foundation for the large-scale propagation of the virus-free "Dan Mei 1" strawberry variety.
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    Adaptive Differentiation of NBA1/MERIT40 of Three Species of Hippophae L.——Discussion on the Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Hybrid Identification
    SUN Kun, DING Xue-Yang, ZHANG Hui, LI Xue-Li, WANG Ying, WANG Juan, LIU Ben-Li
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (5): 648-658.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.002
    Abstract228)      PDF (1855KB)(164)      
    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, the study of molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution in the "Omics" level has become a hotspot of evolutionary research. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was carried out using materials of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, H.neurocarpa and H.goniocarpa that is a hybrid species from homoploid hybridization between the former two species, and the gene of subunit NBA1 of BRA1-A&BRISC complex was selected to deeply study on the basis of its positive selection(w>1). Bioinformatics analysis found that the coding region of NBA1 gene was 771 bp in three sea buckthorns in length, which was a nuclear localized hydrophilic protein that encoding a total of 256 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of NBA1 of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa have different loci which is loci of 218 and 236. The site of 218 which close to ligand binding sites in H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is different from the VWA domain of H.neurocarpa and terrestrial plants, and it has been mutated from conserved leucine to methionine. This resulted in a significant change in the protein tertiary structure of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa, and makes the protein binding sites have significant difference in spatial structure. Above all, we speculated that the NBA1 subunits differ in binding to another subunit. Mainly led to the difference in the BRCA1-A complex repair DNA damage repair function that caused by UV radiation, and it may be related to the adaptation of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa to different elevations. In addition, Sanger sequencing has verified the accuracy of the next generation sequencing results, and has proved that is a homozygous gene of single copy in two parental species H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa, and exists in codominant allele way in H.goniocarpa. Further analysis found that the next generation sequencing data is not suitable for identifying hybrids at the level of individual, but it can reflect the parental source of the hybrid randomly to some extent if we parallel sequencing in multiple individuals within the populations. This study provides a reference data for further revealing the molecular mechanism of adaptation of Hippophae L. to different altitudes, and proposes advice in choose transcriptome sequencing methods to identify hybrid species.
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    Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Delphinium mollipilum(Ranunculaceae)
    REN Lu-Ming, CHEN Xue-Lin
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (1): 15-17.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.01.004
    Abstract227)      PDF (479KB)(352)      
    Point out that the inclusion of Gansu Province in the distribution of Delphinium mollipilum W.T.Wang are not correct, a species actually occurring only in Helan Mountain.
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    Variation Analysis of Growth Traits and Coning Quantity of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Clones
    LI Jia-Qi, HAN Xi-Dong, MA Ying-Hui, LI Yue-Ji, WANG Li-Xiang, HAN Xi-Tian, LIU Zhi, LI Hai-Min, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 217-223.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.008
    Abstract226)      PDF (1115KB)(64)      
    In order to obtain high yield and excellent quality resources of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, 304 P.sylvestris var. mongolica clones from the forest tree seed orchard in Baicheng City of Jilin Province were taken as materials, growth traits(tree height, basal diameter, diameter at breast height, diameter at 3 m height, canopy, branch angle and lateral branch thickness) and coning quantity characteristics(coning quantity of 2015, 2016 and 2017) of different clones were investigated. By variance analysis, all the traits were significant different(P<0.01) except for canopy. The coefficients of phenotypic variation of all the traits ranged from 3.79%-65.22%. Repeatability range from 0.24-0.70; By correlation analysis, the existed significantly positive correlation among all the growth traits(0.181-0.896) except for lateral branch thickness with diameter at 3 m height(0.082). Most of growth traits with the different age of coning quantity was not significantly correlation By growth traits, with the selected rate by 5%, 15 clones were selected as excellent clones, the genetic gains of height, basal diameter, diameter at 3 m height, branch angle and lateral branch thickness of the selected clones were 5.47%, 4.48%, 15.18%, 11.78%, 2.38% and 6.66%, respectively. When evaluated clones by coning quantity characteristics, with the selected rate by 5%, 15 clones were selected as excellent clones, the genetic gains of coning quantity of 2015, 2016 and 2017 of the selected clones were 2.89%, 46.32% and 13.88%, respectively. This study provides materials for the selection of excellent clones of P.sylvestris var. mongolica seed orchard, and also provides a basis for the breeding of P.sylvestris var. mongolica for west of Baicheng, Jilin Province.
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    Evaluation of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Growth Traits in Teak(Tectona grandis L.f) Clones
    LIU Bing-Yu, HUANG Gui-Hua, LIANG Kun-Nan, WANG Xi-Yang, CHEN Tian-Yu, ZHOU Zai-Zhi, YANG Guang
    Bulletin of Botanical Research    2020, 40 (2): 209-216.   doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.02.007
    Abstract223)      PDF (1327KB)(96)      
    This study was to analyze the genetic variation of photosynthetic physiology and growth trait among teak clones, and to select superior teak clones. The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and tree height of 19 teak clones and one CK which selected from different provenances were measured based on a field testing forest, the photosynthetic characteristics and their relationships were analyzed. The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth traits had very significant difference among teak clones and provenances. There were abundant genetic variation in measured traits in teak clones except maximum photochemical ef?ciency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm). Photosynthetic physiology of Pn had no significantly correlation with height growth at early stage. The clones 71-7 and FS3 were selected with relatively higher photosynthesis rate and growth. Emphasis should be put on the resources introduced from India in further breeding research that aims at high photosynthetic efficiency in teak. Photosynthetic physiology and field growth should be evaluated to selected superior teak clones.
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