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植物研究 ›› 2002, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 341-365.

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  1. 中国科学院华南植物研究所华南植物园, 广州 510520
  • 收稿日期:2001-08-25 出版日期:2002-09-15 发布日期:2016-06-14
  • 作者简介:林有润(1937-),男,教授,研究生毕业,主要从事植物系统分类与药用植物研究。


LING Yeou-ruenn   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, South China Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510520
  • Received:2001-08-25 Online:2002-09-15 Published:2016-06-14

摘要: 棕榈科原省藤亚科因其子房壁及外果皮被倒生、螺旋状排列的鳞片所覆盖,而区别于其他亚科,因而独立分出成一新科——省藤科。作者讨论了棕榈科的祖先种可能在石炭纪时,自原始裸子植物开以顿目在分化、衍生出苏铁目祖先种的进化干上,于白垩纪时分化出的一个分支。在棕榈科的祖先种出现不久后,在其进化的分支上,于白垩纪后期又分化出一旁支,成为棕榈科的姊妹科——省藤科的祖先种。从两祖先种分别再分化、衍生出现今分布地球上该二科的属与种。两科、尤其前者是被子植物、尤其是单子叶植物中最原始的类群之一。作者还提出棕榈科象牙椰亚科与贝叶棕亚科是该科最原始或较原始的两类群;槟榔亚科和腊材榈亚科是较进化的两类群;而水椰亚科祖先种可能源于象牙椰亚科的祖先种,但又演化为该科最进化与特化的类群。省藤科省藤亚科略比鳞果榈亚科原始。作者讨论了两科为泛热带分布的科,指出两科的"现代分布区"在南北两半球热带地区,少数种还延伸分布到两半球暖亚热带、甚至达中亚热带地区,分布区边缘最北达日本中部、中国长江流域及黄河下游的南部,美国加利佛尼亚州与佛罗里达州和地中海北部;最南达智利中部和新西兰南部;而"现代分布中心"在热带与暖亚热带的亚洲,中、南美洲,大洋洲及非洲的东、南、西部;但分布区的"密集中心"则在热带亚洲、热带中及南美洲、南太平洋群岛及非洲东南部。作者还介绍了近50年我国南方引种驯化成功的两科植物近400种(见*图谱),其中少数为耐寒的种类,有的种已引种到长江流域或更北的地区。引种的大部分种都有其重要的经济用途,包括:1. 食用,如淀粉和树液可制"西米"或制糖,酿酒、醋或作饮料;果或种子榨油,供食用或工业用;某些种的嫩芽作蔬菜,甚至种子代咖啡饮用;2. 药用,有消炎、止血、活血、驱虫、抗癌等用;3. 建筑、工艺与日用品,包括不少种的树干供建普通房子、桥梁、小船;少数种可提制工业用蜡;许多种的纤维制高级缆绳和编织品;还制工艺品与日用品等;4. 代表热带景观的园林工程、绿化及美化环境的观赏树和人行道树及建造园林景观生态类型的树种等。

关键词: 棕榈科, 省藤科, 系统分类, 演化, 区系地理, 经济用途

Abstract: Author provides, in the paper, that the Calamaceae is a transitionary Family, from Subfamily, Calamoideae of Palmae, by covering the reflexing spirally scales, which are diferrent from Palmae, on ovaries and fruits. The Ancestor of Palmae, Pro-Palmae, perhaps, was derived, in Cretaceous Period, from a branch of the evolution trunk from Caytoniales to Pro-Cycadales in Carboniferous Period according to the materials of fossial and pollen grains of Paleobotany, and the ancestor of Calamaceae, Pro-Calamaceae, perhaps, was derived from the branchlet on the evolution branch to the Palmae in later Cretaceous Period. Both Palmae and Calamaceae, especially the former, maybe, is one of the most primitive families of Angiospermae, especially inMonocotyledoneae. In Palmae the Phytelephantoideae and Coryphoideae should be the most or more primitive groups, and Arecoideae and Ceroxyloideae are more advanced groups. But Nypoideae, perhaps, is the most advanced and specialized one, even the ancestor of it, perhaps, was derived from Pro-Phytelephantoideae, In Calamaceae, the Calamoideae is more primitive one than the Lepidocaryoideae. Author also discusses the characters of floristics of two families. Although they are pan-tropic distribution, only a few genera of them are extended to warm and central subtropical areas in both North and South Hemispheres. The margin of distribution are extended to the Yangtze River Valley and the South of the lower reaches of Yellow River of China, Central of Japan, California and Florida of USA and the North of Mediterrenian areas in North Hemisphere, and to Central of Chile and South of New Zeyland in South Hemisphere. The present distributional center are in tropical and warm subtropical areas of Asia, Central and South America, Oceania and Africa. The mass center of it is in Tropical Asia, Tropical Central and South America, South Pacific Archipelagoes and S.-E. Africa. Finally, author introduces in the past 50 years more than 400 species of two families have been introduced and acclimatized in S., S.-E. and S.-W. China, except the native species in China. Some cold-resistant species were introduced into the Yangtze River Valley or even more northern areas. Most species, in above mentioned, are in the important economic uses, such as 1. The eadables, included the starch from pith and juice from trunk or inflorescences for food, or making sugar, wine, vinegar or drink, or isolated oil from fruits or seeds for eating or for industral uses. Some berries and drupes are used for eating fruits, and some tender buds are for vegetables. Also a few seeds are the substitutors of Coffe. 2. Medicinal uses, which included many species are for the antiphlogistic, the anthelmintic, the haemostatic or invigorating the circulation of blood and for anti-cancers;3. Constructions, included that some timbers are for building the common houses, bridges, boats;abstracting wax is for industral or civil uses;fibres-for weaving thick cables or ropes and rugs, and others are for making the handicrafts, and articles of everyday uses;4. Gardening, those are used for building the tropical scenic spots, beautifing the gardens and residential quarters or constructing the landscape ecology etc.

Key words: Palmae, Calamaceae, systematics, evolution, floristics, economic uses